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simar7 and knqyf263 Add image subcommand (#493)
* config_test: Add missing assertions for TestNew

Signed-off-by: Simarpreet Singh <simar@linux.com>

* integration: Add integration tests for image subcommand.

Signed-off-by: Simarpreet Singh <simar@linux.com>

* refactor: bump up urfave/cli to v2.0

* refactor: apply DIY to image flags

* refactor: reorder sub commands

* feat: set hidden to global image options

* test(integration): insert --cache-dir before sub command

* README: update readme to reflect new usage

Signed-off-by: Simarpreet Singh <simar@linux.com>

* chore(README): add image subcommand

* fix(flags): define aliases according to urfave/cli v2.0 style

Co-authored-by: knqyf263 <knqyf263@gmail.com>
Latest commit 78b7529 May 25, 2020

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README.md

GitHub release CircleCI Go Report Card License: Apache-2.0 Docker image

A Simple and Comprehensive Vulnerability Scanner for Containers, Suitable for CI.

Table of Contents

Abstract

Trivy (tri pronounced like trigger, vy pronounced like envy) is a simple and comprehensive vulnerability scanner for containers. A software vulnerability is a glitch, flaw, or weakness present in the software or in an Operating System. Trivy detects vulnerabilities of OS packages (Alpine, RHEL, CentOS, etc.) and application dependencies (Bundler, Composer, npm, yarn etc.). Trivy is easy to use. Just install the binary and you're ready to scan. All you need to do for scanning is to specify an image name of the container.

It is considered to be used in CI. Before pushing to a container registry, you can scan your local container image easily. See here for details.

Features

  • Detect comprehensive vulnerabilities
    • OS packages (Alpine, Red Hat Universal Base Image, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Debian, Ubuntu, Amazon Linux, openSUSE Leap, SUSE Enterprise Linux, Photon OS and Distroless)
    • Application dependencies (Bundler, Composer, Pipenv, Poetry, npm, yarn and Cargo)
  • Simple
  • Fast
    • The first scan will finish within 10 seconds (depending on your network). Consequent scans will finish in single seconds.
    • Unlike other scanners that take long to fetch vulnerability information (~10 minutes) on the first run, and encourage you to maintain the a durable vulnerability database, Trivy is stateless and requires no maintenance or preparation.
  • Easy installation
    • apt-get install, yum install and brew install is possible (See Installation)
    • No pre-requisites such as installation of DB, libraries, etc. (The exception is that you need rpm installed to scan images based on RHEL/CentOS. This is automatically included if you use our installers or the Trivy container image. See Vulnerability Detection for background information.)
  • High accuracy
    • Especially Alpine Linux and RHEL/CentOS
    • Other OSes are also high
  • DevSecOps
    • Suitable for CI such as Travis CI, CircleCI, Jenkins, etc.
    • See CI Example
  • Support multiple formats
    • A local image in Docker Engine which is running as a daemon
    • A remote image in Docker Registry such as Docker Hub, ECR, GCR and ACR
    • A tar archive stored in the docker save formatted file
    • An image directory compliant with OCI Image Format

Please see LICENSE for Trivy licensing information. Note that Trivy uses vulnerability information from a variety of sources, some of which are licensed for non-commercial use only.

Installation

Replace {TRIVY_VERSION} with the latest released version of Trivy. You can find the latest releases on this page: https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy/releases

RHEL/CentOS

Add repository setting to /etc/yum.repos.d.

$ sudo vim /etc/yum.repos.d/trivy.repo
[trivy]
name=Trivy repository
baseurl=https://aquasecurity.github.io/trivy-repo/rpm/releases/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
$ sudo yum -y update
$ sudo yum -y install trivy

or

$ rpm -ivh https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/download/{TRIVY_VERSION}/trivy_{TRIVY_VERSION}_Linux-64bit.rpm

Debian/Ubuntu

Add repository to /etc/apt/sources.list.d.

$ sudo apt-get install wget apt-transport-https gnupg lsb-release
$ wget -qO - https://aquasecurity.github.io/trivy-repo/deb/public.key | sudo apt-key add -
$ echo deb https://aquasecurity.github.io/trivy-repo/deb $(lsb_release -sc) main | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/trivy.list
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install trivy

or

$ sudo apt-get install rpm
$ wget https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/download/{TRIVY_VERSION}/trivy_{TRIVY_VERSION}_Linux-64bit.deb
$ sudo dpkg -i trivy_{TRIVY_VERSION}_Linux-64bit.deb

Arch Linux

Package trivy-bin can be installed from the Arch User Repository. Examples:

pikaur -Sy trivy-bin

or

yay -Sy trivy-bin

Homebrew

You can use homebrew on macOS.

$ brew install aquasecurity/trivy/trivy

Binary

Get the latest version from this page, and download the archive file for your operating system/architecture. Unpack the archive, and put the binary somewhere in your $PATH (on UNIX-y systems, /usr/local/bin or the like). Make sure it has execution bits turned on.

You also need to install rpm command for scanning images based on RHEL/CentOS.

From source

$ mkdir -p $GOPATH/src/github.com/aquasecurity
$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/aquasecurity
$ git clone https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy
$ cd trivy/cmd/trivy/
$ export GO111MODULE=on
$ go install

You also need to install rpm command for scanning images based on RHEL/CentOS.

Quick Start

Simply specify an image name (and a tag). The latest tag should be avoided as problems occur with the image cache. See Clear image caches.

Basic

$ trivy image [YOUR_IMAGE_NAME]

For example:

$ trivy image python:3.4-alpine
Result
2019-05-16T01:20:43.180+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T01:20:53.029+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

Docker

Replace [YOUR_CACHE_DIR] with the cache directory on your machine.

$ docker run --rm -v [YOUR_CACHE_DIR]:/root/.cache/ aquasec/trivy [YOUR_IMAGE_NAME]

Example for macOS:

$ docker run --rm -v $HOME/Library/Caches:/root/.cache/ aquasec/trivy python:3.4-alpine

If you would like to scan the image on your host machine, you need to mount docker.sock.

$ docker run --rm -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock \
    -v $HOME/Library/Caches:/root/.cache/ aquasec/trivy python:3.4-alpine

Please re-pull latest aquasec/trivy if an error occurred.

