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Velero plugins for AWS

Overview

This repository contains these plugins to support running Velero on AWS:

  • An object store plugin for persisting and retrieving backups on AWS S3. Content of backup is kubernetes resources and metadata, log files, warning/error files, restore logs.

  • A volume snapshotter plugin for creating snapshots from volumes (during a backup) and volumes from snapshots (during a restore) on AWS EBS.

    • Since v1.4.0 the snapshotter plugin can handle the volumes provisioned by CSI driver ebs.csi.aws.com

Compatibility

Below is a listing of plugin versions and respective Velero versions that are compatible.

Plugin Version Velero Version
v1.5.x v1.9.x
v1.4.x v1.8.x
v1.3.x v1.7.x
v1.2.x v1.6.x
v1.1.x v1.5.x
v1.1.x v1.4.x
v1.0.x v1.3.x
v1.0.x v1.2.0

Filing issues

If you would like to file a GitHub issue for the plugin, please open the issue on the core Velero repo

Setup

To set up Velero on AWS, you:

You can also use this plugin to migrate PVs across clusters or create an additional Backup Storage Location.

If you do not have the aws CLI locally installed, follow the user guide to set it up.

Create S3 bucket

Velero requires an object storage bucket to store backups in, preferably unique to a single Kubernetes cluster (see the FAQ for more details). Create an S3 bucket, replacing placeholders appropriately:

BUCKET=<YOUR_BUCKET>
REGION=<YOUR_REGION>
aws s3api create-bucket \
    --bucket $BUCKET \
    --region $REGION \
    --create-bucket-configuration LocationConstraint=$REGION

NOTE: us-east-1 does not support a LocationConstraint. If your region is us-east-1, omit the bucket configuration:

aws s3api create-bucket \
    --bucket $BUCKET \
    --region us-east-1

Set permissions for Velero

Option 1: Set permissions with an IAM user

For more information, see the AWS documentation on IAM users.

  1. Create the IAM user:

    aws iam create-user --user-name velero

    If you'll be using Velero to backup multiple clusters with multiple S3 buckets, it may be desirable to create a unique username per cluster rather than the default velero.

  2. Attach policies to give velero the necessary permissions:

    cat > velero-policy.json <<EOF
    {
        "Version": "2012-10-17",
        "Statement": [
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "ec2:DescribeVolumes",
                    "ec2:DescribeSnapshots",
                    "ec2:CreateTags",
                    "ec2:CreateVolume",
                    "ec2:CreateSnapshot",
                    "ec2:DeleteSnapshot"
                ],
                "Resource": "*"
            },
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "s3:GetObject",
                    "s3:DeleteObject",
                    "s3:PutObject",
                    "s3:AbortMultipartUpload",
                    "s3:ListMultipartUploadParts"
                ],
                "Resource": [
                    "arn:aws:s3:::${BUCKET}/*"
                ]
            },
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "s3:ListBucket"
                ],
                "Resource": [
                    "arn:aws:s3:::${BUCKET}"
                ]
            }
        ]
    }
    EOF
    
    aws iam put-user-policy \
      --user-name velero \
      --policy-name velero \
      --policy-document file://velero-policy.json
  3. Create an access key for the user:

    aws iam create-access-key --user-name velero

    The result should look like:

    {
      "AccessKey": {
            "UserName": "velero",
            "Status": "Active",
            "CreateDate": "2017-07-31T22:24:41.576Z",
            "SecretAccessKey": <AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>,
            "AccessKeyId": <AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID>
      }
    }
  4. Create a Velero-specific credentials file (credentials-velero) in your local directory:

    [default]
    aws_access_key_id=<AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID>
    aws_secret_access_key=<AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>

    where the access key id and secret are the values returned from the create-access-key request.

Option 2: Set permissions using kube2iam

Kube2iam is a Kubernetes application that allows managing AWS IAM permissions for pod via annotations rather than operating on API keys.

This path assumes you have kube2iam already running in your Kubernetes cluster. If that is not the case, please install it first, following the docs here: https://github.com/jtblin/kube2iam

It can be set up for Velero by creating a role that will have required permissions, and later by adding the permissions annotation on the velero deployment to define which role it should use internally.

  1. Create a Trust Policy document to allow the role being used for EC2 management & assume kube2iam role:

    cat > velero-trust-policy.json <<EOF
    {
        "Version": "2012-10-17",
        "Statement": [
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Principal": {
                    "Service": "ec2.amazonaws.com"
                },
                "Action": "sts:AssumeRole"
            },
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Principal": {
                    "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::<AWS_ACCOUNT_ID>:role/<ROLE_CREATED_WHEN_INITIALIZING_KUBE2IAM>"
                },
                "Action": "sts:AssumeRole"
            }
        ]
    }
    EOF
    
  2. Create the IAM role:

    aws iam create-role --role-name velero --assume-role-policy-document file://./velero-trust-policy.json
  3. Attach policies to give velero the necessary permissions:

