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Gender neutral terming for siblings of parents.

Fixes #96
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gavofyork committed Apr 7, 2015
1 parent b8d1984 commit 8dd35d4e194a49564756ad3c552bb088f4a75031
Showing with 12 additions and 12 deletions.
  1. +12 −12 Paper.tex
@@ -284,13 +284,13 @@ \subsection{The Transaction} \label{ch:transaction}
\subsection{The Block} \label{ch:block}
The block in Ethereum is the collection of relevant pieces of information (known as the block \textit{header}), $H$, together with information corresponding to the comprised transactions, $\mathbf{T}$, and a set of other block headers $\mathbf{U}$ that are known to have a parent equal to the present block's parent's parent (such blocks are known as \textit{uncles}). The block header contains several pieces of information:
The block in Ethereum is the collection of relevant pieces of information (known as the block \textit{header}), $H$, together with information corresponding to the comprised transactions, $\mathbf{T}$, and a set of other block headers $\mathbf{U}$ that are known to have a parent equal to the present block's parent's parent (such blocks are known as \textit{ommers}\footnote{\textit{ommer} is the most prevalent (not saying much) gender-neutral term to mean ``sibling of parent''; see \url{http://nonbinary.org/wiki/Gender_neutral_language#Family_Terms}}). The block header contains several pieces of information:
%\textit{TODO: Introduce logs}
\begin{description}
\item[parentHash] The Keccak 256-bit hash of the parent block's header, in its entirety; formally $H_p$.
\item[unclesHash] The Keccak 256-bit hash of the uncles list portion of this block; formally $H_u$.
\item[ommersHash] The Keccak 256-bit hash of the ommers list portion of this block; formally $H_u$.
\item[coinbase] The 160-bit address to which all fees collected from the successful mining of this block be transferred; formally $H_c$.
\item[stateRoot] The Keccak 256-bit hash of the root node of the state trie, after all transactions are executed and finalisations applied; formally $H_r$.
\item[transactionsRoot] The Keccak 256-bit hash of the root node of the trie structure populated with each transaction in the transactions list portion of the block; formally $H_t$.
@@ -305,7 +305,7 @@ \subsection{The Block} \label{ch:block}
\item[nonce] A 256-bit hash which proves that a sufficient amount of computation has been carried out on this block; formally $H_n$.
\end{description}
The other two components in the block are simply a list of uncle block headers (of the same format as above) and a series of the transactions. Formally, we can refer to a block $B$:
The other two components in the block are simply a list of ommer block headers (of the same format as above) and a series of the transactions. Formally, we can refer to a block $B$:
\begin{equation}
B \equiv (B_H, B_\mathbf{T}, B_\mathbf{U})
\end{equation}
@@ -357,7 +357,7 @@ \subsubsection{Transaction Receipt}
\subsubsection{Holistic Validity}
We can assert a block's validity if and only if it satisfies several conditions: it must be internally consistent with the uncle and transaction block hashes and the given transactions $B_\mathbf{T}$ (as specified in sec \ref{ch:finalisation}), when executed in order on the base state $\boldsymbol{\sigma}$ (derived from the final state of the parent block), result in a new state of the identity $H_r$:
We can assert a block's validity if and only if it satisfies several conditions: it must be internally consistent with the ommer and transaction block hashes and the given transactions $B_\mathbf{T}$ (as specified in sec \ref{ch:finalisation}), when executed in order on the base state $\boldsymbol{\sigma}$ (derived from the final state of the parent block), result in a new state of the identity $H_r$:
\begin{equation}
\begin{array}[t]{lclc}
H_r &\equiv& \mathtt{\small TRIE}(L_S(\Pi(\boldsymbol{\sigma}, B))) & \wedge \\
@@ -958,30 +958,30 @@ \section{Blocktree to Blockchain} \label{ch:ghost}
This increases overall network security by making it much harder for an adversary to silently mine a canonical blockchain (which, it is assumed, would contain different transactions to the current consensus) and dump it on the network with the effect of overriding existing blocks and reversing the transactions within.
In order to validate the extra computation, a given block $B$ may include the block headers from any known uncle blocks (i.e. blocks whose parent is equivalent to the $N$th generation grandparent of $B$, for a limited set of $N$). Since a block header includes the nonce, a proof-of-work, then the header alone is enough to validate the computation done. Any such blocks contribute toward the total computation or \textit{total difficulty} of a chain that includes them. To incentivise computation and inclusion, a reward is given both to the miner of the stale block and the miner of the block that references it.
In order to validate the extra computation, a given block $B$ may include the block headers from any known ommer blocks (i.e. blocks whose parent is equivalent to the $N$th generation grandparent of $B$, for a limited set of $N$). Since a block header includes the nonce, a proof-of-work, then the header alone is enough to validate the computation done. Any such blocks contribute toward the total computation or \textit{total difficulty} of a chain that includes them. To incentivise computation and inclusion, a reward is given both to the miner of the stale block and the miner of the block that references it.
Thus we define the total difficulty of block $B$ recursively as:
\begin{eqnarray}
B_t & \equiv & B'_t + B_d + \sum\limits_{U \in B_\mathbf{U}} U_d \\
B' & \equiv & P(B_H)
\end{eqnarray}
As such given a block $B$, $B_t$ is its total difficulty, $B'$ is its parent block, $B_d$ is its difficulty and $B_\mathbf{U}$ is its set of uncle blocks.
