The MicroPython project
This is the MicroPython project, which aims to put an implementation of Python 3.x on microcontrollers and small embedded systems. You can find the official website at micropython.org.
WARNING: this project is in beta stage and is subject to changes of the code-base, including project-wide name changes and API changes.
MicroPython implements the entire Python 3.4 syntax (including exceptions,
yield from, etc., and additionally
await keywords from
Python 3.5). The following core datatypes are provided:
basic Unicode support),
collections.namedtuple, classes and instances.
Builtin modules include
struct, etc. Select ports have
_thread module (multithreading). Note that only a subset of
Python 3 functionality is implemented for the data types and modules.
MicroPython can execute scripts in textual source form or from precompiled bytecode, in both cases either from an on-device filesystem or "frozen" into the MicroPython executable.
See the repository http://github.com/micropython/pyboard for the MicroPython board (PyBoard), the officially supported reference electronic circuit board.
Major components in this repository:
- py/ -- the core Python implementation, including compiler, runtime, and core library.
- mpy-cross/ -- the MicroPython cross-compiler which is used to turn scripts into precompiled bytecode.
- unix/ -- a version of MicroPython that runs on Unix.
- stmhal/ -- a version of MicroPython that runs on the PyBoard and similar STM32 boards (using ST's Cube HAL drivers).
- minimal/ -- a minimal MicroPython port. Start with this if you want to port MicroPython to another microcontroller.
- tests/ -- test framework and test scripts.
- docs/ -- user documentation in Sphinx reStructuredText format. Rendered HTML documentation is available at http://docs.micropython.org (be sure to select needed board/port at the bottom left corner).
- bare-arm/ -- a bare minimum version of MicroPython for ARM MCUs. Used mostly to control code size.
- teensy/ -- a version of MicroPython that runs on the Teensy 3.1 (preliminary but functional).
- pic16bit/ -- a version of MicroPython for 16-bit PIC microcontrollers.
- cc3200/ -- a version of MicroPython that runs on the CC3200 from TI.
- esp8266/ -- an experimental port for ESP8266 WiFi modules.
- extmod/ -- additional (non-core) modules implemented in C.
- tools/ -- various tools, including the pyboard.py module.
- examples/ -- a few example Python scripts.
The subdirectories above may include READMEs with additional info.
"make" is used to build the components, or "gmake" on BSD-based systems. You will also need bash and Python (at least 2.7 or 3.3).
The Unix version
The "unix" port requires a standard Unix environment with gcc and GNU make. x86 and x64 architectures are supported (i.e. x86 32- and 64-bit), as well as ARM and MIPS. Making full-featured port to another architecture requires writing some assembly code for the exception handling and garbage collection. Alternatively, fallback implementation based on setjmp/longjmp can be used.
To build (see section below for required dependencies):
$ cd unix $ make axtls $ make
Then to give it a try:
$ ./micropython >>> list(5 * x + y for x in range(10) for y in [4, 2, 1])
CTRL-D (i.e. EOF) to exit the shell.
Learn about command-line options (in particular, how to increase heap size
which may be needed for larger applications):
$ ./micropython --help
Run complete testsuite:
$ make test
Unix version comes with a builtin package manager called upip, e.g.:
$ ./micropython -m upip install micropython-pystone $ ./micropython -m pystone
Building Unix version requires some dependencies installed. For
Debian/Ubuntu/Mint derivative Linux distros, install
(includes toolchain and make),
Other dependencies can be built together with MicroPython. Oftentimes, you need to do this to enable extra features or capabilities. To build these additional dependencies, first fetch git submodules for them:
$ git submodule update --init
Use this same command to get the latest versions of dependencies, as
they are updated from time to time. After that, in
unix/ dir, execute:
$ make deplibs
This will build all available dependencies (regardless whether they
are used or not). If you intend to build MicroPython with additional
options (like cross-compiling), the same set of options should be passed
make deplibs. To actually enabled use of dependencies, edit
unix/mpconfigport.mk file, which has inline descriptions of the options.
For example, to build SSL module (required for
upip tool described above),
MICROPY_PY_USSL to 1.
unix/mpconfigport.mk, you can also disable some dependencies enabled
by default, like FFI support, which requires libffi development files to
The STM version
The "stmhal" port requires an ARM compiler, arm-none-eabi-gcc, and associated bin-utils. For those using Arch Linux, you need arm-none-eabi-binutils and arm-none-eabi-gcc packages. Otherwise, try here: https://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded
$ cd stmhal $ make
You then need to get your board into DFU mode. On the pyboard, connect the 3V3 pin to the P1/DFU pin with a wire (on PYBv1.0 they are next to each other on the bottom left of the board, second row from the bottom).
Then to flash the code via USB DFU to your device:
$ make deploy
This will use the included
tools/pydfu.py script. If flashing the firmware
does not work it may be because you don't have the correct permissions, and
need to use
sudo make deploy.
See the README.md file in the stmhal/ directory for further details.