[译] [信息图表] 色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南 #14

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[译] [信息图表] 色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-01

The Psychology of Color: A Guide for Designers

色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-02

The color wheel is a tool for understanding color and color relationships.

色环是一种帮助我们理解色彩和色彩关系的工具。

The most common color wheel is the twelve (12) hue wheel. A color wheel could have as few as six hues or as many as 24, 48, 96 or more.

最常见的色环是 12 色环。通常一个色环包含至少 6 种、多到 24、48、96 或更多种颜色。

  • Yellow
  • Yellow-Green
  • Green
  • Blue-Green
  • Blue
  • Blue-Violet
  • Violet
  • Red-Violet
  • Red
  • Red-Orange
  • Orange
  • Yellow-Orange
  • 黄色
  • 黄绿色
  • 绿色
  • 蓝绿色
  • 蓝色
  • 蓝紫色
  • 紫色
  • 紫红色
  • 红色
  • 红橙色
  • 橙色
  • 黄橙色

色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-03

Primary colors

三原色

There are three primary colors. They are the hues yellow, blue and red. These three colors are the hues that theory can be mixed to make all other colors. If you mix the three primary colors, in theory it would produce black.

色环中有三种原色。它们分别是红、黄、蓝。理论上这三种颜色可以混合出任何其它颜色。当你把这三种颜色混合到一起时,理论上会产生黑色。(译注:本文的三原色理论基于较传统的颜料消减型混合体系,有别于计算机领域常用的 RGB 光源叠加型三基色体系和 CMY 印刷消减型分色体系。延伸阅读: 原色 - 维基百科

Secondary colors

三间色

By mixing two primary hues together you create a secondary color. There are three secondary colors. They are the hues green, violet (purple) and orange. Orange from mixing red and yellow, violet (purple) from blue and red, and green from yellow and blue.

通过混合两种原色,你将得到一种间色。总共有三种间色,分别是绿色、紫色、橙色。橙色由红和黄混合而来,紫色由蓝和红混合而来,而绿色由黄和蓝混合而来。

Tertiary colors

复色

The third set of hues are known as tertiary or intermediate colors. These hues are made by mixing adjacent primary and secondary hues. The six tertiary or intermediate colors are yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, and yellow-orange.

色环中的第三类颜色就是复色,或称为三次色。它们是由色环中邻近的原色和间色混合而来。这六种复色分别是黄绿色、蓝绿色、蓝紫色、紫红色、红橙色、黄橙色。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-04

Hue: A hue is the purest or brightest form of a color. Hues are colors that have not been mixed with white, gray, or black. The twelve colors around on the outermost part of the wheel are hues.

纯色:纯色是一种颜色最纯最亮的形态,是还没和白、灰或黑色进行混合时的形态。色环最外圈的 12 种颜色即代表了 12 种纯色。

Tint: The circle of colors next to the hues represent the tint of each hue. A tint is the hue mixed with white. The hue may be mixed with just a touch of white or with so much white that the hue is very faint.

浅色:色环向内紧贴纯色的一环就是各种色彩的浅色形态。浅色是纯色与白色混合后的结果。纯色可以只混入一丁点儿白色,也可以被大量白色冲淡得几乎看不出来。

Tone: The next circle of colors represent the tone of each hue. A tone is the hue mixed with true gray. The hue mixed with any amount of gray is considered a tone of the hue.

深色:色环的更内一层就是各种颜色的深色形态。深色是纯色与灰色混合的产物。纯色混入不同数量的灰色,可以得到不同程度的深色调。

Shade: The inner most circle of colors represent the shade of each hue. A shade is the hue mixed with black. Just as with the tines, the hue may be mixed with just a touch of black or with so much black that you are.