As such given a block $B$, $B_t$ is its total difficulty, $B'$ is its parent block, $B_d$ is its difficulty and $B_\mathbf{U}$ is its set of ommer blocks.
\section{Block Finalisation} \label{ch:finalisation}
The process of finalising a block involves four stages:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Validate (or, if mining, determine) uncles;
\item Validate (or, if mining, determine) ommers;
\item validate (or, if mining, determine) transactions;
\item apply rewards;
\item verify (or, if mining, compute a valid) state and nonce.
\end{enumerate}
\subsection{Uncle Validation}
\subsection{Ommer Validation}
The validation of uncle headers means nothing more than verifying that each uncle header is both a valid header and satisfies the relation of $N$th-generation uncle to the present block where $N \leq 6$. Formally:
The validation of ommer headers means nothing more than verifying that each ommer header is both a valid header and satisfies the relation of $N$th-generation ommer to the present block where $N \leq 6$. Formally:
\begin{equation}
\bigwedge_{U \in B_\mathbf{U}} V(U) \; \wedge \; k(U, P(B_H), 6)
\end{equation}
@@ -1010,14 +1010,14 @@ \subsection{Transaction Validation}
\subsection{Reward Application}
The application of rewards to a block involves raising the balance of the accounts of the coinbase address of the block and each uncle by a certain amount. We raise the block's coinbase account by $R_b$; for each uncle, we raise the block's coinbase by an additional $\frac{1}{32}$ of the block reward and the coinbase of the uncle by $\frac{15}{16}$ of the reward. Formally we define the function $\Omega$:
The application of rewards to a block involves raising the balance of the accounts of the coinbase address of the block and each ommer by a certain amount. We raise the block's coinbase account by $R_b$; for each ommer, we raise the block's coinbase by an additional $\frac{1}{32}$ of the block reward and the coinbase of the ommer by $\frac{15}{16}$ of the reward. Formally we define the function $\Omega$:
\begin{eqnarray}
\Omega(B, \boldsymbol{\sigma}) & \equiv & \boldsymbol{\sigma}': \boldsymbol{\sigma}' = \boldsymbol{\sigma} \quad \text{except:} \\
\boldsymbol{\sigma}'[{B_H}_c]_b & = & \boldsymbol{\sigma}[{B_H}_c]_b + (1 + \frac{|B_\mathbf{U}|}{32})R_b \\
\forall_{U \in B_\mathbf{U}} \; \boldsymbol{\sigma}'[U_c]_b & = & \boldsymbol{\sigma}[U_c]_b + \frac{15}{16}R_b
\end{eqnarray}
If there are collisions of the coinbase addresses between uncles and the block (i.e. two uncles with the same coinbase address or an uncle with the same coinbase address as the present block), additions are applied cumulatively.
If there are collisions of the coinbase addresses between ommers and the block (i.e. two ommers with the same coinbase address or an ommer with the same coinbase address as the present block), additions are applied cumulatively.
We define the block reward as 1500 Finney:
\begin{equation}
@@ -1959,7 +1959,7 @@ \section{Genesis Block}\label{app:genesis}
\big( \big( 0_{256}, \mathtt{\tiny KEC}\big(\mathtt{\tiny RLP}\big( () \big)\big), 0_{160}, stateRoot, 0, 2^{22}, 0, 0, 3141592, 0, 0, 0, \mathtt{\tiny KEC}\big( (42) \big) \big), (), () \big)
\end{equation}
Where $0_{256}$ refers to the parent hash, a 256-bit hash which is all zeroes; $0_{160}$ refers to the coinbase address, a 160-bit hash which is all zeroes; $2^{22}$ refers to the difficulty; 0 refers to the timestamp (the Unix epoch); the transaction trie root and extradata are both $0$, being equivalent to the empty byte array. The sequences of both uncles and transactions are empty and represented by $()$. $\mathtt{\tiny KEC}\big( (42) \big)$ refers to the Keccak hash of a byte array of length one whose first and only byte is of value 42. $\mathtt{\tiny KEC}\big(\mathtt{\tiny RLP}\big( () \big)\big)$ value refers to the hash of the uncle lists in RLP, both empty lists.
Where $0_{256}$ refers to the parent hash, a 256-bit hash which is all zeroes; $0_{160}$ refers to the coinbase address, a 160-bit hash which is all zeroes; $2^{22}$ refers to the difficulty; 0 refers to the timestamp (the Unix epoch); the transaction trie root and extradata are both $0$, being equivalent to the empty byte array. The sequences of both ommers and transactions are empty and represented by $()$. $\mathtt{\tiny KEC}\big( (42) \big)$ refers to the Keccak hash of a byte array of length one whose first and only byte is of value 42. $\mathtt{\tiny KEC}\big(\mathtt{\tiny RLP}\big( () \big)\big)$ value refers to the hash of the ommer lists in RLP, both empty lists.
The proof-of-concept series include a development premine, making the state root hash some value $stateRoot$. The latest documentation should be consulted for the value of the state root.

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