Result
2019-05-16T01:20:43.180+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T01:20:53.029+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

Examples

Standalone

Scan an image

Simply specify an image name (and a tag).

$ trivy image knqyf263/vuln-image:1.2.3
Result
2019-05-16T12:58:55.967+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:59:03.150+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:03.156+0900    INFO    Updating bundler Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:04.941+0900    INFO    Detecting bundler vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:04.942+0900    INFO    Updating cargo Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:05.967+0900    INFO    Detecting cargo vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:05.967+0900    INFO    Updating composer Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:07.834+0900    INFO    Detecting composer vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:07.834+0900    INFO    Updating npm Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:10.285+0900    INFO    Detecting npm vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:10.285+0900    INFO    Updating pipenv Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:11.487+0900    INFO    Detecting pipenv vulnerabilities...

knqyf263/vuln-image:1.2.3 (alpine 3.7.1)
========================================
Total: 26 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 3, MEDIUM: 16, HIGH: 5, CRITICAL: 2)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |              TITLE               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| curl    | CVE-2018-14618   | CRITICAL | 7.61.0-r0         | 7.61.1-r0     | curl: NTLM password overflow     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via integer overflow             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16839   | HIGH     |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Integer overflow leading   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | to heap-based buffer overflow in |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Curl_sasl_create_plain_message() |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3822    |          |                   | 7.61.1-r2     | curl: NTLMv2 type-3 header       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | stack buffer overflow            |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16840   |          |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Use-after-free when        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | closing "easy" handle in         |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Curl_close()                     |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16842   | MEDIUM   |                   |               | curl: Heap-based buffer          |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | over-read in the curl tool       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | warning formatting               |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16890   |          |                   | 7.61.1-r2     | curl: NTLM type-2 heap           |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds buffer read        |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3823    |          |                   |               | curl: SMTP end-of-response       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds read               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| git     | CVE-2018-17456   | HIGH     | 2.15.2-r0         | 2.15.3-r0     | git: arbitrary code execution    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via .gitmodules                  |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-19486   |          |                   |               | git: Improper handling of        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | PATH allows for commands to be   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | executed from...                 |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| libssh2 | CVE-2019-3855    | CRITICAL | 1.8.0-r2          | 1.8.1-r0      | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | transport read resulting in      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out of bounds write...           |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3859    | MEDIUM   |                   |               | libssh2: Unchecked use of        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | _libssh2_packet_require and      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | _libssh2_packet_requirev         |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out-of-bounds       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | read                             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3858    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Zero-byte allocation    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with a specially crafted SFTP    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packed leading to an...          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3863    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | in user authenticate             |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | keyboard interactive allows      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds writes             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3862    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds memory    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | comparison with specially        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | crafted message channel          |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | request                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3860    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds reads     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with specially crafted SFTP      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packets                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3857    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | SSH packet processing channel    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out of...           |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3861    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds reads     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with specially crafted SSH       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packets                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3856    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | keyboard interactive handling    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out of bounds...    |
+---------+------------------+          +-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| libxml2 | CVE-2018-14567   |          | 2.9.7-r0          | 2.9.8-r1      | libxml2: Infinite loop when      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | --with-lzma is used allows for   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | denial of service...             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-14404   |          |                   |               | libxml2: NULL pointer            |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | dereference in                   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | xpath.c:xmlXPathCompOpEval()     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | can allow attackers to cause     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | a...                             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-9251    | LOW      |                   |               | libxml2: infinite loop in        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | xz_decomp function in xzlib.c    |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| openssh | CVE-2019-6109    | MEDIUM   | 7.5_p1-r9         | 7.5_p1-r10    | openssh: Missing character       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | encoding in progress display     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | allows for spoofing of scp...    |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-6111    |          |                   |               | openssh: Improper validation     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | of object names allows           |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | malicious server to overwrite    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | files...                         |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-20685   | LOW      |                   |               | openssh: scp client improper     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | directory name validation        |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| sqlite  | CVE-2018-20346   | MEDIUM   | 3.21.0-r1         | 3.25.3-r0     | sqlite: Multiple flaws in        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sqlite which can be triggered    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via corrupted internal...        |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| tar     | CVE-2018-20482   | LOW      | 1.29-r1           | 1.31-r0       | tar: Infinite read loop in       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sparse_dump_region function in   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sparse.c                         |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+

ruby-app/Gemfile.lock
=====================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+----------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
|       LIBRARY        | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+----------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| rails-html-sanitizer | CVE-2018-3741    | MEDIUM   | 1.0.3             | >= 1.0.4      | rubygem-rails-html-sanitizer:  |
|                      |                  |          |                   |               | non-whitelisted attributes     |
|                      |                  |          |                   |               | are present in sanitized       |
|                      |                  |          |                   |               | output when input with         |
|                      |                  |          |                   |               | specially-crafted...           |
+----------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

rust-app/Cargo.lock
===================
Total: 3 (UNKNOWN: 3, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 0, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+-------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID  | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+-------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| ammonia | RUSTSEC-2019-0001 | UNKNOWN  | 1.9.0             | >= 2.1.0      | Uncontrolled recursion leads   |
|         |                   |          |                   |               | to abort in HTML serialization |
+---------+-------------------+          +-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | RUSTSEC-2016-0001 |          | 0.8.3             | >= 0.9.0      | SSL/TLS MitM vulnerability due |
|         |                   |          |                   |               | to insecure defaults           |
+         +-------------------+          +                   +---------------+--------------------------------+
|         | RUSTSEC-2018-0010 |          |                   | >= 0.10.9     | Use after free in CMS Signing  |
+---------+-------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

php-app/composer.lock
=====================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+-------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------+
|      LIBRARY      | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION |    FIXED VERSION    |             TITLE              |
+-------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------+
| guzzlehttp/guzzle | CVE-2016-5385    | MEDIUM   | 6.2.0             | 6.2.1, 4.2.4, 5.3.1 | PHP: sets environmental        |
|                   |                  |          |                   |                     | variable based on user         |
|                   |                  |          |                   |                     | supplied Proxy request header  |
+-------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------+

node-app/package-lock.json
==========================
Total: 4 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 3, HIGH: 1, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| jquery  | CVE-2019-5428    | MEDIUM   | 3.3.9             | >=3.4.0       | Modification of                |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)  |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +--------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-11358   |          |                   |               | js-jquery: prototype pollution |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | in object's prototype leading  |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | to denial of service or...     |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| lodash  | CVE-2018-16487   | HIGH     | 4.17.4            | >=4.17.11     | lodash: Prototype pollution in |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | utilities function             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +---------------+                                +
|         | CVE-2018-3721    | MEDIUM   |                   | >=4.17.5      |                                |
|         |                  |          |                   |               |                                |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

python-app/Pipfile.lock
=======================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |               TITLE                |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
| django  | CVE-2019-6975    | MEDIUM   | 2.0.9             | 2.0.11        | python-django:                     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | memory exhaustion in               |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | django.utils.numberformat.format() |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+------------------------------------+

