In order to deploy the postgres-release you must follow the standard steps for deploying software with BOSH.
Install the BOSH command line Interface (CLI) v2+. Please refer to BOSH CLI documentation. Use the CLI to target your director.
Upload the desired stemcell directly to bosh. bosh.io provides a resource to find and download stemcells.
# Example for bosh-lite bosh upload-stemcell https://bosh.io/d/stemcells/bosh-warden-boshlite-ubuntu-xenial-go_agent
Upload the latest release from bosh.io:
bosh upload-release https://bosh.io/d/github.com/cloudfoundry/postgres-release
or create and upload a development release:
cd ~/workspace/postgres-release bosh -n create-release --force && bosh -n upload-release
Generate the manifest. You can provide in input an operation file to customize the manifest:
~/workspace/postgres-release/scripts/generate-deployment-manifest \ -o OPERATION-FILE-PATH > OUTPUT_MANIFEST_PATH
You can use the operation file to specify
postgresjob properties or to override the configuration if your BOSH director cloud-config is not compatible.
This example operation file is a great starting point. Note: when using this operation file, you will need to inject
bosh deploy-time, which is a good pattern for keeping credentials out of manifests.
You are also provided with options to enable TLS in the PostgreSQL server or to use static ips.
bosh -d DEPLOYMENT_NAME deploy OUTPUT_MANIFEST_PATH
Example, injecting the
bosh -d DEPLOYMENT_NAME deploy -v pgadmin_database_password=foobarbaz OUTPUT_MANIFEST_PATH
The table below shows the most significant properties you can use to customize your PostgreSQL installation. The complete list of available properties can be found in the spec.
|databases.port||The database port. Default: 5432|
|databases.databases||A list of databases and associated properties to create when Postgres starts|
|databases.roles||A list of database roles and associated properties to create|
|databases.roles[n].password||Login password for the role. If not provided, TLS certificate authentication is assumed for the user.|
|databases.roles[n].common_name||The cn attribute of the certificate for the user. It only applies to TLS certificate authentication.|
|databases.roles[n].permissions||A list of attributes for the role. For the complete list of attributes, refer to ALTER ROLE command options.|
|databases.tls.certificate||PEM-encoded certificate for secure TLS communication|
|databases.tls.private_key||PEM-encoded key for secure TLS communication|
|databases.tls.ca||PEM-encoded certification authority for secure TLS communication. Only needed to let users authenticate with TLS certificate.|
|databases.max_connections||Maximum number of database connections|
|databases.additional_config||A map of additional key/value pairs to include as extra configuration properties in
|databases.monit_timeout||Monit timout in seconds for the postgres job start. Default:
|databases.trust_local_connection||Whether or not postgres must trust local connections.
|databases.skip_data_copy_in_minor||Whether or not a copy of the data directory is created during PostgreSQL minor upgrades. A copy is created by default.|
|databases.hooks.timeout||Time limit in seconds for the hook script. By default, it's set to
|databases.hooks.pre-start||Script to run before starting PostgreSQL.|
|databases.hooks.post-start||Script to run after PostgreSQL has started.|
|databases.hooks.pre-stop||Script to run before stopping PostgreSQL.|
|databases.hooks.post-stop||Script to run after PostgreSQL has stopped.|
|janitor.script||If specified, this script would be run periodically. This would be useful for running house-keeping tasks.|
|janitor.interval||Interval in seconds between two invocations of the janitor script. By default it's set to
|janitor.timeout||Time limit in seconds for the janitor script. By default it's set to
- Removing a database from
databases.databaseslist and deploying again does not trigger a physical deletion of the database in PostgreSQL.
- Removing a role from
databases.roleslist and deploying again does not trigger a physical deletion of the role in PostgreSQL.
Enabling TLS on the PostgreSQL server
PostgreSQL has native support for using TLS connections to encrypt client/server communications for increased security.
You can enable it by setting the
databases.tls.certificate and the
A script is provided that creates a CA, generates a key pair, and signs it with the CA:
./scripts/generate-postgres-certs -n HOSTNAME_OR_IP_ADDRESS
The common name for the server certificate must be set to the DNS hostname if any or to the ip address of the PostgreSQL server. This because in TLS mode
verify-full, the hostname is matched against the common-name. Refer to PostgreSQL documentation for more details.