暗色:色环中的最内圈代表各种颜色的暗色形态。暗色由纯色和黑色混合而来。和浅色一样,纯色可以只混入一丁点儿黑色,也可以和大量黑色进行混合。

(译注:这一节是对色彩三要素色相、明度、纯度的比较通俗的描述。)


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-05

Yellow

黄色

Yellow shines with optimism, enlightenment, and happiness. Shades of golden yellow carry the promise of a positive future. Yellow will advance from surrounding colors and instill optimism and energy, as well as spark creative thoughts.

黄色散发着乐观、灵性和欢乐的气息。暗金黄色可以让你看见一个积极的未来。黄色会从五彩丛中脱颖而出,并缓缓释放出乐观与能量,不断激发出灵感的火花。

Effects

效果

  • Stimulates mental processes
  • Stimulates the nervous system
  • Activates memory
  • Encourages communication
  • 刺激思维
  • 刺激神经系统
  • 激活记忆力
  • 鼓励沟通

Facts

趣闻

  • During the tenth century in France, the doors of traitors and criminals were painted yellow.

  • Yellow signifies "sadness" in Greece's culture and "jealousy" in France's culture.

  • Yellow is psychologically the happiest color in the color spectrum.

  • The comic book character Green Lantern was afraid of the color yellow.

  • 75% of the pencils sold in the United States are painted yellow.

  • 在第十世纪的法国,叛徒和罪犯的家门会被漆成黄色。

  • 黄色在希腊文化中表示“悲伤”,而在法国文化中表示“妒忌”。

  • 从心理学上讲,黄色是色谱中最令人愉悦的颜色。

  • 漫画人物绿灯侠惧怕黄色。

  • 在美国售出的铅笔中,有四分之三是漆成黄色的。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-06

Green

绿色

Green occupies more space in the spectrum visible to the human eye than most colors, and is second only to blue as a favorite color. Green is the pervasive color in the natural world, making it an ideal backdrop in interior design because we are so used to seeing it everywhere.

在人眼可识别的光谱中,绿色相比其它颜色占据了更多空间;同时它是仅次与蓝色的最受欢迎的颜色。绿色在自然界中无处不在,这使它成为室内设计中理想的背景色,因为我们已经习惯于身处其中了。

Effects

效果

  • Soothes
  • Relaxes mentally, as well as physically
  • Helps alleviate depression, nervousness, and anxiety
  • Offers a sense of renewal, self-control, and harmony
  • 有镇静作用
  • 令人放松身心
  • 有助于缓解压力、紧张和焦虑
  • 提供一种新生、内敛、和谐的感觉

Facts

趣闻

  • The solid green flag of Libya is currently the only national flag of a single color.

  • There is a superstition that sewing with green thread on the eve of a fashion show brings bad luck to the design house.

  • Green was the favorite color of George Washington, the first President of the United States.

  • Green is the color used for night-vision goggles because the human eye is most sensitive to and able to discern the most shades of that color.

  • NASCAR racers have shared a bias against the color green for decades. Reportedly, it began after a 1920 accident in Beverly Hills, California, that killed defending Indianapolis 500 champion Gaston Chevrolet. It was the first known racing accident in the United States to kill two drivers, and Chevrolet reportedly was driving a green car.

  • 利比亚的满幅绿色国旗是目前唯一的单色国旗。

  • 有一种迷信认为在时装秀的前夜用绿线缝衣服会给设计工作室带来厄运。

  • 绿色是美国第一任总统乔治·华盛顿最喜欢的颜色。

  • 绿色是夜视镜所采用的颜色,因为人类的视觉对绿色的不同深浅色调最为敏感,更易于辨识。

  • 全美房车竞赛协会数十年来对绿色一直怀有偏见。据传,这种偏见始于 1920 年发生于加州比佛利山庄的一次事故,这次事故夺去了“Indianapolis 500”赛事的卫冕冠军 Gaston Chevrolet(加斯顿·雪佛兰)的生命。这是美国赛车运动有史以来首次造成两名车手丧生的意外事故,而当时雪佛兰驾驶的就是一辆绿色赛车。(译注:此话题可参阅此文《绿车不吉利?》。)


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-07

Blue

蓝色

Blue is seen as trustworthy, dependable, and committed. The color of ocean and sky, blue is perceived as a constant in our lives. As the collective color of the spirit, it invokes rest and can cause the body to produce chemicals that are calming.