    BUCKET=<YOUR_BUCKET>
    cat > velero-policy.json <<EOF
    {
        "Version": "2012-10-17",
        "Statement": [
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "ec2:DescribeVolumes",
                    "ec2:DescribeSnapshots",
                    "ec2:CreateTags",
                    "ec2:CreateVolume",
                    "ec2:CreateSnapshot",
                    "ec2:DeleteSnapshot"
                ],
                "Resource": "*"
            },
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "s3:GetObject",
                    "s3:DeleteObject",
                    "s3:PutObject",
                    "s3:AbortMultipartUpload",
                    "s3:ListMultipartUploadParts"
                ],
                "Resource": [
                    "arn:aws:s3:::${BUCKET}/*"
                ]
            },
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "s3:ListBucket"
                ],
                "Resource": [
                    "arn:aws:s3:::${BUCKET}"
                ]
            }
        ]
    }
    EOF
    
    aws iam put-role-policy \
      --role-name velero \
      --policy-name velero-policy \
      --policy-document file://./velero-policy.json

Install and start Velero

Download Velero

Install Velero, including all prerequisites, into the cluster and start the deployment. This will create a namespace called velero, and place a deployment named velero in it.

If using IAM user and access key:

velero install \
    --provider aws \
    --plugins velero/velero-plugin-for-aws:v1.4.0 \
    --bucket $BUCKET \
    --backup-location-config region=$REGION \
    --snapshot-location-config region=$REGION \
    --secret-file ./credentials-velero

If using kube2iam:

velero install \
    --provider aws \
    --plugins velero/velero-plugin-for-aws:v1.4.0 \
    --bucket $BUCKET \
    --backup-location-config region=$REGION \
    --snapshot-location-config region=$REGION \
    --pod-annotations iam.amazonaws.com/role=arn:aws:iam::<AWS_ACCOUNT_ID>:role/<VELERO_ROLE_NAME> \
    --no-secret

Additionally, you can specify --use-restic to enable restic support, and --wait to wait for the deployment to be ready.

Note: If you are using EKS, there is a known permissions issue when using Velero with Kubernetes versions 1.18 and earlier that will prevent the Velero from being able to read S3 storage locations. To fix this, update the Velero deployment yaml file to include following securityContext value:

securityContext:
        fsGroup: 65534

(Optional) Specify additional configurable parameters for the --backup-location-config flag.

(Optional) Specify additional configurable parameters for the --snapshot-location-config flag.

(Optional) Customize the Velero installation further to meet your needs.

For more complex installation needs, use either the Helm chart, or add --dry-run -o yaml options for generating the YAML representation for the installation.

Create an additional Backup Storage Location

If you are using Velero v1.6.0 or later, you can create additional AWS Backup Storage Locations that use their own credentials. These can also be created alongside Backup Storage Locations that use other providers.

Limitations

It is not possible to use different credentials for additional Backup Storage Locations if you are pod based authentication such as kube2iam.

Prerequisites

  • Velero 1.6.0 or later
  • AWS plugin must be installed, either at install time, or by running velero plugin add velero/velero-plugin-for-aws:plugin-version, replace the plugin-version with the corresponding value

Configure S3 bucket and credentials

To configure a new Backup Storage Location with its own credentials, it is necessary to follow the steps above to create the bucket to use and to generate the credentials file to interact with that bucket. Once you have created the credentials file, create a Kubernetes Secret in the Velero namespace that contains these credentials:

kubectl create secret generic -n velero bsl-credentials --from-file=aws=</path/to/credentialsfile>

This will create a secret named bsl-credentials with a single key (aws) which contains the contents of your credentials file. The name and key of this secret will be given to Velero when creating the Backup Storage Location, so it knows which secret data to use.

Create Backup Storage Location

Once the bucket and credentials have been configured, these can be used to create the new Backup Storage Location:

velero backup-location create <bsl-name> \
  --provider aws \
  --bucket $BUCKET \
  --config region=$REGION \
  --credential=bsl-credentials=aws

The Backup Storage Location is ready to use when it has the phase Available. You can check this with the following command:

velero backup-location get

To use this new Backup Storage Location when performing a backup, use the flag --storage-location <bsl-name> when running velero backup create.

Migrating PVs across clusters

Setting AWS_CLUSTER_NAME (Optional)

If you have multiple clusters and you want to support migration of resources between them, you can use kubectl edit deploy/velero -n velero to edit your deployment:

Add the environment variable AWS_CLUSTER_NAME under spec.template.spec.env, with the current cluster's name. When restoring backup, it will make Velero (and cluster it's running on) claim ownership of AWS volumes created from snapshots taken on different cluster. The best way to get the current cluster's name is to either check it with used deployment tool or to read it directly from the EC2 instances tags.

The following listing shows how to get the cluster's nodes EC2 Tags. First, get the nodes external IDs (EC2 IDs):

kubectl get nodes -o jsonpath='{.items[*].spec.externalID}'

Copy one of the returned IDs <ID> and use it with the aws CLI tool to search for one of the following:

  • The kubernetes.io/cluster/<AWS_CLUSTER_NAME> tag of the value owned. The <AWS_CLUSTER_NAME> is then your cluster's name:

    aws ec2 describe-tags --filters "Name=resource-id,Values=<ID>" "Name=value,Values=owned"
  • If the first output returns nothing, then check for the legacy Tag KubernetesCluster of the value <AWS_CLUSTER_NAME>:

    aws ec2 describe-tags --filters "Name=resource-id,Values=<ID>" "Name=key,Values=KubernetesCluster"