Scan an image file

$ docker save ruby:2.3.0-alpine3.9 -o ruby-2.3.0.tar
$ trivy image --input ruby-2.3.0.tar
Result
2019-05-16T12:45:57.332+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:45:59.119+0900    INFO    Detecting Debian vulnerabilities...

ruby-2.3.0.tar (debian 8.4)
===========================
Total: 7447 (UNKNOWN: 5, LOW: 326, MEDIUM: 5695, HIGH: 1316, CRITICAL: 105)

+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|           LIBRARY            |  VULNERABILITY ID   | SEVERITY |     INSTALLED VERSION      |          FIXED VERSION           |                        TITLE                        |
+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| apt                          | CVE-2019-3462       | CRITICAL | 1.0.9.8.3                  | 1.0.9.8.5                        | Incorrect sanitation of the                         |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | 302 redirect field in HTTP                          |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | transport method of...                              |
+                              +---------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-1252       | MEDIUM   |                            | 1.0.9.8.4                        | The apt package in Debian                           |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | jessie before 1.0.9.8.4, in                         |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | Debian unstable before...                           |
+                              +---------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2011-3374       | LOW      |                            |                                  |                                                     |
+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| bash                         | CVE-2016-7543       | HIGH     | 4.3-11                     | 4.3-11+deb8u1                    | bash: Specially crafted                             |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | SHELLOPTS+PS4 variables allows                      |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | command substitution                                |
+                              +---------------------+          +                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2019-9924       |          |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: BASH_CMD is writable in                       |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | restricted bash shells                              |
+                              +---------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-0634       | MEDIUM   |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u1                    | bash: Arbitrary code execution                      |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | via malicious hostname                              |
+                              +---------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-9401       | LOW      |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: popd controlled free                          |
+                              +---------------------+          +                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | TEMP-0841856-B18BAF |          |                            |                                  |                                                     |
+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------
...

Scan an OCI image

An image directory compliant with "Open Container Image Layout Specification".

Buildah:

$ buildah push docker.io/library/alpine:3.11 oci:/path/to/alpine
$ trivy image --input /path/to/alpine

Skopeo:

$ skopeo copy docker-daemon:alpine:3.11 oci:/path/to/alpine
$ trivy image --input /path/to/alpine

Save the results as JSON

$ trivy image -f json -o results.json golang:1.12-alpine
Result
2019-05-16T01:46:31.777+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T01:47:03.007+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...
JSON
[
  {
    "Target": "php-app/composer.lock",
    "Vulnerabilities": null
  },
  {
    "Target": "node-app/package-lock.json",
    "Vulnerabilities": [
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-16487",
        "PkgName": "lodash",
        "InstalledVersion": "4.17.4",
        "FixedVersion": "\u003e=4.17.11",
        "Title": "lodash: Prototype pollution in utilities function",
        "Description": "A prototype pollution vulnerability was found in lodash \u003c4.17.11 where the functions merge, mergeWith, and defaultsDeep can be tricked into adding or modifying properties of Object.prototype.",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2018-16487",
        ]
      }
    ]
  },
  {
    "Target": "trivy-ci-test (alpine 3.7.1)",
    "Vulnerabilities": [
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-16840",
        "PkgName": "curl",
        "InstalledVersion": "7.61.0-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "7.61.1-r1",
        "Title": "curl: Use-after-free when closing \"easy\" handle in Curl_close()",
        "Description": "A heap use-after-free flaw was found in curl versions from 7.59.0 through 7.61.1 in the code related to closing an easy handle. ",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2018-16840",
        ]
      },
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2019-3822",
        "PkgName": "curl",
        "InstalledVersion": "7.61.0-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "7.61.1-r2",
        "Title": "curl: NTLMv2 type-3 header stack buffer overflow",
        "Description": "libcurl versions from 7.36.0 to before 7.64.0 are vulnerable to a stack-based buffer overflow. ",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://curl.haxx.se/docs/CVE-2019-3822.html",
          "https://lists.apache.org/thread.html/8338a0f605bdbb3a6098bb76f666a95fc2b2f53f37fa1ecc89f1146f@%3Cdevnull.infra.apache.org%3E"
        ]
      },
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-16839",
        "PkgName": "curl",
        "InstalledVersion": "7.61.0-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "7.61.1-r1",
        "Title": "curl: Integer overflow leading to heap-based buffer overflow in Curl_sasl_create_plain_message()",
        "Description": "Curl versions 7.33.0 through 7.61.1 are vulnerable to a buffer overrun in the SASL authentication code that may lead to denial of service.",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://github.com/curl/curl/commit/f3a24d7916b9173c69a3e0ee790102993833d6c5",
        ]
      },
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-19486",
        "PkgName": "git",
        "InstalledVersion": "2.15.2-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "2.15.3-r0",
        "Title": "git: Improper handling of PATH allows for commands to be executed from the current directory",
        "Description": "Git before 2.19.2 on Linux and UNIX executes commands from the current working directory (as if '.' were at the end of $PATH) in certain cases involving the run_command() API and run-command.c, because there was a dangerous change from execvp to execv during 2017.",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://usn.ubuntu.com/3829-1/",
        ]
      },
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-17456",
        "PkgName": "git",
        "InstalledVersion": "2.15.2-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "2.15.3-r0",
        "Title": "git: arbitrary code execution via .gitmodules",
        "Description": "Git before 2.14.5, 2.15.x before 2.15.3, 2.16.x before 2.16.5, 2.17.x before 2.17.2, 2.18.x before 2.18.1, and 2.19.x before 2.19.1 allows remote code execution during processing of a recursive \"git clone\" of a superproject if a .gitmodules file has a URL field beginning with a '-' character.",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "http://www.securitytracker.com/id/1041811",
        ]
      }
    ]
  },
  {
    "Target": "python-app/Pipfile.lock",
    "Vulnerabilities": null
  },
  {
    "Target": "ruby-app/Gemfile.lock",
    "Vulnerabilities": null
  },
  {
    "Target": "rust-app/Cargo.lock",
    "Vulnerabilities": null
  }
]

Save the results using a template

$ trivy image --format template --template "{{ range . }} {{ .Target }} {{ end }}" golang:1.12-alpine
Result ``` 2020-01-02T18:02:32.856+0100 INFO Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities... golang:1.12-alpine (alpine 3.10.2) ```

You can load templates from a file prefixing the template path with an @.