蓝色通常被视为值得信赖、坚实可靠的象征。作为海洋和天空的颜色,蓝色被认为是我们生命中的永恒色彩。作为心灵的共通之色,它可以唤起休憩之意,令身体产生有安神作用的化学物质。

Effects

效果

  • Calms and sedates
  • Cools
  • Aids intuition
  • 静心安神
  • 凉意
  • 促生直觉

Facts

趣闻

  • Blue is the least "gender specific" color, having equal appeal to both men and women.

  • Blue is the favored color choice for toothbrushes.

  • Owls are the only birds that can see the color blue.

  • People are often more productive in blue rooms.

  • Mosquito's are attracted to the color blue twice as much as to any other color.

  • 蓝色是最不具有“性别特征”的色彩,对男性和女性有同等的吸引力。

  • 蓝色是最受牙刷青睐的颜色之选。

  • 猫头鹰是唯一能识别蓝色的鸟类。

  • 人们在蓝色房间里通常更有工作效率。

  • 蓝色对蚊子的吸引力是其它颜色的两倍。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-08

Purple

紫色

Purple embodies the balance of red's stimulation and blue's calm. With a sense of mystic and royal qualities, purple is a color often well liked by very creative or eccentric types and is the favorite color of adolescent girls.

紫色体现了红色般跳跃与蓝色般平和之间的平衡。由于它的神秘气息和贵族气质,紫色通常会受到那些创意人士或古怪人群的偏爱,同时它也是少女们最爱的颜色。

Effects

效果

  • Uplifts
  • Calms the mind and nerves
  • Offers a sense of spirituality
  • Encourages creativity
  • 鼓舞人心
  • 平静心灵,舒缓神经
  • 提供灵性的感觉
  • 激发创造力

Facts

趣闻

  • Purple was the royal color of the Caesars.

  • Purple was the color of the first dye made by man.

  • Purple is the color of Madison Square Garden and seating for VIP’s was once covered in purple.

  • Purple is the color of the highest denomination = $5,000.

  • During the Silver Age of comic books, those with purple on their covers sold better.

  • 紫色是凯撒大帝的皇家色系。

  • 紫色是人类发明的第一种染料的颜色。

  • 紫色是麦迪逊广场花园(纽约曼哈顿的一个大型室内运动场)的代表色,而且 VIP 专座就曾使用紫色覆盖。

  • 紫色被用于最高面额的纸币(5000 美元)。

  • 在漫画书的兴盛时期,采用紫色封面的书往往卖得更好。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-09

Pink

粉色

Brighter pinks are youthful, fun, and exciting while vibrant pinks have the same high energy as red; they are sensual and passionate without being too aggressive. Toning down the passion of red with the purity of white results in the softer pinks that are associated with romance and the blush of a young woman's cheeks.

浅粉色给人一种年轻活泼、激动人心的感受,而鲜粉色则像红色一样蕴涵了极高的能量。这两种粉色都不乏感官刺激,令人激情澎湃,但又不过于张扬。用白色的纯净冲淡了红色的激情之后,会得到柔合的粉色,令人联想到浪漫气息和羞涩少女的那一抹腮红。

Effects

效果

  • Bright pinks, like the color red, stimulate energy and can increase the blood pressure, respiration, heartbeat, and pulse rate. They also encourage action and confidence.
  • Pink has been used in prison holding cells to effectively reduce erratic behavior.
  • 亮粉色,具有类似红色的效果,可以激发能量,增加血压、呼吸、心跳和脉搏;还可以激发斗志和信心。
  • 粉色常被用于监狱的牢房隔间,可有效地降低异常行为。(译注:据说,在男厕使用粉色装修和粉色小便斗,可以有效减少小便洒落地面的情况。)

Facts

趣闻

  • In 1947, fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli introduced the color "hot pink" to western fashion.

