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num (int, float, bool)

int i = 0;
flt f = 0.0;

str s = "hello world!";
str z = 'single quotes are also legal';

list x = ['abc', 1, 3.6, [1, 3, 4], 5];

func & meth

# func-declared procedures have no side effects
func add(int a, int b) : int {
  return a + b;


    func  declare a function
    int   declare an integer
    str   declare a string
    flt   declare a floating point number
    type  describe a new data structure
    list  declare a container which may hold any of the above

flow control

    # conditionals which only execute a single statement don't
    # require curly braces
    if (condition)
        print "success";

    if (condition) {
        # statement(s)
    } else if (other_condition) {
        # statement(s)
    } else {
        # statement(s)

    # case expressions don't have to be constants, so the option-case block
    # can be used as a more condensed if-else if-else block
    option (expression) {
        # use "break" keyword to avoid fallthrough
        case expression1:
            # statement(s)
        case expression2:
            # statement(s)
        case expression3:
            # statement(s)
    while (condition) {
        # statement(s)
    # when a from-clause is not specified, "var" begins at 0
    # when a to-clause is not specified, "var" will have no upper bound
    # when a by-clause is not specified, "var" will increment by 1
    # "var" is local to the for-loop block, and is removed after execution
    for var [from x] [to y] [by z] {
        # statements
    break   # exits the current loop or breaks out of a switch statement
    next    # skips to the next iteration of the current loop
    return  # outputs a value from a function



    **    exponentiation,
     ~    logarithm (e.g. log base 2 of 3 is 2~3),
    //    integer division,
     *    multiplication,
     /    division,
     %    modulo,
     +    addition,
     -    subtraction,

any types

    ()    grouping,
    and   conjunction
    or    disjunction
    not   negation
    xor   exclusive disjunction
    then  material implication

    >     greater than,
    <     less than,
    ==    equal,
    !=    not equal,
    >=    greater equal,
    <=    less equal,
    ?:    ternary or null-coalescing

bitwise (applicable to integers only)

    !   bitwise not
    &   bitwise and
    |   bitwise or
    ^   bitwise xor


     +    string concatenation: combines left operand and right head-to-tail
     *    string repetition: combines left operand with itself right times
    []    character access: returns string of length one with char at index


    []   element access: returns object with value of element at index
    in   element presence: true if value of left operand present in right
     *   list repetition: combines left operand with itself right times
     +   list concatenation: combines left operand with right head-to-tail
     /   element removal: removes first element with value of right operand
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