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This module provides client and server implementations to execute the CoinShuffle++ mixing protocol. While intended to be used to create Decred CoinJoin transactions, the client and server packages are generic enough to anonymously mix and join elements of any group.

This implementation differs from the protocol described by the CoinShuffle++ paper in the following ways:

  • DiceMix is replaced by DiceMix Light. This simplifies the computational cost by mixing smaller random numbers and sorting results to reserve anonymous slot assignments in a traditional XOR DC-net. It also enables scaling the protocol to mix very large messages without increasing the anonymization cost.

  • Peer session keys are ephemeral. This is a tradeoff made to reduce participant correlation observed by the server between multiple mixes with the understanding that it makes peer reputation and authentication systems more difficult to design. These systems can still be built on top of ephemeral session keys, e.g. by signing a challenge with both the epheremal and a static identity key to demonstrate knowledge of both secret keys.

  • A special server acts as the central communication point rather than all peers broadcasting all messages to every participant through a bulletin board or chat room. The server is the only party that advances the protocol into the next state when timeouts occur.

  • TLS (or another secure, authenticated channel) is required. This simplifies the protocol by removing the need to use the session signing key to authenticate each individual message. It also improves efficiency by allowing authentication to be performed through a MAC.

  • All non-anonymous portions of the final result (in a CoinJoin, all inputs and the change outputs) are shared with the server at the start of the protocol. The server is responsible for merging these messages, and the mixed messages from the DC-net, into a single message that clients confirm. With knowledge of how many inputs each peer is providing and their change output, a server can require each peer to pay their fair share of the transaction fee and check that inputs do not double spend.

Privacy guarantees and caveats

CoinShuffle++ provides creation of transactions with anonymized mixing of outputs with equally-sized amounts in a CoinJoin. It does not anonymize participation, transaction inputs, or change outputs. It is possible for a mix to be deanonymized in the future if participants reveal, maliciously or inadvertently, which mixed messages were theirs.

It is not possible to apply CoinShuffle++ to mix outputs with differing output amounts without aborting the protocol entirely upon run failure (rather than assigning blame, removing misbehaving peers, and starting another run). Doing so would deanonymize the final outputs by associating each peer with an output of the revealed amount. Therefore, only equally-sized outputs may be mixed anonymously.

Build requirements

All client packages and server software from this repo requires Go 1.13 or later.

In addition, the server software, found in the cmd/csppserver directory, depends on Flint2 to efficiently factor polynomials. This requires additional C libraries and headers to be installed for the server to compile and link against. On Ubuntu 18.04:

$ sudo apt-get install libflint-dev libmpfr-dev


cspp is released under a permissive ISC license.