~/workspace/postgres-release/scripts/generate-deployment-manifest \ -s -h HOSTNAME_OR_IP_ADDRESS \ -o OPERATION-FILE-PATH > OUTPUT_MANIFEST_PATH
Enabling TLS certificate authentication
In order to perform authentication using TLS client certificates, you must not specify a user password and you must configure the following properties:
The cn (Common Name) attribute of the certificate will be compared to the requested database user name, and if they match the login will be allowed.
Optionally you can map the common_name to a different database user by specifying property
A script is provided that creates a client certificates:
./scripts/generate-postgres-client-certs --ca-cert <PATH-TO-CA-CERT> --ca-key <PATH-TO-CA-KEY> --client-name <USER_NAME>
You can run custom code before or after PostgreSQL starts or stops or periodically. For details, see hooks documentation.
Backup and Restore
You can enable backup and restore through bbr by adding the
bbr-postgres-db job with the
postgres job and by setting its
release_level_backup option to
true. If enabled, a backup is collected using
pg_dump for each database specified in the
If you don't colocate the
postgres then you must specify in the
postgres.dbuser property a database user with enough permissions to run backup and restore.
If your PostgreSQL is configured with TLS, by default backup and restore are run with
sslmode=verify-full. You can change it to
sslmode=verify-ca by setting
- Restore does not drop the database, the extensions, or the schema; therefore the schema of the restored and existing databases must be the same.
- If a backup is not present for one of the configured databases in the
databases.databasesproperty, the restore issues a message and continues.
Contributor License Agreement
Contributors must sign the Contributor License Agreement before their contributions can be merged. Follow the directions here to complete that process.
Create a feature branch from the development branch
cd postgres-release git checkout develop git checkout -b feature-branch
Make changes on your branch
Test your changes by running acceptance tests
Push to your fork (
git push origin feature-branch) and submit a pull request selecting
developas the target branch. PRs submitted against other branches will need to be resubmitted with the correct branch targeted.
The postgres-release does not directly support high availability. Even if you deploy more instances, no replication is configured.
Refer to versions.yml in order to assess if a postgres-release version upgrades the PostgreSQL version.
Upgrade Test Policy
The maintainers of the postgres-release test the following upgrade paths:
- From the previous postgres-release
- From the latest postgres-release that bumps the previous PostgreSQL version
- From the latest cf-deployment that bumps the previous PostgreSQL version
Considerations before deploying
- A copy of the database is made for the upgrade, you may need to adjust the persistent disk capacity of the
- For major upgrades the copy is always created
- For minor upgrades the copy is created unless the
databases.skip_data_copy_in_minoris set to
- The upgrade happens as part of the pre-start and its duration may vary basing on your env.
- In case of a PostgreSQL minor upgrade a simple copy of the old data directory is made.
- In case of a PostgreSQL major upgrade the
pg_upgradeutility is used.
- Postgres will be unavailable during this upgrade.
Considerations after a successful deployment
PostgreSQL upgrade may require some post-upgrade processing. The administrator should check the
/var/vcap/store/postgres/pg_upgrade_tmp directory for the generated script files and eventually run them. See pg_upgrade post-upgrade processing for more details.
In case a copy of the old database is kept (see considerations above), the old database is moved to
/var/vcap/store/postgres/postgres-previous. The postgres-previous directory will be kept until the next postgres upgrade is performed in the future. You are free to remove this if you have verified the new database works and you want to reclaim the space.
Recovering a failure during deployment
In case of a long upgrade, the deployment may time out; anyway, bosh would not stop the actual upgrade process. In this case you can just wait for the upgrade to complete and, only when postgres is up and running, rerun the bosh deploy.
If the upgrade fails:
- The old data directory is still available at
x.x.xis the old PostgreSQL version
- The new data directory is at
y.y.yis the new PostgreSQL version
- If the upgrade is a PostgreSQL major upgrade:
- A marker file is kept at
/var/vcap/store/postgres/POSTGRES_UPGRADE_LOCKto prevent the upgrade from happening again.
pg_upgradelogs that may have details of why the migration failed can be found in
- A marker file is kept at
If you want to attempt the upgrade again or to roll back to the previous release, you should remove the new data directory and, if present, the marker file.
The CI pipeline runs: