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Proof of Email

Proof of Email tooling and application home.

This is the official organization for Proof of Email, created by yush_g, sora suegami, and sampriti. Thanks to all current core contributors, including Saleel, Aditya, Elo, and Wataru. Thanks to Vivek, Tyler, Rasul, and Andy for helping out from the PSE side, and to the many open source contributors who have made pull requests, and to 0xPARC, EF PSE, and Gitcoin supporters for providing grants to support this work! You can see applications and links at our main website hub,

Goals for Q1 2024

By April 2024, we expect to release 1) a custom account recovery solution via email guardians for account abstraction wallets, and 2) a login with zk email flow with ECDSA key authorization.

  1. The flow of account recovery will be that AA wallets specify email addresses as guardians, those email addresses receive emails to accept gaurdianship, and if the keys are ever lost and the wallet needs to be recovered, then guardians can simply send an email with the users new public key, to save their assets after a timelock.
  2. The flow of login with email will be that users put in their email addresses into a website, they get a magic link style email in their inbox from a relayer with a hidden link authorizing an ephemeral key, and any reply to that email confirms that ephemeral key as the signer for that email address on any website. That website can continue to use that browser-specific temporary ECDSA keypair until the user switches devices, at which point they can do the flow again to authorize additional ECDSA keypairs. This will be a completely decentralized drop-in replacement for signin with email for crypto-native apps that expect ECDSA signers.

Circom zk-email

We have NPM SDKs for the frontend functions, circuits, and smart contracts, that should allow you to quickly deploy new circom instances of zk-email.

We have an end-to-end circom implementation with a live demo for Proof-of-Twitter NFTs on Goerli at Circom shines with it's succinctness and server-side speed, which proves zk-email circuits in under 30 seconds. On the client side, it takes about 6 minutes to run in browser and does a 1gb download, hence our desire to work on a halo2 version.

ZK Regex

In order construct new proofs, we also have a regex library that does circom/halo2 codegen for arbitrary regex strings via configuration files and a CLI, as well as a DFA visualization site to help you convert a regex into the same states as our circom generator [thanks to CyberZHG for the base repo]. Thanks to Javier for a work in progress UI to convert regexes to circom circuits rapidly.

Halo2 zk-email

We have finished a halo2 version of zk-email, which we expect to 10x improve proving speed for zk-email applications that require client side privacy. To do so, we pair our zk-regex library with the halo2-regex circuits that create arbitrary regex circuits in halo2. We also have custom base64 encoding + decoding circuit and the first-ever halo2 RSA + SHA256 built with Axiom's flexgates and optimizing Brechtpd + PSE's SHA256. These public goods have been used for several applications regarding provenant data in the wild, but the halo2 work has not been audited yet. We have heavily optimized for proving-time, and we expect all of our circuits to be verified recusively on chain cheaply.

We currently have a fast client side proof (~20 seconds) with split-up deployed contracts to allow L2 deployments. This can be proved on an L2 for 48M gas [~about $8 on Arbitrum]. We hope to optimize this over time. You can alternatively feed into an autoscaling recursive halo2 aggregator in the cloud with a GPU prover (~300 seconds on a massive machine without a GPU, ~60 seconds with a GPU) that maintains zero knowledge and compresses the proof to about 500K gas, with a ~500MB zkey. We will work on improving both performance and memory over time, and think we can massively improve performance if we continue to invest in this.

SP1 ZK Email

For server side flows, this has the potential to be very customizable and extensible due to the insane speed of plonky3. We benchmarked RSA-SHA256 and found the unoptimized version to be 11M constraints, an order of magnitude over Tendermint. We think this can be majorly optimized via optimized libraries. We intend to ship an MVP of ZK Email in SP1 as soon as an on-chain verifier is released. However, it will be several months after that until this is as fully audited and battle-tested as circom to be mainnet-ready. However, we are fully ready to throw away our entire serverside circuit codebase if we see performance + security here match circom, due to increased ease of use. We do not think performance will be comparable to halo2.

