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This project is a low overhead sampling profiler for Java that does not suffer from Safepoint bias problem. It features HotSpot-specific APIs to collect stack traces and to track memory allocations. The profiler works with OpenJDK and other Java runtimes based on the HotSpot JVM.

async-profiler can trace the following kinds of events:

  • CPU cycles
  • Hardware and Software performance counters like cache misses, branch misses, page faults, context switches etc.
  • Allocations in Java Heap
  • Contented lock attempts, including both Java object monitors and ReentrantLocks

See our Wiki or 3 hours playlist to learn about all features.


Current release (3.0):

Previous releases

async-profiler also comes bundled with IntelliJ IDEA Ultimate 2018.3 and later.
For more information refer to IntelliJ IDEA documentation.

Supported platforms

Officially maintained builds Other available ports
Linux x64, arm64 x86, arm32, ppc64le, riscv64, loongarch64
macOS x64, arm64

CPU profiling

In this mode profiler collects stack trace samples that include Java methods, native calls, JVM code and kernel functions.

The general approach is receiving call stacks generated by perf_events and matching them up with call stacks generated by AsyncGetCallTrace, in order to produce an accurate profile of both Java and native code. Additionally, async-profiler provides a workaround to recover stack traces in some corner cases where AsyncGetCallTrace fails.

This approach has the following advantages compared to using perf_events directly with a Java agent that translates addresses to Java method names:

  • Does not require -XX:+PreserveFramePointer, which introduces performance overhead that can be sometimes as high as 10%.

  • Does not require generating a map file for translating Java code addresses to method names.

  • Displays interpreter frames.

  • Does not produce large intermediate files ( for further processing in user space scripts.

If you wish to resolve frames within libjvm, the debug symbols are required.

ALLOCATION profiling

The profiler can be configured to collect call sites where the largest amount of heap memory is allocated.

async-profiler does not use intrusive techniques like bytecode instrumentation or expensive DTrace probes which have significant performance impact. It also does not affect Escape Analysis or prevent from JIT optimizations like allocation elimination. Only actual heap allocations are measured.

The profiler features TLAB-driven sampling. It relies on HotSpot-specific callbacks to receive two kinds of notifications:

  • when an object is allocated in a newly created TLAB;
  • when an object is allocated on a slow path outside TLAB.

Sampling interval can be adjusted with --alloc option. For example, --alloc 500k will take one sample after 500 KB of allocated space on average. Prior to JDK 11, intervals less than TLAB size will not take effect.

Installing Debug Symbols

Prior to JDK 11, the allocation profiler required HotSpot debug symbols. Some OpenJDK distributions (Amazon Corretto, Liberica JDK, Azul Zulu) already have them embedded in, other OpenJDK builds typically provide debug symbols in a separate package. For example, to install OpenJDK debug symbols on Debian / Ubuntu, run:

# apt install openjdk-17-dbg

(replace 17 with the desired version of JDK).

On CentOS, RHEL and some other RPM-based distributions, this could be done with debuginfo-install utility:

# debuginfo-install java-1.8.0-openjdk

On Gentoo the icedtea OpenJDK package can be built with the per-package setting FEATURES="nostrip" to retain symbols.

The gdb tool can be used to verify if debug symbols are properly installed for the libjvm library. For example, on Linux:

$ gdb $JAVA_HOME/lib/server/ -ex 'info address UseG1GC'

This command's output will either contain Symbol "UseG1GC" is at 0xxxxx or No symbol "UseG1GC" in current context.

Wall-clock profiling

-e wall option tells async-profiler to sample all threads equally every given period of time regardless of thread status: Running, Sleeping or Blocked. For instance, this can be helpful when profiling application start-up time.

Wall-clock profiler is most useful in per-thread mode: -t.

Example: asprof -e wall -t -i 5ms -f result.html 8983

Java method profiling

-e ClassName.methodName option instruments the given Java method in order to record all invocations of this method with the stack traces.

Example: -e java.util.Properties.getProperty will profile all places where getProperty method is called from.

Only non-native Java methods are supported. To profile a native method, use hardware breakpoint event instead, e.g. -e Java_java_lang_Throwable_fillInStackTrace

Be aware that if you attach async-profiler at runtime, the first instrumentation of a non-native Java method may cause the deoptimization of all compiled methods. The subsequent instrumentation flushes only the dependent code.

The massive CodeCache flush doesn't occur if attaching async-profiler as an agent.

