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@auth0/nextjs-auth0

The Auth0 Next.js SDK is a library for implementing user authentication in Next.js applications.

CircleCI NPM version License

Table of Contents

Installation

Using npm:

npm install @auth0/nextjs-auth0

This library supports the following tooling versions:

  • Node.js: ^10.13.0 || >=12.0.0

  • Next.js: >=10

Getting Started

Auth0 Configuration

Create a Regular Web Application in the Auth0 Dashboard.

If you're using an existing application, verify that you have configured the following settings in your Regular Web Application:

  • Click on the "Settings" tab of your application's page.
  • Scroll down and click on the "Show Advanced Settings" link.
  • Under "Advanced Settings", click on the "OAuth" tab.
  • Ensure that "JsonWebToken Signature Algorithm" is set to RS256 and that "OIDC Conformant" is enabled.

Next, configure the following URLs for your application under the "Application URIs" section of the "Settings" page:

  • Allowed Callback URLs: http://localhost:3000/api/auth/callback
  • Allowed Logout URLs: http://localhost:3000/

Take note of the Client ID, Client Secret, and Domain values under the "Basic Information" section. You'll need these values in the next step.

Basic Setup

You need to allow your Next.js application to communicate properly with Auth0. You can do so by creating a .env.local file under your root project directory that defines the necessary Auth0 configuration values as follows:

# A long, secret value used to encrypt the session cookie
AUTH0_SECRET='LONG_RANDOM_VALUE'
# The base url of your application
AUTH0_BASE_URL='http://localhost:3000'
# The url of your Auth0 tenant domain
AUTH0_ISSUER_BASE_URL='https://YOUR_AUTH0_DOMAIN.auth0.com'
# Your Auth0 application's Client ID
AUTH0_CLIENT_ID='YOUR_AUTH0_CLIENT_ID'
# Your Auth0 application's Client Secret
AUTH0_CLIENT_SECRET='YOUR_AUTH0_CLIENT_SECRET'

You can execute the following command to generate a suitable string for the AUTH0_SECRET value:

node -e "console.log(crypto.randomBytes(32).toString('hex'))"

You can see a full list of Auth0 configuration options in the "Configuration properties" section of the "Module config" document.

For more details about loading environmental variables in Next.js, visit the "Environment Variables" document.

Go to your Next.js application and create a catch-all, dynamic API route handler under the /pages/api directory:

  • Create an auth directory under the /pages/api/ directory.

  • Create a [...auth0].js file under the newly created auth directory.

The path to your dynamic API route file would be /pages/api/auth/[...auth0].js. Populate that file as follows:

import { handleAuth } from '@auth0/nextjs-auth0';

export default handleAuth();

Executing handleAuth() creates the following route handlers under the hood that perform different parts of the authentication flow:

  • /api/auth/login: Your Next.js application redirects users to your Identity Provider for them to log in.

  • /api/auth/callback: Your Identity Provider redirects users to this route after they successfully log in.

  • /api/auth/logout: Your Next.js application logs out the user.

  • /api/auth/me: You can fetch user profile information in JSON format.

Wrap your pages/_app.js component with the UserProvider component:

// pages/_app.js
import React from 'react';
import { UserProvider } from '@auth0/nextjs-auth0';

export default function App({ Component, pageProps }) {
  return (
    <UserProvider>
      <Component {...pageProps} />
    </UserProvider>
  );
}

You can now determine if a user is authenticated by checking that the user object returned by the useUser() hook is defined. You can also log in or log out your users from the frontend layer of your Next.js application by redirecting them to the appropriate automatically-generated route:

// pages/index.js
import { useUser } from '@auth0/nextjs-auth0';

export default function Index() {
  const { user, error, isLoading } = useUser();

  if (isLoading) return <div>Loading...</div>;
  if (error) return <div>{error.message}</div>;

  if (user) {
    return (
      <div>
        Welcome {user.name}! <a href="/api/auth/logout">Logout</a>
      </div>
    );
  }

  return <a href="/api/auth/login">Login</a>;
}

For other comprehensive examples, see the EXAMPLES.md document.

Documentation

API Reference

Server-side methods:

Client-side methods/components:

Visit the auto-generated API Docs for more details.

Cookies and Security

All cookies will be set to HttpOnly, SameSite=Lax and will be set to Secure if the application's AUTH0_BASE_URL is https.

The HttpOnly setting will make sure that client-side JavaScript is unable to access the cookie to reduce the attack surface of XSS attacks.