Email Wallet

Using circom zk-email, we have a demo of a wallet signing flow only using emails instead of traditional seed phrases. You can try our current testnet V0 deployed demo of sending ERC20s via sending emails at, view the docs at, and see the slides at We are adding an extensions layer and privacy layer to allow developers to trigger arbitrary Ethereum functions from email subjects, decentralizing and allowing self-hosting the relayer and DKIM key update code, and auditing it for a V1 release. We intend for this to be a powerful web3 onboarding protocol.


Our open source relayer allows anyone to self-host or cloud-host with the ability to:

  1. Use our Dockerimage to immediately deploy any ZK proof to a rapid, autoscaled, 64 core proving instance to do proofs in the cloud. Note that privacy will be leaked to AWS in this case, so the only usecase is succinctness.
  2. Interface with the ZK proving protocol via sending emails, via built-in SMTP and IMAP servers that can authenticate with any gmail account

Other public goods

We have produced serveral OSS public goods. We would like to publish them on NPM and Cargo soon, but till then you can directly refer to these repos.

  • Halo2 Benchmarking: We have open sourced a halo2 wasm benchmarking repo that runs any halo2 wasm code in the browser on 100 instances in parallel for any browser on any operating system (mobile or desktop), and spits out the mean running time and variance -- we intend to publish this as an easy to use Cargo and NPM package soon for others to use.
  • Halo2 Optimizations: We have various halo2 circuits to split verifiers, divide circuits for faster parallel client side proving, and many others.
  • DKIM Selector Scrapers: We have a client-side-only selector scraper website that we internally use to get selectors for uncommon websites which we have received emails from in the past, which stores it to a database.
  • Circom Hash to Curve on the Grumpkin Curve: Our circuits enable proving the private set intersection (PSI) protocol in ZK, which we use for decentralized relayer communication, so that relayers cannot censor unfavorable queries.

Help out!

We are an open source project and decentralized protocol. If you are interested in giving, support us on Gitcoin Grants!

If you are interested in helping, reach out us on email or telegram/twitter! We will give a small grant (between $50 - $200) for all good-faith implementations of any of the projects or issues below, or any completed end-to-end original idea.

For more information on how to contribute look at our contribution guide.

Roadmap: Q2 2023: Release initial ZK email SDKs. Release MVP of email wallet at Zuzalu. [DONE] Q3 2023: Expand our core repos into more robust SDK, interate with developers, continue to user test the email wallet V0, prototype the email wallet V1. [DONE] Q4 2023: Shipping a V1 zk email wallet on mainnet (with extensions!) on a short-term mainnet demo end to end. Test-drive SDK at Zuconnect Hackathon 2023. Make ZK regex easier to use. [DONE] Q1 2024: Release polished, one-click button integrations for applications with email wallets. Publish a specialized wallet recovery plugin as well as a ephemeral key account abstraction login with zkemail solution. Q2 2024: Finish halo2 code audit, as well as a full rewrite with Nova + recursive verification. This will allow a generic email circuit to live on each chain, where people can swap in and out regexes that can be recursively proven in Nova. This will obliviate the need for trusted setups for new zk email proofs, and make audits of future zk email ideas more tighly scoped!

Our SDK has released a stable 1.0 version as of November, with a first round of audit fixes implemented from Secbit Labs. Note that there may still be breaking, back-incompatible changes pushed.

Here are specific project ideas, for which we will give a grant for any successful implementation. Feel free to contact us (twitter, telegram) with what you're interested in, for more info on grant amounts.