$ trivy image --format template --template "@/path/to/template" golang:1.12-alpine

Filter the vulnerabilities by severities

$ trivy image --severity HIGH,CRITICAL ruby:2.4.0
Result
2019-05-16T01:51:46.255+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T01:51:49.213+0900    INFO    Detecting Debian vulnerabilities...

ruby:2.4.0 (debian 8.7)
=======================
Total: 1785 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 0, HIGH: 1680, CRITICAL: 105)

+-----------------------------+------------------+----------+---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|           LIBRARY           | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY |     INSTALLED VERSION     |          FIXED VERSION           |                      TITLE                      |
+-----------------------------+------------------+----------+---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| apt                         | CVE-2019-3462    | CRITICAL | 1.0.9.8.3                 | 1.0.9.8.5                        | Incorrect sanitation of the                     |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | 302 redirect field in HTTP                      |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | transport method of...                          |
+-----------------------------+------------------+----------+---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| bash                        | CVE-2019-9924    | HIGH     | 4.3-11                    | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: BASH_CMD is writable in                   |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | restricted bash shells                          |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2016-7543    |          |                           | 4.3-11+deb8u1                    | bash: Specially crafted                         |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | SHELLOPTS+PS4 variables allows                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | command substitution                            |
+-----------------------------+------------------+          +---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| binutils                    | CVE-2017-8421    |          | 2.25-5                    |                                  | binutils: Memory exhaustion in                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | objdump via a crafted PE file                   |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2017-14930   |          |                           |                                  | binutils: Memory leak in                        |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | decode_line_info                                |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2017-7614    |          |                           |                                  | binutils: NULL                                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | pointer dereference in                          |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | bfd_elf_final_link function                     |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2014-9939    |          |                           |                                  | binutils: buffer overflow in                    |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | ihex.c                                          |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2017-13716   |          |                           |                                  | binutils: Memory leak with the                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | C++ symbol demangler routine                    |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | in libiberty                                    |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2018-12699   |          |                           |                                  | binutils: heap-based buffer                     |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | overflow in finish_stab in                      |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | stabs.c                                         |
+-----------------------------+------------------+          +---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| bsdutils                    | CVE-2015-5224    |          | 2.25.2-6                  |                                  | util-linux: File name                           |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | collision due to incorrect                      |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | mkstemp use                                     |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2016-2779    |          |                           |                                  | util-linux: runuser tty hijack                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | via TIOCSTI ioctl                               |
+-----------------------------+------------------+----------+---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+

Filter the vulnerabilities by type

$ trivy image --vuln-type os ruby:2.4.0

Available values:

  • library
  • os
Result
2019-05-22T19:36:50.530+0200    �[34mINFO�[0m    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-22T19:36:51.681+0200    �[34mINFO�[0m    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...
2019-05-22T19:36:51.685+0200    �[34mINFO�[0m    Updating npm Security DB...
2019-05-22T19:36:52.389+0200    �[34mINFO�[0m    Detecting npm vulnerabilities...
2019-05-22T19:36:52.390+0200    �[34mINFO�[0m    Updating pipenv Security DB...
2019-05-22T19:36:53.406+0200    �[34mINFO�[0m    Detecting pipenv vulnerabilities...

ruby:2.4.0 (debian 8.7)
Total: 4751 (UNKNOWN: 1, LOW: 150, MEDIUM: 3504, HIGH: 1013, CRITICAL: 83)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |              TITLE               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| curl    | CVE-2018-14618   | CRITICAL | 7.61.0-r0         | 7.61.1-r0     | curl: NTLM password overflow     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via integer overflow             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16839   | HIGH     |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Integer overflow leading   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | to heap-based buffer overflow in |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Curl_sasl_create_plain_message() |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3822    |          |                   | 7.61.1-r2     | curl: NTLMv2 type-3 header       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | stack buffer overflow            |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16840   |          |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Use-after-free when        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | closing "easy" handle in         |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Curl_close()                     |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3823    | MEDIUM   |                   | 7.61.1-r2     | curl: SMTP end-of-response       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds read               |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16890   |          |                   |               | curl: NTLM type-2 heap           |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds buffer read        |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16842   |          |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Heap-based buffer          |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | over-read in the curl tool       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | warning formatting               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| git     | CVE-2018-17456   | HIGH     | 2.15.2-r0         | 2.15.3-r0     | git: arbitrary code execution    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via .gitmodules                  |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-19486   |          |                   |               | git: Improper handling of        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | PATH allows for commands to be   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | executed from...                 |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| libssh2 | CVE-2019-3855    | CRITICAL | 1.8.0-r2          | 1.8.1-r0      | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | transport read resulting in      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out of bounds write...           |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3861    | MEDIUM   |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds reads     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with specially crafted SSH       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packets                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3857    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | SSH packet processing channel    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out of...           |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3856    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | keyboard interactive handling    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out of bounds...    |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3863    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | in user authenticate             |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | keyboard interactive allows      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds writes             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3862    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds memory    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | comparison with specially        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | crafted message channel          |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | request                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3860    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds reads     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with specially crafted SFTP      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packets                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3858    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Zero-byte allocation    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with a specially crafted SFTP    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packed leading to an...          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3859    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Unchecked use of        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | _libssh2_packet_require and      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | _libssh2_packet_requirev         |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out-of-bounds       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | read                             |
+---------+------------------+          +-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| libxml2 | CVE-2018-14404   |          | 2.9.7-r0          | 2.9.8-r1      | libxml2: NULL pointer            |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | dereference in                   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | xpath.c:xmlXPathCompOpEval()     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | can allow attackers to cause     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | a...                             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-14567   |          |                   |               | libxml2: Infinite loop when      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | --with-lzma is used allows for   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | denial of service...             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-9251    | LOW      |                   |               | libxml2: infinite loop in        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | xz_decomp function in xzlib.c    |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| openssh | CVE-2019-6109    | MEDIUM   | 7.5_p1-r9         | 7.5_p1-r10    | openssh: Missing character       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | encoding in progress display     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | allows for spoofing of scp...    |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-6111    |          |                   |               | openssh: Improper validation     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | of object names allows           |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | malicious server to overwrite    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | files...                         |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-20685   | LOW      |                   |               | openssh: scp client improper     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | directory name validation        |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| sqlite  | CVE-2018-20346   | MEDIUM   | 3.21.0-r1         | 3.25.3-r0     | CVE-2018-20505 CVE-2018-20506    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sqlite: Multiple flaws in        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sqlite which can be triggered    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via...                           |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| tar     | CVE-2018-20482   | LOW      | 1.29-r1           | 1.31-r0       | tar: Infinite read loop in       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sparse_dump_region function in   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sparse.c                         |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+