Here are some useful native methods that you may want to profile:

  • G1CollectedHeap::humongous_obj_allocate - trace humongous allocations of the G1 GC,
  • JVM_StartThread - trace creation of new Java threads,
  • Java_java_lang_ClassLoader_defineClass1 - trace class loading.


Build status: Build Status

Make sure the JAVA_HOME environment variable points to your JDK installation, and then run make. GCC or Clang is required. After building, the profiler binaries will be in the build subdirectory.

Basic Usage

As of Linux 4.6, capturing kernel call stacks using perf_events from a non-root process requires setting two runtime variables. You can set them using sysctl or as follows:

# sysctl kernel.perf_event_paranoid=1
# sysctl kernel.kptr_restrict=0

async-profiler works in the context of the target Java application, i.e. it runs as an agent in the process being profiled. asprof is a tool to attach and control the agent.

A typical workflow would be to launch your Java application, attach the agent and start profiling, exercise your performance scenario, and then stop profiling. The agent's output, including the profiling results, will be displayed on the console where you've started asprof.


$ jps
9234 Jps
8983 Computey
$ asprof start 8983
$ asprof stop 8983

The following may be used in lieu of the pid (8983):

  • The keyword jps, which will use the most recently launched Java process.
  • The application name as it appears in the jps output: e.g. Computey

Alternatively, you may specify -d (duration) argument to profile the application for a fixed period of time with a single command.

$ asprof -d 30 8983

By default, the profiling frequency is 100Hz (every 10ms of CPU time). Here is a sample of the output printed to the Java application's terminal:

--- Execution profile ---
Total samples:           687
Unknown (native):        1 (0.15%)

--- 6790000000 (98.84%) ns, 679 samples
  [ 0] Primes.isPrime
  [ 1] Primes.primesThread
  [ 2] Primes.access$000
  [ 3] Primes$
  [ 4]

... a lot of output omitted for brevity ...

          ns  percent  samples  top
  ----------  -------  -------  ---
  6790000000   98.84%      679  Primes.isPrime
    40000000    0.58%        4  __do_softirq

... more output omitted ...

This indicates that the hottest method was Primes.isPrime, and the hottest call stack leading to it comes from Primes.primesThread.

Launching as an Agent

If you need to profile some code as soon as the JVM starts up, instead of using the asprof, it is possible to attach async-profiler as an agent on the command line. For example:

$ java -agentpath:/path/to/,event=cpu,file=profile.html ...

Agent library is configured through the JVMTI argument interface. The format of the arguments string is described in the source code. asprof actually converts command line arguments to that format.

For instance, -e wall is converted to event=wall, -f profile.html is converted to file=profile.html, and so on. However, some arguments are processed directly by asprof. E.g. -d 5 results in 3 actions: attaching profiler agent with start command, sleeping for 5 seconds, and then attaching the agent again with stop command.

Multiple events

It is possible to profile CPU, allocations, and locks at the same time. Instead of CPU, you may choose any other execution event: wall-clock, perf event, tracepoint, Java method, etc.

The only output format that supports multiple events together is JFR. The recording will contain the following event types:

  • jdk.ExecutionSample
  • jdk.ObjectAllocationInNewTLAB (alloc)
  • jdk.ObjectAllocationOutsideTLAB (alloc)
  • jdk.JavaMonitorEnter (lock)
  • jdk.ThreadPark (lock)

To start profiling cpu + allocations + locks together, specify

asprof -e cpu,alloc,lock -f profile.jfr ...

or use --alloc and --lock parameters with the desired threshold:

asprof -e cpu --alloc 2m --lock 10ms -f profile.jfr ...

The same, when starting profiler as an agent:


Flame Graph visualization

async-profiler provides out-of-the-box Flame Graph support. Specify -o flamegraph argument to dump profiling results as an interactive HTML Flame Graph. Also, Flame Graph output format will be chosen automatically if the target filename ends with .html.

$ jps
9234 Jps
8983 Computey
$ asprof -d 30 -f /tmp/flamegraph.html 8983


Profiler Options

asprof command-line options.

  • start - starts profiling in semi-automatic mode, i.e. profiler will run until stop command is explicitly called.

  • resume - starts or resumes earlier profiling session that has been stopped. All the collected data remains valid. The profiling options are not preserved between sessions, and should be specified again.

  • stop - stops profiling and prints the report.

  • dump - dump collected data without stopping profiling session.

  • check - check if the specified profiling event is available.

  • status - prints profiling status: whether profiler is active and for how long.

  • meminfo - prints used memory statistics.

  • list - show the list of profiling events available for the target process (if PID is specified) or for the default JVM.

  • -d N - the profiling duration, in seconds. If no start, resume, stop or status option is given, the profiler will run for the specified period of time and then automatically stop.
    Example: asprof -d 30 8983

  • -e event - the profiling event: cpu, alloc, lock, cache-misses etc. Use list to see the complete list of available events.

    In allocation profiling mode the top frame of every call trace is the class of the allocated object, and the counter is the heap pressure (the total size of allocated TLABs or objects outside TLAB).

    In lock profiling mode the top frame is the class of lock/monitor, and the counter is number of nanoseconds it took to enter this lock/monitor.

    Two special event types are supported on Linux: hardware breakpoints and kernel tracepoints:

    • -e mem:<func>[:rwx] sets read/write/exec breakpoint at function <func>. The format of mem event is the same as in perf-record. Execution breakpoints can be also specified by the function name, e.g. -e malloc will trace all calls of native malloc function.
    • -e trace:<id> sets a kernel tracepoint. It is possible to specify tracepoint symbolic name, e.g. -e syscalls:sys_enter_open will trace all open syscalls.
  • -i N - sets the profiling interval in nanoseconds or in other units, if N is followed by ms (for milliseconds), us (for microseconds), or s (for seconds). Only CPU active time is counted. No samples are collected while CPU is idle. The default is 10000000 (10ms).
    Example: asprof -i 500us 8983

  • --alloc N - allocation profiling interval in bytes or in other units, if N is followed by k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), or g (gigabytes).

  • --live - retain allocation samples with live objects only (object that have not been collected by the end of profiling session). Useful for finding Java heap memory leaks.

  • --lock N - lock profiling threshold in nanoseconds (or other units). In lock profiling mode, record contended locks that the JVM has waited for longer than the specified duration.

  • -j N - sets the maximum stack depth. The default is 2048.
    Example: asprof -j 30 8983

  • -t - profile threads separately. Each stack trace will end with a frame that denotes a single thread.
    Example: asprof -t 8983

  • -s - print simple class names instead of FQN.

  • -n - normalize names of hidden classes / lambdas.

  • -g - print method signatures.

  • -a - annotate JIT compiled methods with _[j], inlined methods with _[i], interpreted methods with _[0] and C1 compiled methods with _[1].

  • -l - prepend library names to symbols, e.g.`JVM_DefineClassWithSource.

  • -o fmt - specifies what information to dump when profiling ends. fmt can be one of the following options:

    • traces[=N] - dump call traces (at most N samples);
    • flat[=N] - dump flat profile (top N hot methods);
      can be combined with traces, e.g. traces=200,flat=200
    • jfr - dump events in Java Flight Recorder format readable by Java Mission Control. This does not require JDK commercial features to be enabled.
    • collapsed - dump collapsed call traces in the format used by FlameGraph script. This is a collection of call stacks, where each line is a semicolon separated list of frames followed by a counter.
    • flamegraph - produce Flame Graph in HTML format.
    • tree - produce Call Tree in HTML format.
      --reverse option will generate backtrace view.
  • --total - count the total value of the collected metric instead of the number of samples, e.g. total allocation size.

  • --chunksize N, --chunktime N - approximate size and time limits for a single JFR chunk. A new chunk will be started whenever either limit is reached. The default chunksize is 100MB, and the default chunktime is 1 hour.
    Example: asprof -f profile.jfr --chunksize 100m --chunktime 1h 8983

  • -I include, -X exclude - filter stack traces by the given pattern(s). -I defines the name pattern that must be present in the stack traces, while -X is the pattern that must not occur in any of stack traces in the output. -I and -X options can be specified multiple times. A pattern may begin or end with a star * that denotes any (possibly empty) sequence of characters.
    Example: asprof -I 'Primes.*' -I 'java/*' -X '*Unsafe.park*' 8983

  • -L level - log level: debug, info, warn, error or none.

  • -F features - comma separated list of HotSpot-specific features to include in stack traces. Supported features are:

    • vtable - display targets of megamorphic virtual calls as an extra frame on top of vtable stub or itable stub.
    • comptask - display current compilation task (a Java method being compiled) in a JIT compiler stack trace.
  • --title TITLE, --minwidth PERCENT, --reverse - FlameGraph parameters.
    Example: asprof -f profile.html --title "Sample CPU profile" --minwidth 0.5 8983

  • -f FILENAME - the file name to dump the profile information to.
    %p in the file name is expanded to the PID of the target JVM;
    %t - to the timestamp;
    %n{MAX} - to the sequence number;
    %{ENV} - to the value of the given environment variable.
    Example: asprof -o collapsed -f /tmp/traces-%t.txt 8983

  • --loop TIME - run profiler in a loop (continuous profiling). The argument is either a clock time (hh:mm:ss) or a loop duration in seconds, minutes, hours, or days. Make sure the filename includes a timestamp pattern, or the output will be overwritten on each iteration.
    Example: asprof --loop 1h -f /var/log/profile-%t.jfr 8983

  • --all-user - include only user-mode events. This option is helpful when kernel profiling is restricted by perf_event_paranoid settings.

  • --sched - group threads by Linux-specific scheduling policy: BATCH/IDLE/OTHER.

  • --cstack MODE - how to walk native frames (C stack). Possible modes are fp (Frame Pointer), dwarf (DWARF unwind info), lbr (Last Branch Record, available on Haswell since Linux 4.1), vm (HotSpot VM Structs) and no (do not collect C stack).

    By default, C stack is shown in cpu, ctimer, wall-clock and perf-events profiles. Java-level events like alloc and lock collect only Java stack.

  • --signal NUM - use alternative signal for cpu or wall clock profiling. To change both signals, specify two numbers separated by a slash: --signal SIGCPU/SIGWALL.

  • --clock SOURCE - clock source for JFR timestamps: tsc (default) or monotonic (equivalent for CLOCK_MONOTONIC).

  • --begin function, --end function - automatically start/stop profiling when the specified native function is executed.

  • --ttsp - time-to-safepoint profiling. An alias for
    --begin SafepointSynchronize::begin --end RuntimeService::record_safepoint_synchronized
    It is not a separate event type, but rather a constraint. Whatever event type you choose (e.g. cpu or wall), the profiler will work as usual, except that only events between the safepoint request and the start of the VM operation will be recorded.

  • --jfropts OPTIONS - comma separated list of JFR recording options. Currently, the only available option is mem supported on Linux 3.17+. mem enables accumulating events in memory instead of flushing synchronously to a file.

  • --jfrsync CONFIG - start Java Flight Recording with the given configuration synchronously with the profiler. The output .jfr file will include all regular JFR events, except that execution samples will be obtained from async-profiler. This option implies -o jfr.

    • CONFIG is a predefined JFR profile or a JFR configuration file (.jfc) or a list of JFR events started with +

    Example: asprof -e cpu --jfrsync profile -f combined.jfr 8983

  • --fdtransfer - runs a background process that provides access to perf_events to an unprivileged process. --fdtransfer is useful for profiling a process in a container (which lacks access to perf_events) from the host. See Profiling Java in a container.

  • -v, --version - prints the version of profiler library. If PID is specified, gets the version of the library loaded into the given process.

Profiling Java in a container

It is possible to profile Java processes running in a Docker or LXC container both from within a container and from the host system.

When profiling from the host, pid should be the Java process ID in the host namespace. Use ps aux | grep java or docker top <container> to find the process ID.

async-profiler should be run from the host by a privileged user - it will automatically switch to the proper pid/mount namespace and change user credentials to match the target process. Also make sure that the target container can access by the same absolute path as on the host.

By default, Docker container restricts the access to perf_event_open syscall. There are 3 alternatives to allow profiling in a container:

  1. You can modify the seccomp profile or disable it altogether with --security-opt seccomp=unconfined option. In addition, --cap-add SYS_ADMIN may be required.
  2. You can use "fdtransfer": see the help for --fdtransfer.
  3. Last, you may fall back to -e ctimer profiling mode, see Troubleshooting.


  • macOS profiling is limited to user space code only.

  • On most Linux systems, perf_events captures call stacks with a maximum depth of 127 frames. On recent Linux kernels, this can be configured using sysctl kernel.perf_event_max_stack or by writing to the /proc/sys/kernel/perf_event_max_stack file.

  • Profiler allocates 8kB perf_event buffer for each thread of the target process. Make sure /proc/sys/kernel/perf_event_mlock_kb value is large enough (more than 8 * threads) when running under unprivileged user. Otherwise the message "perf_event mmap failed: Operation not permitted" will be printed, and no native stack traces will be collected.

