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Email does not work #30

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md5 opened this issue Nov 17, 2014 · 86 comments
Open

Email does not work #30

md5 opened this issue Nov 17, 2014 · 86 comments
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@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Nov 17, 2014

As it currently stands, anything in Wordpress that needs to send email is broken. The wp_mail function that is used for sending out email by default is a thin wrapper over PHP's mail function, which defaults to calling /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i (cf. http://php.net/manual/en/mail.configuration.php). There are php.ini settings for SMTP, but they are only used on Windows.

For my own work based on this image, I've been installing ssmtp and configuring it to use an external relay host for SMTP, but that's clearly not a turnkey solution for everyone. It also looks like there are many Wordpress plugins that provide SMTP support, but I don't think that installing any of them by default in this image seems reasonable.

Perhaps all of this should just be documented, but I wanted to get it on your radar.

@md5 md5 changed the title Broken wp_mail Email does not work Nov 17, 2014
@tianon
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@tianon tianon commented Nov 17, 2014

Yeah... This was a hole we've had on our radar for a long time now, but
didn't have a good solution. Perhaps an actual issue will get some
brainshare going. We thought about something like ssmtp, but there really
is no good solution that'll work for 90% of users out of the box. Email
is hard. :(

@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Nov 17, 2014

It looks like WP actually uses something called PHPMailer under the hood, which does support SMTP, but it requires a custom hook for configuration: http://codex.wordpress.org/Plugin_API/Action_Reference/phpmailer_init#Examples

@omarabid
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@omarabid omarabid commented Jan 2, 2015

@md5 An alternative is to use a service like mailchimp and Mandrill. I know these are paying services, and not on your own service but the good thing (for Mandrill) is that you can opt out at any moment.

My experience is, your server emails will be probably put in SPAM folder. This is not the case for Mandrill.

@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Jan 2, 2015

@omarabid using Mailchimp or Mandrill still requires using SMTP, which isn't supported out of the box by Wordpress under Linux. As I mentioned in an earlier comment, it would be possible to add one of the WP plugins that supports SMTP, but I don't think it would be reasonable for a generic Wordpress image to include specific plugins.

In my case, I was using ssmtp to connect to Google Apps with a dedicated mail user. This will avoid spam issues just as well as Mandrill. The case you're talking about is likely the default scenario of a PHP app using the local /usr/sbin/sendmail to send its mail out with no relay host settings. In that case, assuming the IP either isn't listed in the domain's SPF records or the IP is part of a spammy netblock, you will indeed have deliverability problems.

@omarabid
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@omarabid omarabid commented Jan 3, 2015

using Mailchimp or Mandrill still requires using SMTP

No, otherwise, what's the point of using Mandrill.

@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Jan 3, 2015

Ok, you're right that you can use Mandrill with their REST API instead of SMTP, but that requires installing this plugin or some other plugin that knows how to use that API.

As for the point of using Mandrill with SMTP, there are a ton of reasons you might want to do that, including open tracking, click tracking, deliverability concerns, email volume, etc. Not of those advantages of the Mandrill service rely on using the REST API.

@omarabid
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@omarabid omarabid commented Jan 3, 2015

@md5 I was just suggesting a solution. Obviously, this should be available/fixed for the official Docker repo.

@booyaa
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@booyaa booyaa commented Apr 21, 2015

Wondering how modular you can make the smtp solution> A nice implementation that I've seen is this one https://github.com/catatnight/docker-postfix , but it does bolt on TLS and and OpenDKIM. Perhaps it could be paired down to just postfix? I'm assuming it would only be used via container link so you don't need TLS. DKIM is fall back to avoid DNS shenanigans, admittedly not having it or SSP will probably cause some filters to flag you as spammy.

Thoughts? I think it's time to retreat to the lab 😀

@timwsuqld
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@timwsuqld timwsuqld commented Apr 21, 2015

We are using SSMTP to relay to our main mailserver.
We have a php sendmail.ini file that contains the single line:

sendmail_path = /usr/sbin/ssmtp -t

We have a sed in the Dockerfile that changes the mailhub, rewritedomain and removes the hostname line from the ssmtp file (this way it gets the container id as the hostname)

RUN sed -i -e 's/mailhub=mail/mailhub=ourmailrelay.domain/' \
    -e 's/#rewriteDomain=/rewriteDomain=ourdomain/' \
    -e '/hostname=/d' \
    /etc/ssmtp/ssmtp.conf

This works really well, and as ssmtp isn't a daemon, it doesn't require any process management

@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Apr 21, 2015

@booyaa I don't like that the Postfix container you mention is using supervisord and running its own rsyslog, but that's a moot point probably.

I think the real issue is that PHP is still going to expect a working sendmail-compatible command which will need to be configured to talk to the linked SMTP container (whether it's postfix or some other SMTP server). Getting such a setup working and maintaining it would be error prone.

I still think the best that can be done here without assuming too much is simply to document the options.

@booyaa
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@booyaa booyaa commented Apr 22, 2015

Random musing: this problem would be a great candidate for a mail service docker-compose.yml firing up smtp, imap, spam assassin, clamav and webmail

@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Apr 22, 2015

@booyaa 👍

@pierreozoux
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@pierreozoux pierreozoux commented Jun 27, 2015

One good option is to configure SSMTP with ENV variables.
This way, you could put your GMAIL or Mandrill cred, and it would work out of the box!

@kcmerrill
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@kcmerrill kcmerrill commented Jul 25, 2015

If this is an old post, or there has previously been a resolution please disregard.

One quick way of getting mail working inside the container is to install msmtp.

Then, in a configuration file(example: msmtp):

account default
host 172.17.42.1
auto_from on

Copy this to /etc/ inside the container

Update the php.ini or set the sendmail_path variable like so:

sendmail_path = "/usr/bin/msmtp -t -i"

TL;DR
Use msmtp to point to the guest machine or some other container.

@omarabid
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@omarabid omarabid commented Jul 28, 2015

@md5 Any updates on this? I like the new container for SMTP approach. It separates concerns. However, this seems like a WordPress issue for me.

@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Jul 28, 2015

@omarabid I'm not aware of any developments on this issue other than what you can read in this thread.

@robertoandrade
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@robertoandrade robertoandrade commented Aug 26, 2015

Perhaps since a bunch of you have been able to successfully run ssmtp in the container alongside Wordpress, I thought I'd pose the question here. My install, even after properly configuring /etc/ssmtp/ssmtp.conf with the main SMTP server to relay to still errors out.

Via a simple mail() function test it fails, via wp_mail as well. When I try sendmail from the command line (inside the container) it locks after sending the last <CR>.<CR> and after a timeout period errors with sendmail: Cannot open server-address:port, which matches what I have in the .conf file. I'm using SSL on the other endpoint so wondering if that could play any part in the issue.

@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Aug 26, 2015

Have you tried telnet server-address port to see if that hangs as well?

Try something like this:

$ docker run -t --rm debian:jessie 'apt-get update && apt-get install -y telnet && telnet server-address port'

If that hangs too, then the problem is probably being caused by firewall rules on the host (outside the container). This can happen if the server you're trying to contact is on an RFC 1918 private subnet like something under 192.168.0.0/16 and your host thinks it should drop packets from the Docker bridge network.

@robertoandrade
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@robertoandrade robertoandrade commented Aug 26, 2015

Yeah, did it, and it works fine. it responds. so don't think it's networking related.

Anyways ended up ditching ssmtp completely on the container and just configured WordPress to use the external mailer directly via a plugin that intercepts the calls to mail(): http://coffee2code.com/wp-plugins/configure-smtp/

@md5
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@md5 md5 commented Aug 26, 2015

That's odd. I haven't seen sendmail time out for reasons other than packet drops, but perhaps the SMTP server was overloaded or something?

It would be good to get to the bottom of the issue if only for the sake of other users who hit problems using ssmtp.

BTW, I should point out that sendmail inside the container will be a symlink to ssmtp if that's all you have installed.

@pierreozoux
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@pierreozoux pierreozoux commented Oct 2, 2015

Ok, just to continue the discussion, here is a working example with ssmtp configured with env variables:

https://github.com/indiehosters/wordpress/

@nathan-osman
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@nathan-osman nathan-osman commented Oct 4, 2015

So I've managed to come up with a solution that involves another container and a WordPress plugin. The container is running an SMTP client that I wrote (named Hectane) and the WordPress plugin routes all calls to wp_mail() through the container.