Core Infrastructure Ideas

Title Description
zkscan Improve zscan to make it work, or build your own zk etherscan-style scanner that lets you see, parse, and verify proofs more easily from on-chain transactions.
Issue Resolution Resolve issues in zk-email-verify or zk-regex repo, which can make the core protocol both faster and more secure! We have marked a number of accessible issues with 'Good First Issue' and 'Help Wanted'.
Deploy Halo2 Benchmarking Library Deploy our halo2 wasm benchmarking library to Cargo and NPM as a CLI tool. Alternatively upstream it directly to halo2. Ideally, it comes with an easy-to-use frontend where you can drag-and-drop a WASM or halo2 repo in. Also, add this as a button to Axiom's halo2repl.
Add Registry to ZK Regex Our regex to circom/halo2 library supports a limited set of regex syntax (specified on Add a registry that lets people choose zk regex circuits. Might be good to approach with Succinct Alpha.
Add Automatic Email to Regex Converter Add a frontend that lets someone upload two emails, highlight the common things they want to expose, then automatically calculate the regex that would constrain the rest and output that single value, and generate the zk circuit for it.
ZK Regex Feature Parity Convert to use our new zk-regex library.
Recursive Verifier in Nova Jordi began a Nova recursive verifier for Circom but never finished it. Lev and Arnacube have various ideas to finish it, which I am optimistic about. This will let us potentiallly accelerate client-side circom proving.
Attachment Parsing Circuit Add a second base64 decoding as well as a simple image, txt, pdf, or other file format decoding algorithm to allow running regex inside of attachments in emails.
Deploy Package/Website to Auto-deploy Autoscaled Circom Prover Endpoint Our relayer coordinator has a Docker image for a rapidsnark prover that can store a circom zkey, then have a modal API endpoint and which to receive an input.json. This infrastructure can easily be made into a broader public good with a simple frontend that lets anyone upload whatever circom file they want, then automatically deploy an endpoint for them that would zk-prove it, or a button on zkrepl.
ZK Repl on Cloud zkrepl now supports @zk-email packages on NPM. However, it often exceeds the 4GB browser proving limit. Deploy a server-based zk-repl that autospins up an on-demand modal server to run proving. You can base your modal instance on our rapidsnark Dockerfiles -- you can also take inspiration from how our modal-based relayer coordinator builds a staged circom Dockerfile, then runs on-demand fast proving with an API endpoint.
DNSSEC Advocacy Help advocate to companies that run big mailservers to enable DNSSEC, as less than 2% of companies have it on -- with DNSSEC, DKIM key verification on-chain will be significantly better.
Halo2 Yul Memory Optimization Axiom and EZKL have Yul verifiers in halo2 that are quite wasteful with memory accesses, and make contracts inefficient and hard to deploy on-chain. Make them more efficient.

Project Ideas

Title Description
Bountied Whistleblowing Project A bounty platform for leaks where people can bid on leaks with specific sources (i.e. from @___) and specific text (i.e. includes the phrase "___"). It creates an escrow system on chain where others can upload those anonymized leaks along with zk-email proofs that they satisfy the regexes, and reveal only the parts that they want to reveal.
Arxiv Donation Project Put in an arxiv link, and a bot scrapes all the emails out of the PDF/Arxiv itself. It then scrapes all of the emails off of all of the dependencies and allows the donor to reweight them based on where they appeared in the text (i.e. it defaults to something like, cited in previous work or methods splits 40% of the donation, authors cited in intro split 10% of the funds or whatever). It then deploys zk-email wallets for all of them and sends them the money.
AttestationStation Attestations for Twitter etc Convert the Twitter demo to an official AttestationStation/PolygonID attestation.
Automatic Spotify Splits for AI Voice Royalities Prove via zk-email on Spotify confirmation emails and EZKL proof of voi e via ML, that you used an artists voice and split profit with them. Details at
Proof of Residence Prove via some emailed confirmation sent by some government or service that you filed taxes or payed for property in that country, and make only the country public.
Proof of Credit Score Enable undercollateralized, crypto lending by allowing someone to prove their credit score on-chain via a confirmaton email from a credit score provider.
General Oracles Prove any oracled data in emails, such as a NASDAQ daily ticker email for the price of some stock, or a Robinhood spot price confirmation. Tradingview Alerts should be able to support this.
Investor Interest Prove some investor emailed you a term sheet, and mint a credential that lets you anonymously disclose how your interactions with them were.
2FA On-Chain Account transactions on-chain above a certain amount need to be verified via an email from your email address as well. Utilize a relayer to automatically prompt users when they see a transaction on chain, and proof of a confirmation reply with a later timestamp will auth the transaction. Will likely be easiest to fork email wallet V1 relayers and parsing to create this.
Multisig Control via Email Native integration with SAFE or other multi-sig wallets to allow zk-emails to be direct multisig signers, interacting and approving transactions via emails.
Legal Discovery When subpoena'd, people can turn over only a relevant subset of their emails, not all of them. I don't know if this is robust though, since unless Gmail commits to a Merkle root of all your emails or something, people can always hide whatevver emails they want from the proving process.
DNSSEC Lobbying Lobby providers like Google, Outlook etc, to enable DNSSEC on their keys in order to have more permissionless key upgrades. This is a great fit for someone with less ZK experience or who is really good at talking to people.
Emailing an Image Mints an NFT Add an extra base64 decoding step atop the attachments, and then reformat it to have the image on-chain. This will let someone email you an image, and it automatically goes on-chain (i.e. can directly mint an NFT for it, if you so wish).
EZKL + ZK Email Use machine learning to parse an email contents and reveal only the outputs of the ML model. This can concern NLP summary of an email, or parsing of a document (again if you add the base64 decoding first).