Skip update of vulnerability DB

Trivy always updates its vulnerability database when it starts operating. This is usually fast, as it is a difference update. But if you want to skip even that, use the --skip-update option.

$ trivy image --skip-update python:3.4-alpine3.9
Result
2019-05-16T12:48:08.703+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

Only download vulnerability database

You can also ask Trivy to simply retrieve the vulnerability database. This is useful to initialize workers in Continuous Integration systems.

$ trivy image --download-db-only

Ignore unfixed vulnerabilities

By default, Trivy also detects unpatched/unfixed vulnerabilities. This means you can't fix these vulnerabilities even if you update all packages. If you would like to ignore them, use the --ignore-unfixed option.

$ trivy image --ignore-unfixed ruby:2.4.0
Result
2019-05-16T12:49:52.656+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:50:14.786+0900    INFO    Detecting Debian vulnerabilities...

ruby:2.4.0 (debian 8.7)
=======================
Total: 4730 (UNKNOWN: 1, LOW: 145, MEDIUM: 3487, HIGH: 1014, CRITICAL: 83)

+------------------------------+------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|           LIBRARY            | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY |     INSTALLED VERSION      |          FIXED VERSION           |                        TITLE                        |
+------------------------------+------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| apt                          | CVE-2019-3462    | CRITICAL | 1.0.9.8.3                  | 1.0.9.8.5                        | Incorrect sanitation of the                         |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | 302 redirect field in HTTP                          |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | transport method of...                              |
+                              +------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-1252    | MEDIUM   |                            | 1.0.9.8.4                        | The apt package in Debian                           |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | jessie before 1.0.9.8.4, in                         |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | Debian unstable before...                           |
+------------------------------+------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| bash                         | CVE-2019-9924    | HIGH     | 4.3-11                     | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: BASH_CMD is writable in                       |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | restricted bash shells                              |
+                              +------------------+          +                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-7543    |          |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u1                    | bash: Specially crafted                             |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | SHELLOPTS+PS4 variables allows                      |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | command substitution                                |
+                              +------------------+----------+                            +                                  +-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-0634    | MEDIUM   |                            |                                  | bash: Arbitrary code execution                      |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | via malicious hostname                              |
+                              +------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-9401    | LOW      |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: popd controlled free                          |
+------------------------------+------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
...

Specify exit code

By default, Trivy exits with code 0 even when vulnerabilities are detected. Use the --exit-code option if you want to exit with a non-zero exit code.

$ trivy image --exit-code 1 python:3.4-alpine3.9
Result
2019-05-16T12:51:43.500+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:52:00.387+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

This option is useful for CI/CD. In the following example, the test will fail only when a critical vulnerability is found.

$ trivy image --exit-code 0 --severity MEDIUM,HIGH ruby:2.4.0
$ trivy image --exit-code 1 --severity CRITICAL ruby:2.4.0

Ignore the specified vulnerabilities

Use .trivyignore.

$ cat .trivyignore
# Accept the risk
CVE-2018-14618

# No impact in our settings
CVE-2019-1543

$ trivy image python:3.4-alpine3.9
Result
2019-05-16T12:53:10.076+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:53:28.134+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 0 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 0, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

Specify cache directory

$ trivy --cache-dir /tmp/trivy/ image python:3.4-alpine3.9

Clear image caches

The --clear-cache option removes image caches. This option is useful if the image which has the same tag is updated (such as when using latest tag).

The scan is not performed.

$ trivy image --clear-cache
Result
2019-11-15T15:13:26.209+0200    INFO    Reopening vulnerability DB
2019-11-15T15:13:26.209+0200    INFO    Removing image caches...

Reset

The --reset option removes all caches and database. After this, it takes a long time as the vulnerability database needs to be rebuilt locally.

$ trivy image --reset
Result
2019-05-16T13:05:31.935+0900    INFO    Resetting...

Use lightweight DB

The lightweight DB doesn't contain vulnerability detail such as descriptions and references. Because of that, the size of the DB is smaller and the download is faster.

This option is useful when you don't need vulnerability details and is suitable for CI/CD. To find the additional information, you can search vulnerability details on the NVD website. https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/search

$ trivy image --light alpine:3.10

--light option doesn't display titles like the following example.

Result
2019-11-14T10:21:01.553+0200    INFO    Reopening vulnerability DB
2019-11-14T10:21:02.574+0200    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

alpine:3.10 (alpine 3.10.2)
===========================
Total: 3 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 1, MEDIUM: 2, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1549    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1c-r0         | 1.1.1d-r0     |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +
|         | CVE-2019-1563    |          |                   |               |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +
|         | CVE-2019-1547    | LOW      |                   |               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+

Client / Server

Trivy has client/server mode. Trivy server has vulnerability database and Trivy client doesn't have to download vulnerability database. It is useful if you want to scan images at multiple locations and do not want to download the database at every location.