Here are the commands to get it up and running:

docker run -d --name db mysql:latest
docker run -d --name mail hectane/hectane:0.2.1
docker run \
    -d -P \
    --link db:db \
    --link mail:mail \
    wordpress:latest

Once the containers are up and running, it's simply a matter of installing and activating this WordPress plugin and changing the hostname to "mail" in "Settings".

WordPress Configuration

Once that's done, all emails will be sent through Hectane and delivered via SMTP.

@joao-parana
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@joao-parana joao-parana commented Nov 15, 2015

Hi @nathan-osman, is it possible use hectane/hectane container with Drupal 8 ?

@ahansson89
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@ahansson89 ahansson89 commented Dec 17, 2015

I am using SendGrid for emails. It is super easy to set up with one of the many WP plugins and then you will send emails through an API while getting insights on open rate, bounce rate etc.

@geekscrapy
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@geekscrapy geekscrapy commented Jan 13, 2016

I presume you could use anyone of the smtp plugins to get this to work?
E.g. https://wordpress.org/plugins/wp-smtp/

@falconmick
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@falconmick falconmick commented Nov 30, 2018

I found the following postfix relay: https://github.com/wader/postfix-relay

I found the maintainer still is working on it and it has support for DKIM which is all i needed. I just added to the functions.php file the following:

add_action( 'phpmailer_init', 'wpse8170_phpmailer_init' );
function wpse8170_phpmailer_init( PHPMailer $phpmailer ) {
    // connect to the SMTP server running in our internal network
    $phpmailer->Host = 'smtp';
    $phpmailer->Port = 25;
    $phpmailer->SMTPAuth = false;
    $phpmailer->SMTPSecure = false;
    $phpmailer->IsSMTP();
}

Where smtp is the name of my postfix relay container (which thus resolves to the correct IP without exposing to the internets)

I then used the following config inside of my docker-compose.yml to get the image up n running

  volumes:
    dkim-data:

  wordpress:
	...
    depends_on:
      ...
      - smtp # added depends_on because wordpress depends on it.. that being said probably not required
    ...

  smtp:
    image: mwader/postfix-relay
    restart: always
    container_name: sova-smtp
    environment:
      - POSTFIX_myhostname=awesomesite.com.au
      - OPENDKIM_DOMAINS=awesomesite.com.au
    volumes:
      - dkim-data:/etc/opendkim/keys
    expose:
      - "25"

@joeldeteves
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@joeldeteves joeldeteves commented Dec 13, 2018

I would consider msmtp instead. It is probably a little better than ssmtp, because ssmtp afaik is unmaintained.

https://marlam.de/msmtp/
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/msmtp

@Kantankerus
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@Kantankerus Kantankerus commented Dec 19, 2018

I would consider msmtp instead. It is probably a little better than ssmtp, because ssmtp afaik is unmaintained.

https://marlam.de/msmtp/
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/msmtp

@joeldeteves I researched this separately and have come to the same conclusion. msmtp seems to be the way forward and fills largely the same exact role as ssmtp, only better (fewer bugs, improved system compatability) and more recently maintained. It appears Arch has completely dropped ssmtp from its repositories and I see Cygwin apparently supports msmtp now as well, which was apparently one of the platforms keeping ssmtp alive.

@Adrien-Luxey
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@Adrien-Luxey Adrien-Luxey commented Mar 30, 2020

(Edited because I was being aggressive.)
I'd like to see a mention of the missing emailing in the image's README!

@yosifkit
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@yosifkit yosifkit commented Mar 31, 2020

@Adrien-Luxey, Not a very inviting tone to take on an old issue; please be respectful.

If you have concrete suggestions for how it can be improved, a PR is welcome (here is the source of the Docker Hub description: https://github.com/docker-library/docs/blob/master/wordpress/content.md)

@Adrien-Luxey
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@Adrien-Luxey Adrien-Luxey commented Mar 31, 2020

You are right, please forgive me. I'll propose a (gentle) modification to the README myself. I will edit my previous comment if you don't mind.

Adrien-Luxey added a commit to Adrien-Luxey/docs that referenced this issue Mar 31, 2020
The lack of emailing is a good example of an additional extension that is not included in the image. Also referencing [wordpress/issues/30](docker-library/wordpress#30) because it contains good suggestions on the topic.
tianon added a commit to Adrien-Luxey/docs that referenced this issue Mar 31, 2020
The lack of emailing is a good example of an additional extension that is not included in the image. Also referencing [wordpress/issues/30](docker-library/wordpress#30) because it contains good suggestions on the topic.
@JoelLinn
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@JoelLinn JoelLinn commented Apr 27, 2020

Don't use ssmtp on new setups. It isn't serviced and debian packages are orphaned. Use msmtp instead.

/etc/msmtprc

# Set default values for all following accounts.
defaults
auth           on
tls            on
tls_trust_file /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
logfile        /tmp/msmtp.log

# Custom Mailserver
account        mymailserver
host           mail.example.com
port           587
from           user+wordpress@example.com
user           user@example.com
password       12345678

# Set a default account
account default : mymailserver

With recent versions (not yet available in alpine and debian) you can also set set_from_header to overwrite wordpress@localhost from address.

Also set this php configuration value:
sendmail_path = "/usr/bin/msmtp -t"

@Adrien-Luxey
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@Adrien-Luxey Adrien-Luxey commented Apr 28, 2020

I agree with the above. Let me propose my simple configuration that only forwards mail to my host's postfix (you could also have a dedicated container for sending mail, which would alleviate the need for fixed container network configuration):

/etc/msmtprc (container)

account default
host 172.27.0.1 # IP of my host: the network's gateway from the container's point of view
port 25
from php@yourdomain.tld

You also need to configure your host's postfix to accept requests from docker:

/etc/postfix/main.cf (host)

# [...]
mynetworks = ... 172.27.0.0/24

This is minimal: expect your mails to end in spam folders. But it works!
Your comments are welcome.

EDIT: I ran into trouble setting mynetworks = ... 172.0.0.0/8. Be specific with your network addresses!

@wpdiaries
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@wpdiaries wpdiaries commented Jul 4, 2020

I had the same problem. So I tried to find a solution. I've found several solutions and tested all of them at my site (to make sure they worked). It would be too long to post them here. So I have created a separate article:

https://www.wpdiaries.com/mail-functionality-for-official-docker-wordpress-image/

The article contains detailed examples of adding Postfix in a separate container. There are 2 such examples based on 2 different images (one has digital signing e-mails with DKIM and the other one works without DKIM). Also, I have added an example of adding Postfix directly to a WordPress container, but this solution is not recommended (it is better to have 1 responsibility for 1 container as it is described in the official Docker best practices).

I've made sure the e-mail sending functionality works in each of the listed examples.

I hope this will be useful for people who got problems with sending e-mail from WordPress in Docker. At least I did my best to provide as detailed and clear examples as I could.

@benhadad
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@benhadad benhadad commented Aug 15, 2020

possibly use Mailhog? Other images have used this
dockerfile:

Forward Message to mailhog

RUN curl --location --output /usr/local/bin/mhsendmail https://github.com/mailhog/mhsendmail/releases/download/v0.2.0/mhsendmail_linux_amd64 &&
chmod +x /usr/local/bin/mhsendmail
RUN echo 'sendmail_path="/usr/local/bin/mhsendmail --smtp-addr=mailhog:1025 --from=no-reply@gbp.lo"' > /usr/local/etc/php/conf.d/mailhog.ini

docker-compose:
mailhog:
container_name: ${APP_NAME}-mailhog
image: mailhog/mailhog
ports:
- "8025:8025"
- "1025:1025"

@joeldeteves
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@joeldeteves joeldeteves commented Feb 9, 2021

I would consider msmtp instead. It is probably a little better than ssmtp, because ssmtp afaik is unmaintained.

https://marlam.de/msmtp/
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/msmtp

Hello, I have found a much better solution than using msmtp, ssmtp, mailhog or any other SMTP client for that matter.

Wordpress is apparently bundled with PHPMailer - I did not realize that it came included with Wordpress by default.

This means with a little creativity we are able to configure it using the WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA environment variable that is baked into the docker image.

