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RDAP Bootstrap Server

The Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) defines a bootstrapping process in RFC 7484. A bootstrap server aids clients by reading the bootstrapping information published by IANA and using it to send HTTP redirects to RDAP queries. Clients utilizing a bootstrap server will not need to conduct their own bootstrapping.

Versioning, Building, and Runtime Requirements

Any version containing the word SNAPSHOT is a development version. Versions are:

  • 1000.0-SNAPSHOT reflects the master branch development version. It is set high at a major version number of 1000 so that the master branch is not re-versioned for every release.
  • 1.0.0 - First release. At the time of this release, the IANA bootstrap files are available but contain no usable content, and the embedded bootstrap files point to our best known locations for servers. Minor point release may occur to update the embedded files until the IANA files become populated with useful data.
  • 1.1.0 - A few small things:
    • IANA and AFRINIC have been taken out of the bootstrap files as they do not have servers ready yet.
    • /help now works instead of giving a 500.
    • /help shows the dates of load and dates of the bootstrap files.
    • /help limits the URLs in the statistics to 100 per category.
  • 1.1.1 - Bugfixes to /help and to parsing of IANA files.
  • 1.2.0 - Added match_scheme_on_redirect option.
  • 1.2.1 - Fix to using IANA bootstrapping files according to current RFCs.
  • 2.0.1
    • Upgraded to build against Java 11 or higher.
    • Fixed IPv6 redirection for non-existent space.
    • Updated the default bootstrap files to the latest IANA files.
    • Can run as a Spring Boot application.
    • Can build a Docker image.
    • A built-in timer to download IANA files.
    • A new rdap_bootstrap_checker script to check the correctness of an RDAP Bootstrap service as per RFC 7484.

This server is written as a Java servlet and should run in any Java Servlet 3.0 container or higher, as a Spring Boot application, or as a Docker container. It should build against Java 11 or higher.

To build using Gradle:

./gradlew clean build test

This will produce a WAR file in build/libs after running the unit tests. The WAR can be directly run from the command line using either the java command or the Gradle bootRun command:

java -jar build/libs/rdap_bootstrap_server-1000.0-SNAPSHOT.war
./gradlew bootRun

Beside a WAR, build a JAR using the Gradle bootJar task and run it using the java command:

./gradlew bootJar
java -jar build/libs/rdap_bootstrap_server-1000.0-SNAPSHOT.jar

System properties can be passed in as -D options and/or environment variables.

Deploying and Testing

Deploying the WAR file depends on the Servlet container/server you are using. It is usually as simple as copying the WAR file to a particular directory. The WAR file comes bundled with some bootstrap files so testing can take place before fully configuring the bootstrap.

The URL path for querying the servlet will depend on your Servlet container and the configuration you have given to the container for this servlet. It defaults to /rdapbootstrap.

To test the bootstrap server, issue an RDAP query such as ip/1.1.1.1. You should see a redirect to APNIC's RDAP server.

$ wget http://localhost:8080/rdapbootstrap/ip/1.1.1.1
--2015-04-24 16:24:39--  http://localhost:8080/rdapbootstrap/ip/1.1.1.1
Resolving localhost... ::1, 127.0.0.1
Connecting to localhost|::1|:8080... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 302 Moved Temporarily
Location: http://rdap.apnic.net/ip/1.1.1.1 [following]
--2015-04-24 16:24:39--  http://rdap.apnic.net/ip/1.1.1.1
Resolving rdap.apnic.net... 2001:dd8:9:2::101:43, 203.119.101.43
Connecting to rdap.apnic.net|2001:dd8:9:2::101:43|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK

Docker

Build a docker image using the Gradle bootBuildImage command:

./gradlew bootBuildImage --imageName=NAME[:TAG]

Run the docker image:

docker run -p 8080:8080 -ti NAME[:TAG]

Getting Help

If you have questions or need help with this software, you may use the issue tracker on GitHub or you may use the ARIN Technical Discussions mailing list (it is a very low volume list).

Properties and Bootstrap Files

Bootstrap files may either be listed in a properties file pointed to by the system property arin.rdapbootstrap.resource_files or they may be listed using system properties directly or indirectly. Here is an example of a properties file pointed to by arin.rdapbootstrap.resource_files:

default_bootstrap = /default_bootstrap.json
as_bootstrap = /as_bootstrap.json
domain_bootstrap = /domain_bootstrap.json
v4_bootstrap = /v4_bootstrap.json
v6_bootstrap = /v6_bootstrap.json
entity_bootstrap = /entity_bootstrap.json

The system properties directly listing these are the keys of the properties file prefixed with arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.. So the AS bootstrap would be arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.as_bootstrap, etc.

