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18F Pages

18F Pages is the serving host and publishing platform that 18F uses to prototype and publish many of its Jekyll-based and other statically-generated web sites. It works very similarly to GitHub pages.

This repo contains the Jekyll source for the home page itself.

The 18F Pages publishing server is available as the 18f-pages-server npm, the code for which resides in the 18F/pages-server repository. Complete details on the publishing mechanism and server installation, configuration, and administration are available in the README posted on both of those pages.


The server may be reused by other organizations, as it is completely configurable via the pages-config.json file. You may imagine replacing all instances of "18F" in the instructions that follow with your own organization's handle.

Publishing to

Published sites will appear as, where REPO-NAME is the name of the site's repository without the organization prefix.

For example, 18F/guides-template will publish to

The status of the most recent build attempt will be visible at

When to use this technique

The one condition test: "Is this site going to be for public (non-18F) consumption? If yes, use"

Adding a new site

See the 18F Guides Template for step-by-step instructions on how to develop a site for 18F Pages and configure its GitHub repository for publishing.

Alternatively, if you're an 18F team member who's already comfortable with Jekyll and GitHub, the short version is:

  • Create the 18f-pages publishing branch. If you already have a gh-pages branch, you can do this on the command line via:
$ git checkout -b 18f-pages gh-pages
$ git push origin 18f-pages

or by clicking on the Branch: button on your repository's GitHub page, selecting gh-pages, clicking the button again, and entering 18f-pages in the Find or create a branch... box.

  • If your repo is primarily an 18F Pages site (as opposed to a project site with an 18f-pages branch for documentation), you may optionally set the default branch on GitHub to 18f-pages.
  • Make sure all internal links are prefixed with {{ site.baseurl }}. This is essential for proper publishing to, though your local site will continue to serve correctly from http://localhost:4000/.
  • Push a change to the 18f-pages branch to publish your site. The site will not appear when the branch is created, only after it is updated.

For further information, read the "Publishing" section of the 18F/guides-server README for a thorough explanation of the entire publishing mechanism.

Staging area

Any changes pushed to a 18f-pages-staging branch will appear on, which requires authenticated access.

Administering and

18F GitHub organization webhook

There is a webhook configured for the 18F GitHub organization that will send push notifications from every 18F GitHub repository to This enables every update to an 18f-pages or 18f-pages-staging branch in every 18F GitHub repository to automatically publish to or, respectively.

Individual 18F repositories do not need to set up their own publishing webhooks, and any existing publishing webhooks should be removed.

Getting access to

Note: and are the same machine. Both sites are served using the same 18f-pages-server instance.

  • Get SSH access to via #devops.
  • For convenience, add the following stanza to $HOME/.ssh/config, replacing $HOME with the full path to your home directory:
Host 18f-pages
   User ubuntu
   IdentityFile $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa
   IdentitiesOnly yes

In the sections that follow, each set of command line instructions presumes that you have logged into Alternatively, you may execute each command from your local machine by adding ssh 18f-pages as a prefix.

Cloning the 18F/pages repository and installing the server

Should 18f-pages-server ever need to be re-installed, or installed on a new instance, log into the host via ssh 18f-pages and follow the 18f-pages-server installation instructions.

Once the server is installed, clone the 18F/pages repository and run the server using Forever:

$ git clone /home/ubuntu/pages
$ forever start -l /var/log/18f-pages-server/pages.log -a /usr/local/bin/18f-pages /home/ubuntu/pages/pages-config.json

Upgrading the server

Run the following command to upgrade 18f-pages-server npm, and then follow the instructions to restart the server:

$ sudo npm upgrade -g 18f-pages-server

You should see output similar to the following upon success:

/usr/local/bin/18f-pages -> /usr/local/lib/node_modules/18f-pages-server/bin/18f-pages
18f-pages-server@0.0.3 /usr/local/lib/node_modules/18f-pages-server
├── file-locked-operation@0.0.1 (lockfile@1.0.1)
└── hookshot@0.1.0 (commander@2.3.0, lockfile@1.0.1, body-parser@1.8.4,

Updating the configuration

The pages-config.json configuration file from this repository is the configuration for the 18f-pages-server. The schema is fully-documented in the "Generate and configure pages-config.json section of the 18f-pages-server README.

After changes to this file have been pushed or merged into the 18f-pages branch on GitHub, run the following to pull the configuration updates onto then follow the instructions to restart the server:

$ cd /home/ubuntu/pages && git pull

Note: When running from your local machine using the ssh 18f-pages prefix, this command must be surrounded by quotation marks.

Restarting the server

To restart the server:

$ forever restart /usr/local/bin/18f-pages

To validate that the update succeeded, print the last lines of the log file, which should look similar to the following:

$ tail -n 2 /var/log/18f-pages-server/pages.log
18f-pages-server v0.0.3
18F pages: listening on port 5000

Setting up the home page

pages-generated/index.html is a symlink to pages-generated/pages/index.html, as explained in the "Create a symlink to the index.html of the generated homepage" section of the 18F/pages-server README.

System configuration files

Updating these files in the repository does not update them on the server. Currently, server configurations should be updated directly, verified, then updated within the repository to maintain parity.


The /etc/logrotate.d/18f-pages-server file controls the log rotation mechanism, logrotate(8). This file is checked into this repository as _deploy/etc/logrotate.d/18f-pages-server.


The Nginx configuration for both and is in the /etc/nginx/vhosts/pages.conf file, checked into this repository as _deploy/etc/nginx/vhosts/pages.conf.

This file is imported into /etc/nginx/nginx.conf and includes other files containing configuration directives for SSL, New Relic, and authentication. The paths to these other files are relative to /etc/nginx. These other files can be seen in the 18F/hub nginx configuration directory, as they are served from the same Nginx instance as


  1. Fork the repo (or just clone it if you're an 18F team member)
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create a new Pull Request

Feel free to file an issue or to ping @mbland with any questions you may have, especially if the current documentation should've addressed your needs, but didn't.

Public domain

This project is in the worldwide public domain. As stated in CONTRIBUTING:

This project is in the public domain within the United States, and copyright and related rights in the work worldwide are waived through the CC0 1.0 Universal public domain dedication.

All contributions to this project will be released under the CC0 dedication. By submitting a pull request, you are agreeing to comply with this waiver of copyright interest.


DEPRECATED: Publishing platform for 18F sites a la GitHub pages




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