Here is an example written in YAML for our Kubernetes deployment:

          env:
            - name: SMTP_HOSTNAME
              value: "smtp.office365.com"
            - name: SMTP_PORT
              value: "587"
            - name: SMTP_USER
              value: "wordpress@example.com"
            - name: SMTP_PASSWORD
              valueFrom:
                secretKeyRef:
                  name: "wordpress-smtp-password"
                  key: smtp-password
                  optional: true
            - name: SMTP_FROM
              value: "wordpress@example.com"
            - name: WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA
              value: |
                // SMTP Settings
                require_once( ABSPATH .'wp-includes/plugin.php' );
                add_action( 'phpmailer_init', 'mail_smtp' );
                function mail_smtp( $phpmailer ) {
                  $phpmailer->isSMTP();
                  $phpmailer->Host = getenv('SMTP_HOSTNAME');
                  $phpmailer->Port = getenv('SMTP_PORT');
                  $phpmailer->Username = getenv('SMTP_USER');
                  $phpmailer->Password = getenv('SMTP_PASSWORD');
                  $phpmailer->From = getenv('SMTP_FROM');
                  $phpmailer->FromName = getenv('SMTP_FROM_NAME');

                  // Additional settings
                  $phpmailer->SMTPAuth = true;
                  $phpmailer->SMTPSecure = "tls";
                  $phpmailer->SMTPAutoTLS = true;
                }
                // Prevent Wordpress from overriding the SMTP FROM address (Office 365 compatibility)
                add_filter( 'wp_mail_from', function( $email ) {
                  return $_ENV["SMTP_FROM"];
                });

Of course, with a little tweaking you can apply the same setup in Docker, docker-compose and more, and at least in our case this eliminates the need for building a custom Docker image or running an MTA in a separate container.

Hope this helps,

@derspotter
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@derspotter derspotter commented Mar 11, 2021

I would consider msmtp instead. It is probably a little better than ssmtp, because ssmtp afaik is unmaintained.
https://marlam.de/msmtp/
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/msmtp

Hello, I have found a much better solution than using msmtp, ssmtp, mailhog or any other SMTP client for that matter.

Wordpress is apparently bundled with PHPMailer - I did not realize that it came included with Wordpress by default.

This means with a little creativity we are able to configure it using the WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA environment variable that is baked into the docker image.

Here is an example written in YAML for our Kubernetes deployment:

          env:
            - name: SMTP_HOSTNAME
              value: "smtp.office365.com"
            - name: SMTP_PORT
              value: "587"
            - name: SMTP_USER
              value: "wordpress@example.com"
            - name: SMTP_PASSWORD
              valueFrom:
                secretKeyRef:
                  name: "wordpress-smtp-password"
                  key: smtp-password
                  optional: true
            - name: SMTP_FROM
              value: "wordpress@example.com"
            - name: WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA
              value: |
                // SMTP Settings
                require_once( ABSPATH .'wp-includes/plugin.php' );
                add_action( 'phpmailer_init', 'mail_smtp' );
                function mail_smtp( $phpmailer ) {
                  $phpmailer->isSMTP();
                  $phpmailer->Host = getenv('SMTP_HOSTNAME');
                  $phpmailer->Port = getenv('SMTP_PORT');
                  $phpmailer->Username = getenv('SMTP_USER');
                  $phpmailer->Password = getenv('SMTP_PASSWORD');
                  $phpmailer->From = getenv('SMTP_FROM');
                  $phpmailer->FromName = getenv('SMTP_FROM_NAME');

                  // Additional settings
                  $phpmailer->SMTPAuth = true;
                  $phpmailer->SMTPSecure = "tls";
                  $phpmailer->SMTPAutoTLS = true;
                }
                // Prevent Wordpress from overriding the SMTP FROM address (Office 365 compatibility)
                add_filter( 'wp_mail_from', function( $email ) {
                  return $_ENV["SMTP_FROM"];
                });

Of course, with a little tweaking you can apply the same setup in Docker, docker-compose and more, and at least in our case this eliminates the need for building a custom Docker image or running an MTA in a separate container.

Hope this helps,

does anyone know how to translate this into a docker-compose.yml? Thank you so much!

@joeldeteves
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@joeldeteves joeldeteves commented Mar 12, 2021

does anyone know how to translate this into a docker-compose.yml? Thank you so much!