  • Pink encourages friendliness while discouraging aggression and ill-will.

  • Since the color pink is said to have a tranquilizing effect, sports teams sometimes use pink to paint the locker room used by opposing teams.

  • Studies of the color pink suggest that male weightlifters seem to lose strength in pink rooms, while women weightlifters tend to become stronger around the color.

  • Pastries taste better when they come out of pink boxes or served on pink plates (it only works with sweets) because pink makes us crave sugar.

  • 1947 年,时装设计师 Elsa Schiaparelli 将“艳粉色”引入西方时尚圈。

  • 桃色可以营造亲密氛围,减少攻击性和敌意。

  • 由于听说粉色有一种镇定效果,有些球队会把客队的休息室漆成粉色。

  • 对于粉色的研究发现,男性举重运动员在粉色房间内似乎感到力不从心,而女性举重运动员面对这种颜色反而会有变强的倾向。

  • 糕点从粉色盒子里取出或盛在粉色盘子里时,尝起来会更美味(这种情况仅适用于甜点),因为粉色令我们渴望糖份。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-10

Red

红色

Red has more personal associations than any other color. Recognized as a stimulant, red is inherently exciting and the amount of red is directly related to the level of energy perceived. Red draws attention and a keen use of red as an accent can immediately focus attention on a particular element.

与其它颜色相比,红色产生更多的人际交往。作为一种公认的兴奋剂,红色天生令人血脉贲张,而且红色的剂量会直接影响到能量的爆发程度。红色引人注目,巧妙地将它用作一种强调,可以立即将众人的注意力聚集到某个特定元素上。

Effects

效果

  • Increases enthusiasm
  • Stimulates energy and can increase the blood pressure, respiration, heartbeat, and pulse rate
  • Encourages action and confidence
  • Provides a sense of protection from fears and anxiety
  • 焕发热情
  • 激发活力,可以提高血压、呼吸、心跳和脉搏
  • 激发斗志和信心
  • 通过恐惧和焦虑来提供一种警戒意识

Facts

趣闻

  • Red is the highest arc of the rainbow.

  • Red is the first color you lose sight of at twilight.

  • The longest wavelength of light is red.

  • Feng shui recommends painting the front door of a home red to invite prosperity to the residents.

  • Bees can't see the color red, but they can see all other bright colors. Red flowers are usually pollinated by birds, butterflies, bats, and wind, rather than bees.

  • 红色是彩虹最外圈的颜色。

  • 红色是你在黄昏时最先无法辨别的颜色。

  • 波长最长的可见光就是红色的。

  • 中国的风水学建议将住宅的前门漆成红色,取兴旺红火之意。

  • 蜜蜂看不见红色,但它们可以看见其它鲜艳的颜色。红色花卉通常依靠鸟类、蝴蝶、蝙蝠和风媒进行授粉,而不是靠蜜蜂。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-11

Orange

橙色

Orange, a close relative of red, sparks more controversy than any other hue. There is usually strong positive or negative association to orange and true orange generally elicits a stronger "love it" or "hate it" response than other colors. Fun and flamboyant orange radiates warmth and energy.

橙色,是红色的近亲,比其它颜色更容易激起争论。对于橙色,往往存在极端正面或负面的联想;与其它颜色相比,纯正的橙色通常会引发更强烈的好恶反应。欢快而耀眼的橙色会放射出暖意和能量。

Effects

效果

  • Stimulates activity
  • Stimulates appetite
  • Encourages socialization
  • 激发活力
  • 刺激食欲
  • 鼓励社交

Facts

趣闻

  • The interior dash lights on older model Suburu cars were orange.

  • Orange is the color that means "high" in the color-coded threat system established by presidential order in March 2002.

  • In the United States Army, orange is the color of the United States Army Signal Corps.

  • Safety orange is a color used to set things apart from their surroundings.