Server

At first, you need to launch Trivy server. It downloads vulnerability database automatically and continue to fetch the latest DB in the background.

$ trivy server --listen localhost:8080
2019-12-12T15:17:06.551+0200    INFO    Need to update DB
2019-12-12T15:17:56.706+0200    INFO    Reopening DB...
2019-12-12T15:17:56.707+0200    INFO    Listening localhost:8080...

If you want to accept a connection from outside, you have to specify 0.0.0.0 or your ip address, not localhost.

$ trivy server --listen 0.0.0.0:8080

Client

Then, specify the remote address.

$ trivy client --remote http://localhost:8080 alpine:3.10
Result
alpine:3.10 (alpine 3.10.2)
===========================
Total: 3 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 1, MEDIUM: 2, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1549    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1c-r0         | 1.1.1d-r0     |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +
|         | CVE-2019-1563    |          |                   |               |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +
|         | CVE-2019-1547    | LOW      |                   |               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+

Authentication

$ trivy server --listen localhost:8080 --token dummy
$ trivy client --remote http://localhost:8080 --token dummy alpine:3.10

Deprecated options

--only-update, --refresh and --auto-refresh are deprecated since they are unnecessary now. These options will be removed at the next version

Continuous Integration (CI)

Scan your image built in Travis CI/CircleCI. The test will fail if a vulnerability is found. When you don't want to fail the test, specify --exit-code 0 .

Since in automated scenarios such as CI/CD you only interested in the end result, and not the full report, use the --light flag to optimize for this scenario and get fast results.

Travis CI

$ cat .travis.yml
services:
  - docker

env:
  global:
    - COMMIT=${TRAVIS_COMMIT::8}

before_install:
  - docker build -t trivy-ci-test:${COMMIT} .
  - export VERSION=$(curl --silent "https://api.github.com/repos/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/latest" | grep '"tag_name":' | sed -E 's/.*"v([^"]+)".*/\1/')
  - wget https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/download/v${VERSION}/trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
  - tar zxvf trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
script:
  - ./trivy --exit-code 0 --severity HIGH --no-progress trivy-ci-test:${COMMIT}
  - ./trivy --exit-code 1 --severity CRITICAL --no-progress trivy-ci-test:${COMMIT}
cache:
  directories:
    - $HOME/.cache/trivy

Example: https://travis-ci.org/aquasecurity/trivy-ci-test Repository: https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy-ci-test

CircleCI

$ cat .circleci/config.yml
jobs:
  build:
    docker:
      - image: docker:stable-git
    steps:
      - checkout
      - setup_remote_docker
      - run:
          name: Build image
          command: docker build -t trivy-ci-test:${CIRCLE_SHA1} .
      - run:
          name: Install trivy
          command: |
            apk add --update-cache --upgrade curl rpm
            VERSION=$(
                curl --silent "https://api.github.com/repos/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/latest" | \
                grep '"tag_name":' | \
                sed -E 's/.*"v([^"]+)".*/\1/'
            )

            wget https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/download/v${VERSION}/trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
            tar zxvf trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
            mv trivy /usr/local/bin
      - run:
          name: Scan the local image with trivy
          command: trivy --exit-code 0 --no-progress trivy-ci-test:${CIRCLE_SHA1}
workflows:
  version: 2
  release:
    jobs:
      - build

Example: https://circleci.com/gh/aquasecurity/trivy-ci-test Repository: https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy-ci-test

GitLab CI

$ cat .gitlab-ci.yml
stages:
  - test

trivy:
  stage: test
  image: docker:stable
  services:
    - name: docker:dind
      entrypoint: ["env", "-u", "DOCKER_HOST"]
      command: ["dockerd-entrypoint.sh"]
  variables:
    DOCKER_HOST: tcp://docker:2375/
    DOCKER_DRIVER: overlay2
    # See https://github.com/docker-library/docker/pull/166
    DOCKER_TLS_CERTDIR: ""
    IMAGE: trivy-ci-test:$CI_COMMIT_SHA
  before_script:
    - apk add --no-cache curl
    - export VERSION=$(curl --silent "https://api.github.com/repos/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/latest" | grep '"tag_name":' | sed -E 's/.*"v([^"]+)".*/\1/')
    - echo $VERSION
    - wget https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/download/v${VERSION}/trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
    - tar zxvf trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
  allow_failure: true
  script:
    # Build image
    - docker build -t $IMAGE .
    # Build report
    - ./trivy --exit-code 0 --cache-dir .trivycache/ --no-progress --format template --template "@contrib/gitlab.tpl" -o gl-container-scanning-report.json $IMAGE
    # Print report
    - ./trivy --exit-code 0 --cache-dir .trivycache/ --no-progress --severity HIGH $IMAGE
    # Fail on high and critical vulnerabilities
    - ./trivy --exit-code 1 --cache-dir .trivycache/ --severity CRITICAL --no-progress $IMAGE
  cache:
    paths:
      - .trivycache/
  # Enables https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/user/application_security/container_scanning/ (Container Scanning report is available on GitLab EE Ultimate or GitLab.com Gold)
  artifacts:
    reports:
      container_scanning: gl-container-scanning-report.json

Authorization for Private Docker Registry

Trivy can download images from a private registry, without installing Docker or any other 3rd party tools. That's because it's easy to run in a CI process.

All you have to do is install Trivy and set ENV vars. But, I can't recommend using ENV vars in your local machine to you.

Docker Hub

Docker Hub needs TRIVY_AUTH_URL, TRIVY_USERNAME and TRIVY_PASSWORD. You don't need to set ENV vars when download from public repository.

export TRIVY_AUTH_URL=https://registry.hub.docker.com
export TRIVY_USERNAME={DOCKERHUB_USERNAME}
export TRIVY_PASSWORD={DOCKERHUB_PASSWORD}

Amazon ECR (Elastic Container Registry)

Trivy uses AWS SDK. You don't need to install aws CLI tool. You can use AWS CLI's ENV Vars.

GCR (Google Container Registry)

Trivy uses Google Cloud SDK. You don't need to install gcloud command.

If you want to use target project's repository, you can settle via GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL.