  • You will not see the non-Java frames preceding the Java frames on the stack, unless --cstack vm is specified. For example, if start_thread called JavaMain and then your Java code started running, you will not see the first two frames in the resulting stack. On the other hand, you will see non-Java frames (user and kernel) invoked by your Java code.

  • No Java stacks will be collected if -XX:MaxJavaStackTraceDepth is zero or negative. The exception is --cstack vm mode, which does not take MaxJavaStackTraceDepth into account.

  • Too short profiling interval may cause continuous interruption of heavy system calls like clone(), so that it will never complete; see #97. The workaround is simply to increase the interval.

  • When agent is not loaded at JVM startup (by using -agentpath option) it is highly recommended to use -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions -XX:+DebugNonSafepoints JVM flags. Without those flags the profiler will still work correctly but results might be less accurate. For example, without -XX:+DebugNonSafepoints there is a high chance that simple inlined methods will not appear in the profile. When the agent is attached at runtime, CompiledMethodLoad JVMTI event enables debug info, but only for methods compiled after attaching.


Failed to change credentials to match the target process: Operation not permitted

Due to limitation of HotSpot Dynamic Attach mechanism, the profiler must be run by exactly the same user (and group) as the owner of target JVM process. If profiler is run by a different user, it will try to automatically change current user and group. This will likely succeed for root, but not for other users, resulting in the above error.

Could not start attach mechanism: No such file or directory

The profiler cannot establish communication with the target JVM through UNIX domain socket.

Usually this happens in one of the following cases:

  1. Attach socket /tmp/.java_pidNNN has been deleted. It is a common practice to clean /tmp automatically with some scheduled script. Configure the cleanup software to exclude .java_pid* files from deletion.
    How to check: run lsof -p PID | grep java_pid
    If it lists a socket file, but the file does not exist, then this is exactly the described problem.
  2. JVM is started with -XX:+DisableAttachMechanism option.
  3. /tmp directory of Java process is not physically the same directory as /tmp of your shell, because Java is running in a container or in chroot environment. jattach attempts to solve this automatically, but it might lack the required permissions to do so.
    Check strace build/jattach PID properties
  4. JVM is busy and cannot reach a safepoint. For instance, JVM is in the middle of long-running garbage collection.
    How to check: run kill -3 PID. Healthy JVM process should print a thread dump and heap info in its console.
Target JVM failed to load

The connection with the target JVM has been established, but JVM is unable to load profiler shared library. Make sure the user of JVM process has permissions to access by exactly the same absolute path. For more information see #78.

No access to perf events. Try --fdtransfer or --all-user option or 'sysctl kernel.perf_event_paranoid=1'


Perf events unavailable

perf_event_open() syscall has failed.

Typical reasons include:

  1. /proc/sys/kernel/perf_event_paranoid is set to restricted mode (>=2).
  2. seccomp disables perf_event_open API in a container.
  3. OS runs under a hypervisor that does not virtualize performance counters.
  4. perf_event_open API is not supported on this system, e.g. WSL.

For permissions-related reasons (such as 1 and 2), using --fdtransfer while running the profiler as a privileged user may solve the issue.

If changing the configuration is not possible, you may fall back to -e ctimer profiling mode. It is similar to cpu mode, but does not require perf_events support. As a drawback, there will be no kernel stack traces.

No AllocTracer symbols found. Are JDK debug symbols installed?

The OpenJDK debug symbols are required for allocation profiling. See Installing Debug Symbols for more details. If the error message persists after a successful installation of the debug symbols, it is possible that the JDK was upgraded when installing the debug symbols. In this case, profiling any Java process which had started prior to the installation will continue to display this message, since the process had loaded the older version of the JDK which lacked debug symbols. Restarting the affected Java processes should resolve the issue.

VMStructs unavailable. Unsupported JVM?

JVM shared library does not export gHotSpotVMStructs* symbols - apparently this is not a HotSpot JVM. Sometimes the same message can be also caused by an incorrectly built JDK (see #218). In these cases installing JDK debug symbols may solve the problem.

Could not parse symbols from <>

Async-profiler was unable to parse non-Java function names because of the corrupted contents in /proc/[pid]/maps. The problem is known to occur in a container when running Ubuntu with Linux kernel 5.x. This is the OS bug, see

Could not open output file

Output file is written by the target JVM process, not by the profiler script. Make sure the path specified in -f option is correct and is accessible by the JVM.