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routing on railway tracks using OpenStreetMap data and the GraphHopper routing engine
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README.md

OpenStreetMap based routing on railway tracks

This is a prototype of a routing engine for railways based on a forked version of the GraphHopper routing engine and OpenStreetMap data.

Following features are currently supported:

  • simple routing requests
  • map matching
  • taking turn angles into account (to avoid U-turns on points)
  • disabling turns on railway crossings (OSM tag railway=railway_crossing)
  • using only tracks which have a compatible gauge
  • not using tracks without catenary if it is an electrical locomotive/electrical multiple unit
  • distinction between third rails and catenary
  • support of tracks with multiple gauges
  • support of tracks with switchable voltage and frequency

Lacking features:

  • avoiding the usage of the opposite track (on double-track lines)
  • taking the low acceleration and the long breaking distances of trains into account
  • a lot of features which would need data which is not in OSM (incline, structure gauges)

Building

This project uses Maven 3.x for building. The forked GraphHopper is provided as a Git submodule.

git submodule init
git submodule update
bash build.sh

JUnit 4.x is used for unit tests.

Configuration

Configuration happens via a YAML file which is given as a positional parameter when starting the routing engine. Most parts of the configuration are identical to GraphHopper. However, one part is different – the flag encoders (aka routing profiles):

# This section sets the properties of the flag encoders like maximum speed,
# supported power systems, supported gauges and the factor to use to encode the speed
# values.
#
# Properties of flagEncoderProperties:
#   name: name of the flag encoder – used by the API
#   electrified: list of compatible values of the OSM tag electrified=* separated by semicola – as a string
#   voltages: list of compatible values of the OSM tag voltage=* separated by semicola – as a string
#   frequencies: list of compatible values of the OSM tag frequency=* separated by semicola – as a string
#   gauges: list of compatible values of the OSM tag gauge=* separated by semicola – as a string
#   maxspeed: maximum speed of this flag encoder in kph
#   speedFactor: divisor for divide speed values by to encode them in the flags of an edge of the graph
#
# If electrified, voltages, frequencies or gauges is missing, the profile accepts any value. This is recommended for
# an all-gauge diesel engine.
flagEncoderProperties:
  - name: tgv_all
    electrified: contact_line
    voltages: 15000;25000;1500;3000
    frequencies: 16.7;16.67;50;0
    gauges: 1435
    maxspeed: 319
    speedFactor: 11
  - name: non_tgv
    gauges: 1435
    maxspeed: 120
    speedFactor: 5

graphhoper:
  # Use the 'profiles' property. graph.flag_encoders is not supported!
  profiles: tgv_all,non_tgv

  # Any other values can be found in the GraphHopper documentation and are explained in the exemplary configuration in this repository

Running

To run the routing engine, execute

java -Xmx2500m -Xms50m -Dgraphhopper.prepare.ch.weightings=no \
  -Dgraphhopper.datareader.file=$OSMFILE -Dgraphhopper.profiles=freight_diesel \
  -jar target/railway_routing-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-jar-with-dependencies.jar $ACTION $CONFIG_FILE $OPTARG

The tool currently supports three different actions ($ACTION above):

  • import to import the graph (graph will be stored at the subdirectory graph-cache/)
  • serve to listen to HTTP requests for the API and the web interface on the port specified in a YAML configuration file (see config.yml as an example). If no data has been imported, an import of the routing graph will happen first.
  • match do map matching. This command needs additional arguments called $OPTARG above.

All commands have some arguments to be handed over as Java system variables using the -Dkey=value option of the JVM. These arguments can also be given using the YAML file.

Import

Required settings to be given either as Java system properties (-Dgraphhopper.datareader.file=PATH or in the YAML file):

  • graphhopper.datareader.file=$PATH: path to OSM file
  • graphhopper.graph.location=./graph-cache: directory where the graph should be written to (default: ./graph-cache)
  • graphhopper.profiles=freight_electric_15kvac_25kvac,freight_diesel,tgv_15kvac25kvac1.5kvdc,tgv_25kvac1.5kvdc3kvdc: flag encoders to be used. Following encoders are available but you can define more on your own:
    • freight_electric_15kvac_25kvac
    • freight_diesel
    • tgv_15kvac25kvac1.5kvdc
    • tgv_25kvac1.5kvdc3kvdc
    • freight_electric_25kvac1.5kvdc3kvdc

Web

Required settings to be given either as Java system properties (-Dgraphhopper.datareader.file=PATH or in the YAML file):

  • graphhopper.datareader.file=$PATH: path to OSM file
  • graphhopper.graph.location=./graph-cache: directory where the graph should be read from (default: ./graph-cache)
  • server.applicationConnector.port=$PORT: port to be opened by Jetty
  • graphhopper.profiles=<flag_encoders>: this must be the same as used for the import

Match

Required settings to be given either as Java system properties (-Dgraphhopper.datareader.file=PATH or in the YAML file):

  • graphhopper.datareader.file=$PATH: path to OSM file
  • graphhopper.graph.location=./graph-cache: directory where the graph should be read from (default: ./graph-cache)

Followoing arguments have to be provided (not as Java system variables). You can retrieve this list by calling java -jar target/railway_routing-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-jar-with-dependencies.jar match config.yml

  • --gpx-location=$PATTERN is required. This can be either a single GPX file or a wildcard pattern like /path/to/dir/mytracks/*.gpx. The resulting routes will be written as GPX files to same directory but .res.gpx will be appended to their file names.
  • -V VEHICLE, --vehicle=$VEHICLE: routing profile to be used.

Optional command line arguments:

  • -a NUMBER, --gps-accuracy=NUMBER: GPS accuracy in metres (default: 40)
  • --max_nodes=NUMBER: maximum number of nodes to visit between two trackpoints (default: 10,000)

License

See LICENSE.txt

See third_party.md for a list of all third-party code in this repository

Thank you

Development of this project has been supported by Geofabrik and SNCF.

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