Adafruit IO Python Client Library
Python Makefile

README.md

adafruit-io

A Python client for use with io.adafruit.com. Compatible with both Python 2.7+ and Python 3.3+.

Installation

Easy Installation

If you have pip installed (typically with apt-get install python-pip on a Debian/Ubuntu-based system) then run:

sudo pip install adafruit-io

This will automatically install the Adafruit IO Python client code for your Python scripts to use. You might want to examine the examples folder in this GitHub repository to see examples of usage.

Manual Installation

Clone or download the contents of this repository. Then navigate to the folder in a terminal and run the following command:

sudo python setup.py install

(on Windows, and some linux-based boards such as the Yun, omit the sudo)

Raspberry Pi SSL Note

On a Raspberry Pi with Python 2.7.3 you might see warnings like:

InsecurePlatformWarning: A true SSLContext object is not available. This prevents urllib3 from configuring SSL appropriately and may cause certain SSL connections to fail. For more information, see https://urllib3.readthedocs.org/en/latest/security.html#insecureplatformwarning.

To remove this warning you can install better SSL support for Python by running these commands in a terminal

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y python-pip python-dev build-essential libffi-dev libssl-dev
sudo pip install requests[security]

Restart the Pi and you should see the warnings disappear.

Usage

You must have an Adafruit IO key to use this library and the Adafruit IO service. Your API key will be provided to the python library so it can authenticate your requests against the Adafruit IO service.

At a high level the Adafruit IO python client provides two interfaces to the service:

  • A thin wrapper around the REST-based API. This is good for simple request and response applications like logging data.

  • A MQTT client (based on paho-mqtt) which can publish and subscribe to feeds so it is immediately alerted of changes. This is good for applications which need to know when something has changed as quickly as possible.

To use either interface you'll first need to import the python client by adding an import such as the following at the top of your program:

from Adafruit_IO import *

Then a REST API client can be created with code like:

aio = Client('xxxxxxxxxxxx')

Where 'xxxxxxxxxxxx' is your Adafruit IO API key.

Alternatively an MQTT client can be created with code like:

mqtt = MQTTClient('xxxxxxxxxxxx')

Again where 'xxxxxxxxxxxx' is your Adafruit IO API key.

Your program can use either or both the REST API client and MQTT client, depending on your needs.

Error Handling

The python client library will raise an exception if it runs into an error it cannot handle. You should be prepared to catch explicit exceptions you know how to handle, or bubble them up to the user as an error. Adafruit IO exceptions generally are children of the base exception type AdafruitIOError.

Quickstart

Here's a short example of how to send a new value to a feed (creating the feed if it doesn't exist), and how to read the most recent value from the feed. This example uses the REST API.

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Send the value 100 to a feed called 'Foo'.
aio.send('Foo', 100)

# Retrieve the most recent value from the feed 'Foo'.
# Access the value by reading the `value` property on the returned Data object.
# Note that all values retrieved from IO are strings so you might need to convert
# them to an int or numeric type if you expect a number.
data = aio.receive('Foo')
print('Received value: {0}'.format(data.value))

If you want to be notified of feed changes immediately without polling, consider using the MQTT client. See the examples\mqtt_client.py for an example of using the MQTT client.

More Information

See the details below for more information about using the Adafruit IO python client. You can also print out the documentation on the client and classes by running:

pydoc Adafruit_IO.client
pydoc Adafruit_IO.mqtt_client
pydoc Adafruit_IO.model
pydoc Adafruit_IO.errors

Table of Contents

Feeds

Feeds are the core of the Adafruit IO system. The feed holds metadata about data that gets pushed, and you will have one feed for each type of data you send to the system. You can have separate feeds for each sensor in a project, or you can use one feed to contain JSON encoded data for all of your sensors.

Feed Creation

Create a feed by constructing a Feed instance with at least a name specified, and then pass it to the create_feed(feed) function:

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client, Feed
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Create Feed object with name 'Foo'.
feed = Feed(name='Foo')

# Send the Feed to IO to create.
# The returned object will contain all the details about the created feed.
result = aio.create_feed(feed)

Note that you can use the send function to create a feed and send it a new value in a single call. It's recommended that you use send instead of manually constructing feed instances.

Feed Retrieval

You can get a list of your feeds by using the feeds() method which will return a list of Feed instances:

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get list of feeds.
feeds = aio.feeds()

# Print out the feed names:
for f in feeds:
    print('Feed: {0}'.format(f.name))

Alternatively you can retrieve the metadata for a single feed by calling feeds(feed) and passing the name, ID, or key of a feed to retrieve:

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get feed 'Foo'
feed = aio.feeds('Foo')

# Print out the feed metadata.
print(feed)

Feed Updating

TODO: This is not tested in the python client yet, but calling create_feed with a Feed instance should update the feed.