The SameSite=Lax setting will help mitigate CSRF attacks. Learn more about SameSite by reading the "Upcoming Browser Behavior Changes: What Developers Need to Know" blog post.

Error Handling and Security

The default server side error handler for the /api/auth/* routes prints the error message to screen, eg

try {
  await handler(req, res);
} catch (error) {
  res.status(error.status || 400).end(error.message);
}

Because the error can come from the OpenID Connect error query parameter we do some basic escaping which makes sure the default error handler is safe from XSS.

If you write your own error handler, you should not render the error message without using a templating engine that will properly escape it for other HTML contexts first.

Base Path and Internationalized Routing

With Next.js you can deploy a Next.js application under a sub-path of a domain using Base Path and serve internationalized (i18n) routes using Internationalized Routing.

If you use these features the urls of your application will change and so the urls to the nextjs-auth0 routes will change. To accommodate this there are various places in the SDK that you can customise the url.

For example if basePath: '/foo' you should prepend this to the loginUrl and profileUrl specified in your Auth0Provider

// _app.jsx
function App({ Component, pageProps }) {
  return (
    <UserProvider loginUrl="/foo/api/auth/login" profileUrl="/foo/api/auth/me">
      <Component {...pageProps} />
    </UserProvider>
  );
}

Also, any links to login or logout should include the basePath:

<a href="/foo/api/auth/login">Login</a><br />
<a href="/foo/api/auth/logout">Logout</a>

You should configure baseUrl (or the AUTH0_BASE_URL environment variable) eg

# .env.local
AUTH0_BASE_URL=http://localhost:3000/foo

For any pages that are protected with the Server Side withPageAuthRequired you should update the returnTo parameter depending on the basePath and locale if necessary.

// ./pages/my-ssr-page.jsx
export default MySsrPage = () => <></>;

const getFullReturnTo = (ctx) => {
  // TODO: implement getFullReturnTo based on the ctx.resolvedUrl, ctx.locale
  // and your next.config.js's basePath and i18n settings.
  return '/foo/en-US/my-ssr-page';
};

export const getServerSideProps = (ctx) => {
  const returnTo = getFullReturnTo(ctx.req);
  return withPageAuthRequired({ returnTo })(ctx);
};

Comparison with the Auth0 React SDK

We also provide an Auth0 React SDK, auth0-react, which may be suitable for your Next.js application.

The SPA security model used by auth0-react is different from the Web Application security model used by this SDK. In short, this SDK protects pages and API routes with a cookie session (see "Cookies and Security"). A SPA library like auth0-react will store the user's ID Token and Access Token directly in the browser and use them to access external APIs directly.

You should be aware of the security implications of both models. However, auth0-react may be more suitable for your needs if you meet any of the following scenarios:

  • You are using Static HTML Export with Next.js.
  • You do not need to access user data during server-side rendering.
  • You want to get the access token and call external API's directly from the frontend layer rather than using Next.js API Routes as a proxy to call external APIs

Testing

By default, the SDK creates and manages a singleton instance to run for the lifetime of the application. When testing your application, you may need to reset this instance, so its state does not leak between tests.

If you're using Jest, we recommend using jest.resetModules() after each test. Alternatively, you can look at creating your own instance of the SDK, so it can be recreated between tests.

Contributing

We appreciate feedback and contribution to this repo! Before you get started, please read the following:

Start by installing the dependencies of this project:

npm install

In order to build a release, you can run the following commands, and the output will be stored in the dist folder:

npm run clean
npm run lint
npm run build

Additionally, you can also run tests:

npm run build:test # Build the Next.js test app
npm run test
npm run test:watch

Vulnerability Reporting

Please do not report security vulnerabilities on the public GitHub issue tracker. The Responsible Disclosure Program details the procedure for disclosing security issues.

What is Auth0?

Auth0 helps you to easily:

  • Implement authentication with multiple identity providers, including social (e.g., Google, Facebook, Microsoft, LinkedIn, GitHub, Twitter, etc.), or enterprise (e.g., Windows Azure AD, Google Apps, Active Directory, ADFS, SAML, etc.)
  • Log in users with username/password databases, passwordless, or multi-factor authentication
  • Link multiple user accounts together
  • Generate signed JSON Web Tokens to authorize your API calls and flow the user identity securely
  • Access demographics and analytics detailing how, when, and where users are logging in
  • Enrich user profiles from other data sources using customizable JavaScript rules

Why Auth0? Because you should save time, be happy, and focus on what really matters: building your product.

License

This project is licensed under the MIT license. See the LICENSE file for more info.