  • Agent Orange, an herbicide named after the color of its containers, was used in a systematic herbicidal program organized by the US military that ran from 1961 through 1971 in Vietnam.

  • 一些老款的 Suburu 汽车的仪表盘灯光就是橙色的。

  • 2002 年 3 月,由总统令确立的“威胁等级色彩代号”系统中,橙色代表“高”。

  • 在美国陆军中,橙色是通信兵的代表色。

  • “安全橙”是一种用于将物体从周边环境中区分开来的颜色。

  • “橙剂”是一种除草剂,得名于它容器的颜色。这种除草剂曾用于 1961 至 1971 年间美军在越南组织的一项系统的除草工程。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-12

White

白色

white projects purity, cleanliness, and neutrality. Doctors don white coats, brides traditionally wear white gowns, and a white picket fence surrounds a safe and happy home.

白色表达出纯粹、洁净、中性的意味。医生穿上白色大褂,新娘披上白色长裙,一圈白色栅栏围出欢乐祥和的家园。

Effects

效果

  • Aids mental clarity
  • Encourages us to clear clutter or obstacles
  • Evokes purification of thoughts or actions
  • Enables fresh beginnings
  • 有助于头脑清醒
  • 鼓励我们扫除混乱和障碍
  • 唤起思想或行为的净化
  • 提供一个全新的开端

Facts

趣闻

  • A white flag is universally recognized as a symbol of truce.

  • According to Pantone Inc., white is the best selling color for the classic American t-shirt.

  • More shades of white are available commercially than any other color.

  • White clothing typically becomes translucent when wet.

  • The appearance of white in a dream is thought to represent happiness at home. White castles are a symbol of achievement, destiny perfectly fulfilled, and spiritual perfection.

  • Originally, scientists wore beige coats. In the late 19th century, medical professionals chose white ones. The color white was chosen because of the idea of hope and expectations for healing and recovery that the physicians would bring.

  • 白旗是普遍公认的停战标志。

  • 据彩通公司称,美国传统 T 恤还是白色的最好卖。(译注:彩通公司是一家权威的色彩研究机构,该公司推出的彩通配色系统是印刷配色领域的事实标准。)

  • 白色衣服通常在湿水后会变得有些半透明。

  • 梦里出现白色,通常被认为是家庭幸福的表现。白色城堡通常是功成名就、精神圆满的象征。

  • 最初,科学家们通常穿着米色外套。到了 19 世纪晚期,医学专家们开始选择白色外套,因为他们心怀对健康事业信心和期望,这与临床医师们的目标一致。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-13

Gray

灰色

Gray is the color of intellect, knowledge, and wisdom. It is perceived as long-lasting, classic, and often as sleek or refined. It is a color that is dignified, conservative, and carries authority. Gray is a perfect neutral, which is why designers often use it as a background color.

灰色象征着智慧和学识。它给人一种经典久远的感觉,又不失时尚优雅。灰色是一种严肃、保守、有份量的颜色。灰色是完美的中性色,因而经常被设计师用作背景色。

Effects

效果

  • Unsettles
  • Creams expectations
  • 增加变数
  • 突破常规

Facts

趣闻

  • The New York Times is sometimes called "Gray Lady".

  • Gray represents non-involvement, giving it a formal authority.

  • Gray is associated with intellect and the brain is composed of "gray matter".

  • Gray is representative of pessimism.

  • The human eye can distinguish about 500 shades of gray.

  • 纽约时报有时也被称为“灰色女士”。(译注:主要原因是该报的风格较为古典严肃。)

  • 灰色代表金盆洗手,放弃形式上的权力。

  • 灰色经常和智慧联系在一起,而大脑恰好由“灰质”组成。

  • 灰色是悲观主义的代表色。

  • 人类的眼睛可以区分大约 500 种不同明暗程度的灰色。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-14

Black

黑色

Black is authoritative and powerful; because black can evoke strong emotions, too much can be overwhelming. Black represents a lack of color, the primordial void, emptiness. It is a classic color for clothing, possibly because it makes the wearer appear thinner and more sophisticated.