Feed Deletion

You can delete a feed by ID, key, or name by calling delete_feed(feed). ALL data in the feed will be deleted after calling this API!

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Delete the feed with name 'Test'.
aio.delete_feed('Test')

Data

Data represents the data contained in feeds. You can read, add, modify, and delete data. There are also a few convenient methods for sending data to feeds and selecting certain pieces of data.

Data Creation

Data can be created after you create a feed, by using the create_data(feed, data) method and passing it a new Data instance a value. See also the send function for a simpler way to add a value to feed and create the feed in one call.

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client, Data
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Create a data item with value 10 in the 'Test' feed.
data = Data(value=10)
aio.create_data('Test', data)

Data Retrieval

You can get all of the data for a feed by using the data(feed) method. The result will be an array of all feed data, each returned as an instance of the Data class. Use the value property on each Data instance to get the data value, and remember values are always returned as strings (so you might need to convert to an int or number if you expect a numeric value).

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get an array of all data from feed 'Test'
data = aio.data('Test')

# Print out all the results.
for d in data:
    print('Data value: {0}'.format(d.value))

You can also get a specific value by ID by using the feeds(feed, data_id) method. This will return a single piece of feed data with the provided data ID if it exists in the feed. The returned object will be an instance of the Data class.

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get a specific value by id.
# This example assumes 1 is a valid data ID in the 'Test' feed
data = aio.feeds('Test', 1)

# Print the value.
print('Data value: {0}'.format(data.value))

Data Updating

TODO: This is not tested in the python client, but calling create_data with a Data instance should update it.

Data Deletion

Values can be deleted by using the delete(feed, data_id) method:

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Delete a data value from feed 'Test' with ID 1.
data = aio.delete('Test', 1)

Helper Methods

There are a few helper methods that can make interacting with data a bit easier.

Send

You can use the send(feed_name, value) method to append a new value to a feed in one call. If the specified feed does not exist it will automatically be created. This is the recommended way to send data to Adafruit IO from the Python REST client.

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Add the value 98.6 to the feed 'Temperature'.
aio.send('Temperature', 98.6)
Receive

You can get the last inserted value by using the receive(feed) method.

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get the last value of the temperature feed.
data = aio.receive('Test')

# Print the value and a message if it's over 100.  Notice that the value is
# converted from string to int because it always comes back as a string from IO.
temp = int(data.value)
print('Temperature: {0}'.format(temp))
if temp > 100:
    print 'Hot enough for you?'
Next

You can get the first inserted value that has not been processed (read) by using the receive_next(feed) method.

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get next unread value from feed 'Test'.
data = aio.receive_next('Test')

# Print the value.
print('Data value: {0}'.format(data.value))
Previous

You can get the last record that has been processed (read) by using the receive_previous(feed) method.

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get previous read value from feed 'Test'.
data = aio.receive_previous('Test')

# Print the value.
print('Data value: {0}'.format(data.value))

Publishing and Subscribing

You can get a readable stream of live data from your feed using the included MQTT client class.

TBD: Document using the MQTT client. For now see the examples\mqtt_client.py example which is fully documented with comments.

Groups

Groups allow you to update and retrieve multiple feeds with one request. You can add feeds to multiple groups.

Group Creation

TBD: Currently group creation doesn't work with the APIs. Groups must be created in the UI.

Group Retrieval

You can get a list of your groups by using the groups() method. This will return a list of Group instances. Each Group instance has metadata about the group, including a feeds property which is a tuple of all feeds in the group.

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get list of groups.
groups = aio.groups()

# Print the group names and number of feeds in the group.
for g in groups:
    print('Group {0} has {1} feed(s).'.format(g.name, len(g.feeds)))

You can also get a specific group by ID, key, or name by using the groups(group) method:

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Get group called 'GroupTest'.
group = aio.groups('GroupTest')

# Print the group name and number of feeds in the group.
print('Group {0} has {1} feed(s).'.format(group.name, len(group.feeds)))

Group Updating

TBD This is not tested in the python client yet, but calling create_group should update a group.

Group Deletion

You can delete a group by ID, key, or name by using the delete_group(group) method:

# Import library and create instance of REST client.
from Adafruit_IO import Client
aio = Client('YOUR ADAFRUIT IO KEY')

# Delete group called 'GroupTest'.
aio.delete_group('GroupTest')

Contributing

  1. Fork it ( http://github.com/adafruit/io-client-python/fork )
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

License

Copyright (c) 2014 Adafruit Industries. Licensed under the MIT license.