Hi @derspotter, you could try something like this (note the double $$ to prevent docker compose from interpreting environment variables in the PHP code):

(NOTE: I do not use Docker compose and I don't know the best way to handle storing sensitive info such as secrets. This is just a proof of concept showing how to translate a quick setup to a docker-compose file:

version: "3.9"
services:
  wordpress:
    image: wordpress:latest
    ports:
      - 8080:80
    environment:
      SMTP_HOSTNAME: smtp.office365.com
      SMTP_PORT: "587"
      SMTP_USER: email@xyz.com
      SMTP_PASSWORD: /run/secrets/smtp_password
      SMTP_FROM: email@xyz.com
      WORDPRESS_DB_HOST: wordpress-db
      WORDPRESS_DB_USER: wordpress
      WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD: /run/secrets/db_password
      WORDPRESS_DB_NAME: wordpress
      WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA: |
          // SMTP Settings
          require_once( ABSPATH .'wp-includes/plugin.php' );
          add_action( 'phpmailer_init', 'mail_smtp' );
          function mail_smtp( $$phpmailer ) {
              $$phpmailer->isSMTP();
              $$phpmailer->Host = getenv('SMTP_HOSTNAME');
              $$phpmailer->Port = getenv('SMTP_PORT');
              $$phpmailer->Username = getenv('SMTP_USER');
              $$phpmailer->Password = getenv('SMTP_PASSWORD');
              $$phpmailer->From = getenv('SMTP_FROM');
              $$phpmailer->FromName = getenv('SMTP_FROM_NAME');

              // Additional settings
              $$phpmailer->SMTPAuth = true;
              $$phpmailer->SMTPSecure = "tls";
              $$phpmailer->SMTPAutoTLS = true;
  
              // Filter out client message body and output debug info to the logs
              // NOTE: Log level must be set to '2' or higher in order for the filter to work
              $$phpmailer->SMTPDebug = 2;

              $$phpmailer->Debugoutput = function($$str) {
                  static $$logging = true;
                  if ($$logging === false && strpos($$str, 'SERVER -> CLIENT') !== false) {
                      $$logging = true;
                  }
                  if ($$logging) {
                      error_log("SMTP " . "$$str");
                  }
                  if (strpos($$str, 'SERVER -> CLIENT: 354') !== false) {
                      $$logging = false;
                  }
              };
          }
          // Prevent Wordpress from overriding the SMTP FROM address (Office 365 compatibility)
          add_filter( 'wp_mail_from', function( $$email ) {
              return $$_ENV["SMTP_FROM"];
          });
    volumes:
      - wp-data:/var/www/html
    secrets:
      - db_password
      - smtp_password
    depends_on:
      - wordpress-db
    
  wordpress-db:
    image: mariadb:latest
    environment:
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: /run/secrets/db_root_password
      MYSQL_DATABASE: wordpress
      MYSQL_USER: wordpress
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: /run/secrets/db_password
    volumes:
      - db-data:/var/lib/mysql
    secrets:
      - db_root_password
      - db_password

volumes:
  wp-data:
  db-data:

secrets:
  db_password:
    file: db_password.secret
  db_root_password:
    file: db_root_password.secret
  smtp_password:
    file: smtp_password.secret

@derspotter
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@derspotter derspotter commented Mar 12, 2021

does anyone know how to translate this into a docker-compose.yml? Thank you so much!

Hi @derspotter, you could try something like this (note the double $$ to prevent docker compose from interpreting environment variables in the PHP code):

Thank you so much!!! it works :))

@dont-panic-42
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@dont-panic-42 dont-panic-42 commented Mar 14, 2021

Thanks @joeldeteves for the WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA + PHPMailer solution, it is working for me.

In case it saves someone else a few frustrating hours, it seems like the *-alpine Docker WP images are not able to do external networking (like connecting to remote external SMTP hosts). I'm talking about external connections to public internet hosts (like smtp.mailgun.org), not to your local Docker containers. Maybe that's common knowledge but it was news to me.

I am not sure what exactly is missing but from inside a container using the wordpress:5.6-php7.4-fpm-alpine image, I was not able to either resolve an IP for my mail host (smtp.mailgun.org), nor ping it. Switching to wordpress:5.6-php7.4-fpm solved the problem, though it took much hair pulling and gnashing of teeth to get there.

@joeldeteves
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@joeldeteves joeldeteves commented Mar 14, 2021

it seems like the *-alpine Docker WP images are not able to do external networking (like connecting to remote external SMTP hosts)

I'm not able to reproduce this problem; I use alpine versions for all my deployments (currently running wordpress:5.6.2-php7.4-fpm-alpine).

You might want to double-check your config and/or firewall.

@dont-panic-42
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@dont-panic-42 dont-panic-42 commented Mar 14, 2021

I'm not able to reproduce this problem; I use alpine versions for all my deployments (currently running wordpress:5.6.2-php7.4-fpm-alpine).

