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making music with text

branch: master

Let's make music with text! We can use Csound to describe our music. Csound has so many fantastic sound generators. It's very efficient. But sometimes Csound is too low level. So many details: integer identifiers for instruments and arrays, should I use control rate or audio rate signals, lack of abstractions, no nested expressions and it has limited set of types. This library embeds Csound in Haskell. We can use powerful Csound's primitives and glue them together with Haskell abstractions. You can find a shord overview of the Csound and how it fits to the Haskell picture at the docs for the module Csound.Base then you can look at the directory examples (it's int the archive with source code).

Key principles

  • Keep it simple and compact.

  • Try to hide low level csound's wiring as much as we can (no ids for ftables, instruments, global variables).

  • Don't describe the whole csound in all it's generality but give the user some handy tools to play with sound.

  • No distinction between audio and control rates on the type level. Derive all rates from the context. If the user plugs signal to an opcode that expects an audio rate signal the argument is converted to the right rate.

  • Watch out for side-effects. There is a special type called SE. It functions as IO in Haskell.

  • Less typing, more music. Use short names for all types. Make library so that all expressions can be built without type annotations. Make it simple for the compiler to derive all types. Don't use complex type classes.

  • Make low level opcode definitions simple. Let user define his own opcodes (if they are missing).

  • Ensure that output signal is limited by amplitude. Csound can produce signals with HUGE amplitudes. Little typo can damage your ears and your speakers. In generated code all signals are clipped by 0dbfs value. 0dbfs is set to 1. Just as in Pure Data. So 1 is absolute maximum value for amplitude.

  • No dependency on Score-generation libraries. Score (or list of events) is represented with type class. You can use your favorite Score-generation library if you provide an instance for the CsdSco type class. Currently there is support for temporal-music-notation library (see temporal-csound package).

  • Remove score/instrument barrier. Let instrument play a score within a note and trigger other instruments.

  • Set Csound flags with meaningful (well-typed) values. Derive as much as you can from the context.

  • Composable guis. Interactive instruments should be easy to make.

Installation guide

Requirements (for Csound and Haskell users):

  • GHC - haskell compiler. This library uses GHC-specific features.

  • cabal-install to install haskell packages.

  • Csound compiler (version 5.13 or higher). You must get it installed on your system. Since we are going to generate the csound code we need to compile it to sound somehow. We can find out how to install the Csound here. To test whether csound is installed open the command line and type:

> csound

It should print a long message with version and available flags and libraries.

  • Good library for composition. Right now only one is supported (see temporal-csound package on hackage). It brings together temporal-music-notation and csound-expression packages. It's used to make the process of score-writing more convenient.

WARNING: the library works best within ghci. The real-time sound rendering function dac spawns a child process in the background which may continue to execute after you stop the main process that runs the programm. It's not so in vim but it happens in the Sublime Editor and when you invoke runhaskell. So the best is to write you program in the separate file and then load it in the ghci and invoke the function main (which runs the sound rendering with the function dac).

Tutorials and examples


I'd like to mention those who supported me a lot with their music and ideas:

  • music: entertainment for the braindead, ann's'annat & alizbar, toe, iamthemorning, atoms for piece / radiohead, loscil, boards of canada, Hozan Yamamoto, Tony Scott and Shinichi Yuize.

  • ideas: Conal Elliott, Oleg Kiselyov, Paul Hudak, Gabriel Gonzalez, Rich Hickey and Csound's community.

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