# must set TRIVY_USERNAME empty char
export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS=/path/to/credential.json

Self Hosted Registry (BasicAuth)

BasicAuth server needs TRIVY_USERNAME and TRIVY_PASSWORD.

export TRIVY_USERNAME={USERNAME}
export TRIVY_PASSWORD={PASSWORD}

# if you want to use 80 port, use NonSSL
export TRIVY_NON_SSL=true

Vulnerability Detection

OS Packages

The unfixed/unfixable vulnerabilities mean that the patch has not yet been provided on their distribution. Trivy doesn't support self-compiled packages/binaries, but official packages provided by vendors such as Red Hat and Debian.

OS Supported Versions Target Packages Detection of unfixed vulnerabilities
Alpine Linux 2.2 - 2.7, 3.0 - 3.11 Installed by apk NO
Red Hat Universal Base Image 7, 8 Installed by yum/rpm YES
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, 7, 8 Installed by yum/rpm YES
CentOS 6, 7 Installed by yum/rpm YES
Oracle Linux 5, 6, 7, 8 Installed by yum/rpm NO
Amazon Linux 1, 2 Installed by yum/rpm NO
openSUSE Leap 42, 15 Installed by zypper/rpm NO
SUSE Enterprise Linux 11, 12, 15 Installed by zypper/rpm NO
Photon OS 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 Installed by tdnf/yum/rpm NO
Debian GNU/Linux wheezy, jessie, stretch, buster Installed by apt/apt-get/dpkg YES
Ubuntu 12.04, 14.04, 16.04, 18.04, 18.10, 19.04 Installed by apt/apt-get/dpkg YES
Distroless Any Installed by apt/apt-get/dpkg YES

RHEL, CentOS, Oracle Linux, SUSE, Amazon Linux and Photon OS package information is stored in a binary format, and Trivy uses the rpm executable to parse this information when scanning an image based on RHEL or CentOS. The Trivy container image includes rpm, and the installers include it as a dependency. If you installed the trivy binary using wget or curl, or if you build it from source, you will also need to ensure that rpm is available.

Distroless: https://github.com/GoogleContainerTools/distroless

Application Dependencies

Trivy automatically detects the following files in the container and scans vulnerabilities in the application dependencies.

  • Gemfile.lock
  • Pipfile.lock
  • poetry.lock
  • composer.lock
  • package-lock.json
  • yarn.lock
  • Cargo.lock

The path of these files does not matter.

Example: https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy-ci-test/blob/master/Dockerfile

Image Tar format

Trivy scans a tar image with the following format.

Data source

Usage

Standalone

NAME:
   trivy - A simple and comprehensive vulnerability scanner for containers
  USAGE:
   trivy image [options] image_name
  VERSION:
   v0.7.0
  OPTIONS:
   --quiet            suppress progress bar and log output (default: false) [$TRIVY_QUIET]
   --debug            debug mode (default: false) [$TRIVY_DEBUG]
   --cache-dir value  cache directory (default: "/Users/simar/Library/Caches/trivy") [$TRIVY_CACHE_DIR]
   --help, -h         show help (default: false)
   --version, -v      print the version (default: false)

Sub commands

Trivy has three sub commands, image, client and server.

NAME:
   trivy image - scan an image

USAGE:
   trivy image [command options] [arguments...]

OPTIONS:
   --template value    output template [$TRIVY_TEMPLATE]
   --format value      format (table, json, template) (default: "table") [$TRIVY_FORMAT]
   --input value       input file path instead of image name [$TRIVY_INPUT]
   --severity value    severities of vulnerabilities to be displayed (comma separated) (default: "UNKNOWN,LOW,MEDIUM,HIGH,CRITICAL") [$TRIVY_SEVERITY]
   --output value      output file name [$TRIVY_OUTPUT]
   --exit-code value   Exit code when vulnerabilities were found (default: 0) [$TRIVY_EXIT_CODE]
   --skip-update       skip db update (default: false) [$TRIVY_SKIP_UPDATE]
   --download-db-only  download/update vulnerability database but don't run a scan (default: false) [$TRIVY_DOWNLOAD_DB_ONLY]
   --reset             remove all caches and database (default: false) [$TRIVY_RESET]
   --clear-cache       clear image caches without scanning (default: false) [$TRIVY_CLEAR_CACHE]
   --no-progress       suppress progress bar (default: false) [$TRIVY_NO_PROGRESS]
   --ignore-unfixed    display only fixed vulnerabilities (default: false) [$TRIVY_IGNORE_UNFIXED]
   --removed-pkgs      detect vulnerabilities of removed packages (only for Alpine) (default: false) [$TRIVY_REMOVED_PKGS]
   --vuln-type value   comma-separated list of vulnerability types (os,library) (default: "os,library") [$TRIVY_VULN_TYPE]
   --ignorefile value  specify .trivyignore file (default: ".trivyignore") [$TRIVY_IGNOREFILE]
   --timeout value     docker timeout (default: 2m0s) [$TRIVY_TIMEOUT]
   --light             light mode: it's faster, but vulnerability descriptions and references are not displayed (default: false) [$TRIVY_LIGHT]
   --help, -h          show help (default: false)
NAME:
   trivy client - client mode

USAGE:
   trivy client [command options] [arguments...]

OPTIONS:
   --template value, -t value  output template [$TRIVY_TEMPLATE]
   --format value, -f value    format (table, json, template) (default: "table") [$TRIVY_FORMAT]
   --input value, -i value     input file path instead of image name [$TRIVY_INPUT]
   --severity value, -s value  severities of vulnerabilities to be displayed (comma separated) (default: "UNKNOWN,LOW,MEDIUM,HIGH,CRITICAL") [$TRIVY_SEVERITY]
   --output value, -o value    output file name [$TRIVY_OUTPUT]
   --exit-code value           Exit code when vulnerabilities were found (default: 0) [$TRIVY_EXIT_CODE]
   --clear-cache, -c           clear image caches without scanning [$TRIVY_CLEAR_CACHE]
   --quiet, -q                 suppress progress bar and log output [$TRIVY_QUIET]
   --ignore-unfixed            display only fixed vulnerabilities [$TRIVY_IGNORE_UNFIXED]
   --debug, -d                 debug mode [$TRIVY_DEBUG]
   --vuln-type value           comma-separated list of vulnerability types (os,library) (default: "os,library") [$TRIVY_VULN_TYPE]
   --ignorefile value          specify .trivyignore file (default: ".trivyignore") [$TRIVY_IGNOREFILE]
   --cache-dir value           use as cache directory, but image cache is stored in /path/to/cache/fanal (default: "/Users/teppei/Library/Caches/trivy") [$TRIVY_CACHE_DIR]
   --timeout value             docker timeout (default: 1m0s) [$TRIVY_TIMEOUT]
   --token value               for authentication [$TRIVY_TOKEN]
   --remote value              server address (default: "http://localhost:4954") [$TRIVY_REMOTE]
NAME:
   trivy server - server mode

USAGE:
   trivy server [command options] [arguments...]

