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Lifelong.Promise for Typescript

This implements the Promises/A+ specification in a single, very strongly typed Typescript file, without extraneous identifiers.

Why This Library

Lifelong provides the strongest typing for Promises, which is one of Typescript's major selling points. Its .d.ts header file is clear and easy to follow, with no extraneous names or concepts. Its 'on next tick / on next event loop' function is configurable. Its Promise class can be subclassed, where each subclass can use a different nextTick function. And it's small: a single file, a single class, and an optional interface.

Lifelong does not require any other library.

A pre-made ajax call is included for convenience and for example usage.

Two ways of starting a promise chain exist. For an object-oriented style of coding, call beginChain without arguments for a deferred. For a functional style of coding, call beginChain with a function accepting two library-supplied functions, fulfill and reject, for the first promise.

What are Promises, Chains, and Deferreds?

A promise library sits under framework code and above app code, right where an async callback leaves the framework and enters the app. It wraps the app's callbacks so they can use return and throw keywords for a more normal style of coding. It also gives lower-level app code something to return to mid-level app code, so the lower levels needn't solicit callback functions from the mid-level.

A promise "wraps the eventual return value of an async call." Its then(..) method attaches the app's callbacks for when the value finally becomes available.

A promise awaiting the return value it is said to be unresolved. Once the value arrives it is fulfilled. If something goes wrong it is rejected. Hence resolved means either fulfilled or rejected. Transitioning to a resolved status is one-way, one-time, and permanent.

then(..) also returns a new promise which can also be then'ed, creating a chain of promises, each of which uses the return value of the previous.

If placed in a variable, the same promise can be then'ed multiple times so each of its children will get the same input. A promise chain is a tree of promises with a deferred at the root.

A deferred "represents an operation that will finish later." Deferreds have only three properties: a first promise on which other promises hang, and methods resolve and reject to be called by outside code when the return value becomes available, to resolve that first promise and thereby lighting up the whole tree.

How to Use

The .d.ts file is kept clean for easy use, though it lacks any documentation.

Any Typescript Promise that isn't at least as specific as Promise<T> may not be worth using unless a very old version of Typescript is forced upon you.

Public Instanced Methods

then<R>(onFulfilled?: (input: T) => R, onRejected?: (error: T) => R): Promise<R>

The heart of any Promise implementation is this. Note that Promise<T>.then() creates a Promise<R>, not another Promise<T>. This is due to the app's callbacks having the ability to transform the returned value.

catch<R>(onRejected: (error: T) => R): Promise<R>

Equivalent to .then(undefined, fn) but that does not imply .then(fn1, fn2) is equivalent to .then(fn1).catch(fn2). The latter case will send any exception thrown from within fn1 into fn2, while in the former fn2 will be skipped over and the exception lands in the next catch.

Public Static Methods

static ajax(url: string, payload?: any): Promise<string>

Most of the usage of Promises is calling a server from javascript. This also serves as an example of how to use the Deferred interface object for anyone new to Promises.

static beginChain<T>(): Deferred<T, T>
static beginChain<T>(resolvePromise: (toFulfill: (value: T) => void, toReject: (error: T) => void) => void): Promise<T>

beginChain is how to create a promise from nothing. Call without parameters for a Deferred object, detailed below. Call with a function to get the promise directly, accepting two functions to fulfill or reject it when the time comes, like so:

static ajax(url: string, payload?: any): Promise<string> {
	return Promise.beginChain<string>((fulfiller, rejecter) => {
		let xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
		xhr.onreadystatechange = () => {
			if (xhr.readyState === 4) {
				if (xhr.status === 200)
		}; ? "POST" : "GET", url, true);
static fulfilled<T>(value: T | Promise<T>): Promise<T>

This creates a new, resolved promise which is fulfilled. Passing it a promise merely returns the same promise back to you, unchanged. Any thened callbacks won't run until the next event cycle.

static rejected<T>(error: T): Promise<T>

Similarly, this creates a new, resolved promise which is rejected.

static nextTickFn: <T>(setTimeoutOrSimilarFn: Function, caller: Promise<T>) => void

How does Lifelong.Promise know how to schedule a function for the next event cycle? By default, it uses setTimeout(fn,0) but this static property can change that with a simple Promise.nextTickFn = myFunc. The requesting promise is passed in as a convenience, in case there are multiple subclasses of Promise and they differ on what counts as a next cycle.