proofofemail coming 10.13.22

Popular repositories

  1. zk-email-verify zk-email-verify Public

    Verify any text in any sent or received email, cryptographically and via only trusting the sending mailserver.

    TypeScript 293 58

  2. email-wallet email-wallet Public

    A smart contract wallet controlled using email

    Rust 85 13

  3. halo2-zk-email halo2-zk-email Public

    Email verification circuit in halo2

    Rust 58 10

  4. zk-regex zk-regex Public

    A library to do regex verification in circom, adapted from the original zk-email. It additionally generates lookup tables for halo2-regex.

    Circom 52 19

  5. halo2-regex halo2-regex Public

    Library and gadget to do regex string matches in halo2

    Rust 34 6

  6. halo2-base64 halo2-base64 Public

    Base64 decoding circuit in halo2

    Rust 14 3


Showing 10 of 34 repositories
  • Public

    A repository to store historical, timestamped DKIM keys; and for anyone to upload their own. Basically for public key registries.

    TypeScript 3 MIT 1 12 0 Updated Apr 17, 2024
  • ether-email-auth Public

    A user of on-chain apps can authenticate that the user is a correct holder of the specific email address and authorize anything described in the email.

    Rust 5 MIT 2 0 0 Updated Apr 17, 2024
  • proof-of-twitter Public

    This repo is now deployed to prod at zk-email-verify > examples > twitter repo will be deprecated shortly.

    TypeScript 11 MIT 8 3 0 Updated Apr 17, 2024
  • zk-email-verify Public

    Verify any text in any sent or received email, cryptographically and via only trusting the sending mailserver.

    TypeScript 293 MIT 58 33 (6 issues need help) 7 Updated Apr 17, 2024
  • Public

    Main website describing zk email and its functionalities.

    MDX 1 3 2 1 Updated Apr 10, 2024
  • .github Public

    Description of project

    0 1 0 1 Updated Apr 9, 2024
  • zk-regex Public

    A library to do regex verification in circom, adapted from the original zk-email. It additionally generates lookup tables for halo2-regex.

    Circom 52 GPL-3.0 19 15 (4 issues need help) 3 Updated Apr 2, 2024
  • Public

    Code for Decentralized, zk-proof based, privacy preserving email login for transactions on chain.

    TypeScript 6 2 1 (1 issue needs help) 0 Updated Mar 27, 2024
  • relayer Public template

    The V0 rust IMAP + SMTP server that reads email via imap, generates a zk proofs either locally or on an on-demand AWS machine with modal, then replies and sends on-chain. **DEPRECATED** in favor of V1 relayer in email-wallet.

    Rust 12 MIT 1 7 0 Updated Mar 27, 2024
  • email-wallet Public

    A smart contract wallet controlled using email

    Rust 85 MIT 13 13 3 Updated Mar 24, 2024