@joeldeteves Interesting. I'm on macOS. It doesn't work for me. I'm not sure this is the right place for this tangent but maybe it is relevant and helps others. Super-simple docker-compose.yml demonstrating the problem:

version: '3'
services:
  wordpress1:
    image: wordpress:5.6-php7.4-fpm
  wordpress2:
    image: wordpress:5.6-php7.4-fpm-alpine
$ docker-compose up -d
Starting test_wordpress1_1 ... done
Starting test_wordpress2_1 ... done

$ docker exec -it test_wordpress1_1 bash
root@36939bbe8fcb:/var/www/html# curl -I https://github.com/docker-library/wordpress/issues/30
HTTP/2 200
server: GitHub.com
date: Sun, 14 Mar 2021 18:12:44 GMT
... lots of headers, clearly works fine
root@36939bbe8fcb:/var/www/html# exit

$ docker exec -it test_wordpress2_1 bash
bash-5.1# curl -I https://github.com/docker-library/wordpress/issues/30
curl: (6) Could not resolve host: github.com

@joeldeteves
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@joeldeteves joeldeteves commented Mar 14, 2021

@joeldeteves Interesting. I'm on macOS. It doesn't work for me. I'm not sure this is the right place for this tangent but maybe it is relevant and helps others.

I still can't reproduce this (I used the compose example you provided above, both containers are able to resolve just fine) however I am running Ubuntu.

It is very probable that this is something specific to your environment, quite possibly Mac-OS specific.

You may want to run some more tests such as testing from a VM, but I do not believe it is related to the alpine image.

@kimlehtinen
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@kimlehtinen kimlehtinen commented Apr 1, 2021

does anyone know how to translate this into a docker-compose.yml? Thank you so much!

Hi @derspotter, you could try something like this (note the double $$ to prevent docker compose from interpreting environment variables in the PHP code):

(NOTE: I do not use Docker compose and I don't know the best way to handle storing sensitive info such as secrets. This is just a proof of concept showing how to translate a quick setup to a docker-compose file:

version: "3.9"
services:
  wordpress:
    image: wordpress:latest
    ports:
      - 8080:80
    environment:
      SMTP_HOSTNAME: smtp.office365.com
      SMTP_PORT: "587"
      SMTP_USER: email@xyz.com
      SMTP_PASSWORD: /run/secrets/smtp_password
      SMTP_FROM: email@xyz.com
      WORDPRESS_DB_HOST: wordpress-db
      WORDPRESS_DB_USER: wordpress
      WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD: /run/secrets/db_password
      WORDPRESS_DB_NAME: wordpress
      WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA: |
          // SMTP Settings
          require_once( ABSPATH .'wp-includes/plugin.php' );
          add_action( 'phpmailer_init', 'mail_smtp' );
          function mail_smtp( $$phpmailer ) {
              $$phpmailer->isSMTP();
              $$phpmailer->Host = getenv('SMTP_HOSTNAME');
              $$phpmailer->Port = getenv('SMTP_PORT');
              $$phpmailer->Username = getenv('SMTP_USER');
              $$phpmailer->Password = getenv('SMTP_PASSWORD');
              $$phpmailer->From = getenv('SMTP_FROM');
              $$phpmailer->FromName = getenv('SMTP_FROM_NAME');

              // Additional settings
              $$phpmailer->SMTPAuth = true;
              $$phpmailer->SMTPSecure = "tls";
              $$phpmailer->SMTPAutoTLS = true;
  
              // Filter out client message body and output debug info to the logs
              // NOTE: Log level must be set to '2' or higher in order for the filter to work
              $$phpmailer->SMTPDebug = 2;

              $$phpmailer->Debugoutput = function($$str) {
                  static $$logging = true;
                  if ($$logging === false && strpos($$str, 'SERVER -> CLIENT') !== false) {
                      $$logging = true;
                  }
                  if ($$logging) {
                      error_log("SMTP " . "$$str");
                  }
                  if (strpos($$str, 'SERVER -> CLIENT: 354') !== false) {
                      $$logging = false;
                  }
              };
          }
          // Prevent Wordpress from overriding the SMTP FROM address (Office 365 compatibility)
          add_filter( 'wp_mail_from', function( $$email ) {
              return $$_ENV["SMTP_FROM"];
          });
    volumes:
      - wp-data:/var/www/html
    secrets:
      - db_password
      - smtp_password
    depends_on:
      - wordpress-db
    
  wordpress-db:
    image: mariadb:latest
    environment:
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: /run/secrets/db_root_password
      MYSQL_DATABASE: wordpress
      MYSQL_USER: wordpress
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: /run/secrets/db_password
    volumes:
      - db-data:/var/lib/mysql
    secrets:
      - db_root_password
      - db_password

volumes:
  wp-data:
  db-data:

secrets:
  db_password:
    file: db_password.secret
  db_root_password:
    file: db_root_password.secret
  smtp_password:
    file: smtp_password.secret