static all<T>(promises: Array<Promise<T>>): Promise<Array<T>>

Making several server calls in parallel is easy, but to then after all of their promises are resolved requires this function. If any reject, all immediately rejects.

	var content2 = document.getElementById("content2");
	content2.innerHTML = "Loading all...";

	var promises = [1, 2, 3].map(_ => Lifelong.Promise.ajax("http://localhost/API/Values/get"));

		.then(_ => content2.innerHTML = "all done")
		.catch(_ => content2.innerHTML = "at least one errored");

Interface Deferred

If a tree of promises have class Promise as its nodes, then class Deferred is the arcs between them. Specifically, it's the arc preceding the node. Even the root node is preceded by a deferred.

interface Deferred<T, R> {
	resolve: (input: T) => R;
	reject: (error: T) => R;
	promise: Promise<R>;

When returned from beginChain, all three of these fields are filled in already, and T == R. Use and return promise to attach then methods and go from there. When the value that the promise awaits becomes available, call resolve. Only call reject on error.

The included ajax method is an example of how to use Deferred:

static ajax(url: string, payload?: any): Promise<string> {
	let deferred = Promise.beginChain<string>();
	let xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
	xhr.onreadystatechange = () => {
		if (xhr.readyState === 4) {
			if (xhr.status === 200)
	}; ? "POST" : "GET", url, true);
	return deferred.promise;

Protected Methods

protected constructor()

Use beginChain to create a new promise.

protected status: "unresolved" | "FULFILLED" | "REJECTED"
protected outcome: T
protected queue: Deferred<T, any>[]

protected fulfill(x: T): Promise<T>
protected reject(error: T): Promise<T>

These two functions merely set these first two properties, then loop through the queue calling their half of the callbacks.

protected static Resolve<T>(promise: Promise<T>, x: T): Promise<T>

The real heart of the Promise/A+ spec has around 400 unit tests and is a bear to get just right.


At its most basic, Promises turn

callServer(value1, value2, onSuccess)


return callServer(value1, value2)

with onSuccess staying at the higher level code, in a then hanging on the return value.

Using the included ajax call in a test project

var content = document.getElementById("out");

	.then(x => content.innerHTML = x)
	.catch(e => content.innerHTML = "<h1>Server problem</h1>" + e);


Since Typescript's tagline is "Javascript that scales," it's likely the front-end will be large enough that some layering, however thin, is in order.

(The included ajax method isn't intended to cover the myriad needs of real apps, but it usually suffices for small projects and examples.)

The bottom layer is the ajax call itself. It makes no assumptions about what the server returns or where the server is at.

import Promise = Lifelong.Promise;

function callServer(url: string): Promise<string> {
	return Promise.ajax(url);

The next layer up might find-tune urls based on the desired service, and turn the server's JSON string into a javascript datatype. It wouldn't be used for that one weird XML call in the app.

function fromJSON(service: string, value?: string): Promise<any> {
	return callServer("http://localhost/API/" + service + "/get/" + value)
		.then(s => JSON.parse(s));

The next layer up might reify returned objects, turning Typescript's "concrete interfaces" into actual classes with working methods. Server calls that return primitive values like number or boolean would opt out at this point.

function get<T>(ctor: {new():T}, value?: string): Promise<T> {
	var service = getServiceName(ctor);
	return fromJSON(service, value).then(obj => {
		var retval:T = new ctor();
		copyPropertiesFromTo(obj, retval);
		return retval;

The model of a model-view-controller arrangement -- or whatever the app's conceptual nouns are -- begins the high-level layer of app code. Models generally shouldn't contain any logic except 'self-obsessed' functions like cost() here, but REST methods begin to qualify when their input parameters don't ask for callback functions.

public class Invoice {
	invoiceID: number;
	orderID: number;
	lineItems: InvoiceLineItem[] = [];

	static load(invoiceId: number): Promise<Invoice> {
		return get<Invoice>(Invoice, invoiceId.toString());

	cost(): number {
		return this.lineItems.reduce((sum,each) => sum + each.cost, 0);

The code behind the HTML tops this cake. It tells the model to load itself, and what to do with itself once loaded.

	constructor(id:number) {
		Invoice.load(id).then(invoice => {
			document.getElementById("cost").innerHTML = "$" + invoice.cost();
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