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Using Sequences of Life-events to Predict Human Lives


This repository contains code for the Using Sequences of Life-events to Predict Human Lives (life2vec) paper. We have only one webpage related to the project (, and we do not have any specialized Facebook, Tweeter accounts, etc. For more information refer to the FAQ.

Basic Implementation of life2vec

We will keep keep this repository as is. We are publishing some components of the life2vec model in separate repositories:

  1. a basic implemenetation of the model is published in carlomarxdk/life2vec-light - it contains a code to run a pretraining with the dummy data,
  2. a class distance weigthed cross-entropy loss is published in carlomarxdk/cdw-cross-entropy-loss - this loss was used in the Extraversion Traits Prediction task.

Source Code

This repository contains scripts and several notebooks for data processing, life2vec training, statistical analysis, and visualization. The model weights, experiment logs, and associated model outputs can be obtained in accordance with the rules of Statistics Denmark's Research Scheme.

Paths (e.g., to data, or model weights) were redacted before submitting scripts to GitHub.

Overall Structure

We use Hydra to run the experiments. The /conf folder contains configs for the experiments:

  1. /experiment contains configuration yaml for pretraining and finetuning,
  2. /tasks contain the specification for data augmentation in MLM, SOP, etc.,
  3. /trainer contains configuration for logging (not used) and multithread training (not used),
  4. /data_new contains configs for data loading and processing,
  5. /datamodule contains configs that specify how data should be loaded to PyTorch and PyTorch Lightning
  6. callbacks.yaml specifies the configuration for the PyTorch Lightning Callbacks ,
  7. prepare_data.yaml can be used to run data preprocessing.

The /analysis folder contains ipynb notebooks for post-hoc evaluation:

  1. /embedding contains the analysis of the embedding spaces,
  2. /metric contains notebooks for the model evaluation,
  3. /visualisation contains notebooks for the visualisation of spaces,
  4. /tcav includes TCAV implementation,
  5. /optimization hyperparameter tuning.

The source folder, /src, contains the data loading and model training codes. Due to the specifics of the hydra package. Here is the overview of the /src folder:

  1. The /src/data_new contains scripts to preprocess data as well as prepare data to load into the PyTorch or PyTorch Lightning,
  2. The /src/models contains the implementation of baseline models,
  3. The /src/tasks include code specific to the particular task, aka MLM, SOP, Mortality Prediction, Emigration Prediction, etc.
  4. /src/tranformer contains the implementation of the life2vec model:
    1. In, we overwrite the functionality of the performer-pytorch package,
    2. In, we have an implementation of the finetuning stage for the binary classification tasks (i.e. early mortality and emigration),
    3. In, we have an implementation of the finetuning stage for the personality nuance prediction task,
    4. contains the code for the life2vec pretraining (aka the base life2vec model),
    5. The contains the implementation of custom modules, like losses, activation functions, etc.
    6. The contains code for the custom metric,
    7. The,,, and contain the implementation of modules used in the transformer network (aka life2vec encoders).

Scripts such as,,, and used to run a particular stage of the training, while was used to run the data processing (see below the example).

Run the script

To run the code, you would use the following commands:

# run the pretraining:
HYDRA_FULL_ERROR=1 python -m src.train experiment=pretrain trainer.devices=[7]

# finetuning of the hyperparamaters (for the pretraining)
HYDRA_FULL_ERROR=1 python -m src.train experiment=pretrain_optim

# assemble general dataset (GLOBAL_SET)
HYDRA_FULL_ERROR=1 python -m src.prepare_data +data_new/corpus=global_set target=\${data_new.corpus}

# assemble dataset for the mortality prediction task (SURVIVAL_SET)
HYDRA_FULL_ERROR=1 python -m src.prepare_data +data_new/population=survival_set target=\${data_new.population}

# assemble labour source
python -m src.prepare_data +data_new/sources=labour target=\${data_new.sources}

# run emigration finetuning
HYDRA_FULL_ERROR=1 python -m src.train experiment=emm trainer.devices=[0] version=0.01

Another Code Contributors

  1. Søren Mørk Hartmann.

How to cite

Nature Computational Science

      author={Savcisens, Germans and Eliassi-Rad, Tina and Hansen, Lars Kai and Mortensen, Laust Hvas and Lilleholt, Lau and Rogers, Anna and Zettler, Ingo and Lehmann, Sune},
      title={Using sequences of life-events to predict human lives},
      journal={Nature Computational Science},

ArXiv Preprint

  title={Using Sequences of Life-events to Predict Human Lives},
  DOI = {arXiv:2306.03009},
  author={Savcisens, Germans and Eliassi-Rad, Tina and Hansen, Lars Kai and Mortensen, Laust and Lilleholt, Lau and Rogers, Anna and Zettler, Ingo and Lehmann, Sune},


  author = {Germans Savcisens},
  title = {Official code for the "Using Sequences of Life-events to Predict Human Lives" paper},
  note = {GitHub: SocialComplexityLab/life2vec},
  year = {2023},
  howpublished = {\url{}},