Thank you this worked with docker-compose! I created a separate gmail account that's only used to send mails on a wp-site of mine. If you use gmail as I did, you have to enable less secure apps in your gmail settings https://support.google.com/accounts/answer/6010255?hl=en

@sceptic30
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@sceptic30 sceptic30 commented May 4, 2021

Hello everyone.
I figured out a clean and working solution without any hacks around WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA, or wordpress plugins.
It was more of a php issue than wordpress it self.
I work only with alpline images so the packages that needs to be installed are alpine packages.
For extra security the php image will run under www-data.
What i did was:

  1. install msmtp and mailx packages from edge/community repository
  2. create a soft link : ln -sf /usr/bin/msmtp /usr/sbin/sendmail
  3. Apply some permissions needed.
  4. echo 'sendmail_path = "/usr/bin/msmtp -t"' > /usr/local/etc/php/conf.d/msmtp.ini

The exact RUN statement is bellow:

RUN set -x \
    && echo "http://dl-cdn.alpinelinux.org/alpine/edge/community/" >> /etc/apk/repositories \
    && apk add --no-cache \
    msmtp \
    mailx \
    && ln -sf /usr/bin/msmtp /usr/sbin/sendmail \
    && chown 82:82 -R /var/mail \
    && touch /etc/msmtprc \
    && chown 82:82 /etc/msmtprc \
    && chmod 600 /etc/msmtprc \
    && echo 'sendmail_path = "/usr/bin/msmtp -t"' > /usr/local/etc/php/conf.d/msmtp.ini

The exact Php's Dockerfile is here https://github.com/sceptic30/php8-msmtp/blob/main/Dockerfile
Based on that, i created a wordpress image like normally https://github.com/sceptic30/wordpress-php-fpm-redis-alpine/blob/master/Dockerfile

For those that they just want to download the images use these commands (currently the most up to date):

docker pull admintuts/php:7.4.18-fpm-alpine 
docker pull admintuts/php:8.0.5-fpm-alpine

And for Wordpress:

docker pull admintuts/wordpress:php7.4.18-fpm-redis-alpine
docker pull admintuts/wordpress:php8.0.5-fpm-redis-alpine

After that, follow instructions given here https://github.com/sceptic30/php8-msmtp#create-configuration-files-for-msmtp for the confuguration files that needs to be bind-mount to the container file system, and you should be good to go.

@Losmoges
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@Losmoges Losmoges commented Jul 6, 2021

I have a running dovecot/postfix stack at arbitrary internal hostname dovecot.my for development. With the following php code loaded in wordpress the email functionality is working. Inspired by/copied from posts above.

require_once(ABSPATH .'wp-includes/plugin.php');

// configure phpmailer with SMTP before sending emails
add_action('phpmailer_init', function($mailer) {
  $mailer->isSMTP();
  $mailer->Host = "dovecot.my";
  $mailer->SMTPAuth = true;
  $mailer->Username = "wordpress@dovecot.my";
  $mailer->Password = "pass";
  $mailer->Port = 587;
});

// from_email defaults to 'wordpress@$sitename', which seems to be wordpress@localhost by default
// use this filter to make sure it matches your smtp host
add_filter('wp_mail_from', function($from) {
  return "wordpress@dovecot.my";
});

// optional: error logging in case phpmailer fails
add_action('wp_mail_failed', function($wperror) {
  error_log(implode("; ", $wperror->get_error_messages()));
});

I put the above in a WORDPRESS_CONFIG_EXTRA environment variable in my docker-compose.yml. Just be sure to duplicate all the $ signs so that docker-compose doesn't interpret them as bash/env variables. Note: any other way to add this script to your wordpress would probably work as well. No need to install any additional softwares in my wordpress container.

Just be aware that this is probably terrible security, don't use in production.

Tested on wordpress:5.7.2

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