OPTIONS:
   --skip-update       skip db update [$TRIVY_SKIP_UPDATE]
   --download-db-only  download/update vulnerability database but don't run a scan [$TRIVY_DOWNLOAD_DB_ONLY]
   --reset             remove all caches and database [$TRIVY_RESET]
   --quiet, -q         suppress progress bar and log output [$TRIVY_QUIET]
   --debug, -d         debug mode [$TRIVY_DEBUG]
   --cache-dir value   use as cache directory, but image cache is stored in /path/to/cache/fanal (default: "/Users/teppei/Library/Caches/trivy") [$TRIVY_CACHE_DIR]
   --token value       for authentication [$TRIVY_TOKEN]
   --listen value      listen address (default: "localhost:4954") [$TRIVY_LISTEN]

Comparison with other scanners

Overview

Scanner OS
Packages
Application
Dependencies
Easy to use Accuracy Suitable
for CI
Trivy
Clair ×
Anchore Engine
Quay × ×
MicroScanner ×
Docker Hub × × ×
GCR × ×

vs Clair

Clair uses alpine-secdb. However, the purpose of this database is to make it possible to know what packages has backported fixes. As README says, it is not a complete database of all security issues in Alpine.

Trivy collects vulnerability information in Alpine Linux from Alpine Linux aports repository. Then, those vulnerabilities will be saved on vuln-list.

alpine-secdb has 6959 vulnerabilities (as of 2019/05/12). vuln-list has 11101 vulnerabilities related to Alpine Linux (as of 2019/05/12). There is a difference in detection accuracy because the number of vulnerabilities is nearly doubled.

In addition, Trivy analyzes the middle layers as well to find out which version of the library was used for static linking.

Clair can not handle the following cases because it analyzes the image after applying all layers.

RUN apk add --no-cache sqlite-dev \
 && wget https://xxx/yyy.tar.gz \
 && tar zxvf yyy.tar.gz && cd yyy \
 && make && make install \
 && apk del sqlite-dev

And as many people know, it is difficult to select a Clair client because many clients are deprecated.

Trivy is a stand-alone tool and can scan very fast. This means it's very easy to use in CI/CD.

Finally, Trivy can also detect vulnerabilities in application dependent libraries such as Bundler, Composer, Pipenv, etc.

vs Anchore Engine

Similar to Clair, there is a difference in detection accuracy on Alpine Linux. Then, as noted above, Anchore Engine does not detect unfixable vulnerabilities on RHEL/CentOS, whereas Trivy does.

Also, Anchore Engine needs some steps to start scanning. Trivy is much easier to use.

vs Quay, Docker Hub, GCR

As Quay uses Clair internally, it has the same accuracy as Clair. Docker Hub can scan only official images. GCR hardly detects vulnerabilities on Alpine Linux. Also, it is locked to a specific registry.

Trivy can be used regardless of the registry, and it is easily integrated with CI/CD services.

Migration

On 19 August 2019, Trivy's repositories moved from knqyf263/trivy to aquasecurity/trivy. If you previously installed Trivy you should update any scripts or package manager records as described in this section.

Overview

If you have a script that installs Trivy (for example into your CI pipelines) you should update it to obtain it from the new location by replacing knqyf263/trivy with aquasecurity/trivy.

For example:

# Before
$ wget https://github.com/knqyf263/trivy/releases/download/v${VERSION}/trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz

# After
$ wget https://github.com/aquasecurity/trivy/releases/download/v${VERSION}/trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz

CentOS/RedHat

Use https://aquasecurity.github.io instead of https://knqyf263.github.io.

$ yum remove trivy
$ sed -i s/knqyf263/aquasecurity/g /etc/yum.repos.d/trivy.repo
$ yum update
$ yum install trivy

Debian/Ubuntu

Use https://aquasecurity.github.io instead of https://knqyf263.github.io.

$ apt-get remove --purge trivy
$ sed -i s/knqyf263/aquasecurity/g /etc/apt/sources.list.d/trivy.list
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install trivy

Homebrew

Tap aquasecurity/trivy

$ brew uninstall --force trivy
$ brew untap knqyf263/trivy
$ brew install aquasecurity/trivy/trivy

Binary

No need to fix.

Q&A

Homebrew

Error: Your macOS keychain GitHub credentials do not have sufficient scope!

$ brew tap aquasecurity/trivy
Error: Your macOS keychain GitHub credentials do not have sufficient scope!
Scopes they need: none
Scopes they have:
Create a personal access token:
https://github.com/settings/tokens/new?scopes=gist,public_repo&description=Homebrew
echo 'export HOMEBREW_GITHUB_API_TOKEN=your_token_here' >> ~/.zshrc

Try:

$ printf "protocol=https\nhost=github.com\n" | git credential-osxkeychain erase

Error: aquasecurity/trivy/trivy 64 already installed

$ brew upgrade
...
Error: aquasecurity/trivy/trivy 64 already installed

Try:

$ brew unlink trivy && brew uninstall trivy
($ rm -rf /usr/local/Cellar/trivy/64)
$ brew install aquasecurity/trivy/trivy

Others

GitHub Rate limiting

Specify GITHUB_TOKEN for authentication https://developer.github.com/v3/#rate-limiting

$ GITHUB_TOKEN=XXXXXXXXXX trivy alpine:3.10

Unknown error

Try again with --reset option:

$ trivy image --reset

Related Projects

  • Remic
    • Vulnerability Scanner for Detecting Publicly Disclosed Vulnerabilities in Application Dependencies

Credits

Author

Teppei Fukuda (knqyf263)

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