黑色就是权威和力量,这是因为它能唤引强烈的情绪,大片浓重的黑色简直势不可挡。黑色意味着色彩消逝,以及混沌般的空洞虚无。它是经典的服装用色,可能是因为它令人看起来更加干练。

Effects

效果

  • Makes one feel inconspicuous
  • Provides a restful emptiness
  • Is mysterious by evoking a sense of potential and possibility
  • 低调
  • 提供一种空无一物般的宁静
  • 它的神秘感来自于它所唤起的一种潜藏而未知的感觉

Facts

趣闻

  • In England, taxi cabs are traditionally black.

  • Black implies weight -- people will think a black box weighs more than a white one.

  • The color black is associated with sophistication and power – tuxedos, limousines, judge's robes, and priests' attire are all typically black.

  • The color black is so widely regarded as sophisticated in fashion that the term "the new black" is often used to describe and give merit to a color trend.

  • One old wives' tale claims that if a woman is buried wearing the color black, she'll come back to haunt the family.

  • 在英格兰,出租车传统上都是黑色的。

  • 黑色意味着份量——人们会觉得一个黑盒子会比白盒子要重。

  • 黑色往往跟修养和权势联系在一起——正式礼服、豪华轿车、法官的长袍、神父的正装通常都是黑色的。

  • 黑色在时尚界广受赞誉,比如人们经常使用“新黑色”这个名词来表达对一种色彩潮流的推崇。

  • 有一种迷信说法认为,如果一个女人被埋葬时穿着黑衣,她就会经常游荡在她的家人周围。


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-15

The Colors of the Chakras

色彩与脉轮

The chakras are related to the seven basic energy centers in the body. Each of the chakras correlates to a major nerve ganglia branching out from the spinal column. In addition the chakras are correlated to colors, sounds, body functions, and much more.

脉轮指的是人体的七个基本的能量中枢。每个脉轮都与一个由脊柱分支出来的神经中枢相关联。此外,脉轮还与颜色、声音、身体功能等众多因素有关联。(译注:脉轮译自梵文“查克拉”,源自印度瑜伽的哲学理念。)


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-16

Violet (purple) is the color of the Crown chakra, also known as Sahasrara. This chakra is located at the top of the head. The Crown chakra is linked to the crown of the head, the nervous system and the brain, and is representative of pure thought.

Indigo: The color of the Brow or Third-Eye chakra, also known as Ajna. This chakra is located at the top of the head.

Blue: The color of the Throat chakra, also known as Visuddha. This chakra is located in the throat. It is linked to the throat, neck, hands, and arms. The Throat chakra is connected with speech and hearing and encourages spiritual communication.

Green: The color of the Heart chakra, also known as Anahata. This chakra is located at the center of the chest area and is linked to this entire area, the heart, lungs, circulatory system, and cardiac plexus.

Yellow: The color of the Solar Plexus chakra, also known as Manipura. This chakra is located in the stomach area and is linked to organs & muscular system in that area.

Orange: The color of the Sacral chakra, also known as Svadhisthana. This chakra is located beneath the naval close to the genitals The Sacral Chakra is linked to the sexual organs and reproductive system.

Red: The color or the Base or Root chakra, also known as Muladhara. This chakra is located at the base of the spine and allows us to be grounded and connect to the universal energies.

(译注:这一节就略过不译了。有兴趣的同学请阅读原文,并可参阅 查克拉 - 维基百科


色彩心理学:设计师的选色指南-17

Source: http://www.sensationalcolor.com/

资料来源: http://www.sensationalcolor.com/


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cssmagic commented Jul 13, 2013

为获取图片上的文本信息,我尝试了多家免费在线 OCR 服务,最终选定 NewOCR。可上传大图片,上传后会有预览图,允许框选文字范围。采用这种方式分块 OCR 可以取得较高的识别率;缺点就是需要频繁的手工操作,不过为了识别率我也忍了。

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