The server ships with a properties file that points to a set of built-in bootstrap files. These bootstrap files are useful for getting the server up and running, but ultimately will need to be replaced with files that are updated periodically from the IANA.

So there are four types of configuration.

Configuration Setup Type 1 Example

Do nothing and let the server use the bootstrap files that ship with it.

Configuration Setup Type 2 Example

Set the Java system property arin.rdapbootstrap.resource_files to be /var/rdap/resource_files.properties.

In the /var/rdap/resource_files.properties file have the following:

default_bootstrap = /var/rdap/default_bootstrap.json
as_bootstrap = /var/rdap/as_bootstrap.json
domain_bootstrap = /var/rdap/domain_bootstrap.json
v4_bootstrap = /var/rdap/v4_bootstrap.json
v6_bootstrap = /var/rdap/v6_bootstrap.json
entity_bootstrap = /var/rdap/entity_bootstrap.json

Configuration Setup Type 3 Example

Have the following Java system properties:

arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.default_bootstrap = /var/rdap/default_bootstrap.json
arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.as_bootstrap = /var/rdap/as_bootstrap.json
arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.domain_bootstrap = /var/rdap/domain_bootstrap.json
arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.v4_bootstrap = /var/rdap/v4_bootstrap.json
arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.v6_bootstrap = /var/rdap/v6_bootstrap.json
arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.entity_bootstrap = /var/rdap/entity_bootstrap.json

Configuration Setup Type 4 Example

Set the following Java system properties for the scheduler to periodically download bootstrap files from IANA:

arin.rdapbootstrap.download_bootstrap_files=true
arin.rdapbootstrap.download_directory=/var/rdap

There are additional Java system properties with defaults that if needed could be tweaked for the scheduler:

 arin.rdapbootstrap.download_interval=86400
 arin.rdapbootstrap.download_asn_file_url=https://data.iana.org/rdap/asn.json
 arin.rdapbootstrap.download_domain_file_url=https://data.iana.org/rdap/dns.json
 arin.rdapbootstrap.download_ipv4_file_url=https://data.iana.org/rdap/ipv4.json
 arin.rdapbootstrap.download_ipv6_file_url=https://data.iana.org/rdap/ipv6.json

Updating Bootstrap Files

The server checks every minute to see if a file has been modified, and if any of them have it will automatically reload all of them.

The AS, v4, v6, and domain files are published periodically by IANA. You can set a cron or system process (see Configuration Setup Type 4 Example) to fetch them, perhaps once a week, from the following places:

https://data.iana.org/rdap/asn.json
https://data.iana.org/rdap/ipv4.json
https://data.iana.org/rdap/ipv6.json
https://data.iana.org/rdap/dns.json

The other bootstrap files take the form of the IANA files but are custom to your particular installation of the bootstrap server.

Entity Bootstrap File

The entity bootstrap file is used to redirect queries for entities based on the last component of the entity handle or identifier. Some registries, most notably all of the RIRs, append a registry signifier such as -ARIN. While entity bootstrapping is not officially part of the IETF specification, this server attempts to issue redirects based on those signifiers if present. Here is an example of an entity bootstrap file:

{
  "version": "1.0",
  "publication": "2014-09-09T15:39:03-0400",
  "services": [
    [
      [
        "ARIN"
      ],
      [
        "https://rdap.arin.net/registry",
        "http://rdap.arin.net/registry"
      ]
    ],
    [
      [
        "AP"
      ],
      [
        "https://rdap.apnic.net/"
      ]
    ],
    [
      [
        "RIPE"
      ],
      [
        "https://rdap.db.ripe.net/",
        "http://rdap.db.ripe.net/"
      ]
    ],
    [
      [
        "LACNIC"
      ],
      [
        "https://rdap.lacnic.net/rdap/"
      ]
    ]
  ]
}

Default Bootstrap File

The default bootstrap file is consulted when all the other bootstrap files have failed. It takes the following form:

{
  "version": "1.0",
  "publication": "2020-08-21T11:51:00-0400",
  "services": [
    [
      [
        "ip",
        "autnum",
        "nameserver"
      ],
      [
        "https://rdap.arin.net/registry/",
        "http://rdap.arin.net/registry/"
      ]
    ],
    [
      [
        "entity"
      ],
      [
        "https://rdap.arin.net/registry/",
        "http://rdap.arin.net/registry/"
      ]
    ],
    [
      [
        "domain"
      ],
      [
        "https://rdap.afilias.net/rdap/info/"
      ]
    ]
  ]
}

Redirect Scheme Matching

By default, this server will always attempt to issue HTTPS redirects. This should not be a problem because all RDAP clients are REQUIRED to support both HTTP and HTTPS. However, if it is necessary to try to keep the scheme (HTTP or HTTPS) for the redirect that was given in the query, this behavior can be set with the system property arin.rdapbootstrap.match_scheme_on_redirect=true. Note that this is a system property and is not part of the resouce_files.properties file.

Environment Variables / System Properties Mapping

The bootstrap server can be configured using environment variables and/or system properties. Here is how they map:

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_MATCH_SCHEME_ON_REDIRECT
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.match_scheme_on_redirect
Description: Keep the scheme (HTTP or HTTPS) for the redirect that was given in the query or not
Type: BOOLEAN
Required: No
Default Value: false
Possible Values: false | true

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_DOWNLOAD_BOOTSTRAP_FILES
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.download_bootstrap_files
Description: Download bootstrap files from IANA or not
Type: BOOLEAN
Required: No
Default Value: false
Possible Values: false | true

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_DOWNLOAD_ASN_FILE_URL
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.download_asn_file_url
Description: Download URL for the ASN file
Type: URL
Required: No
Default Value: https://data.iana.org/rdap/asn.json

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_DOWNLOAD_DOMAIN_FILE_URL
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.download_domain_file_url
Description: Download URL for the domain file
Type: URL
Required: No
Default Value: https://data.iana.org/rdap/dns.json

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_DOWNLOAD_IPV4_FILE_URL
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.download_ipv4_file_url
Description: Download URL for the IPv4 file
Type: URL
Required: No
Default Value: https://data.iana.org/rdap/ipv4.json

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_DOWNLOAD_IPV6_FILE_URL
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.download_ipv6_file_url
Description: Download URL for the IPv6 file
Type: URL
Required: No
Default Value: https://data.iana.org/rdap/ipv6.json

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_DOWNLOAD_DIRECTORY
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.download_directory
Description: Directory to download IANA files into
Type: DIRECTORY_PATH
Required: Only if arin.rdapbootstrap.download_bootstrap_files is set to true

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_DOWNLOAD_INTERVAL
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.download_interval
Description: Download interval in seconds
Type: POSITIVE_LONG
Required: No
Default Value: 86400

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_BOOTFILE_DEFAULT_BOOTSTRAP
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.default_bootstrap
Description: Location of the default bootstrap file
Type: FILE_PATH
Required: Only if configuration setup type 3

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_BOOTFILE_AS_BOOTSTRAP
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.as_bootstrap
Description: Location of the ASN file
Type: FILE_PATH
Required: Only if configuration setup type 3

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_BOOTFILE_DOMAIN_BOOTSTRAP
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.domain_bootstrap
Description: Location of the domain file
Type: FILE_PATH
Required: Only if configuration setup type 3

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_BOOTFILE_V4_BOOTSTRAP
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.v4_bootstrap
Description: Location of the IPv4 file
Type: FILE_PATH
Required: Only if configuration setup type 3

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_BOOTFILE_V6_BOOTSTRAP
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.v6_bootstrap
Description: Location of the IPv6 file
Type: FILE_PATH
Required: Only if configuration setup type 3

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_BOOTFILE_ENTITY_BOOTSTRAP
System Property: arin.rdapbootstrap.bootfile.entity_bootstrap
Description: Location of the entity file
Type: FILE_PATH
Required: Only if configuration setup type 3

Environment Variable: RDAPBOOTSTRAP_LOG_LEVEL
System Properties: logging.level.org.springframework.web, logging.level.net.arin.rdap_bootstrap
Description: Adjust the server log level
Type: LOG_LEVEL
Required: No
Default Value: INFO
Possible Values: TRACE | DEBUG | INFO | WARN | ERROR | FATAL

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A bootstrap server to aid RDAP clients in the bootstrap process.

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