ANS Forth environment for the TRS-80 Model 100 laptop computer. ROM images and additional information are available at the MFORTH page on strangeGizmo.com.
The majority of MFORTH is written in 8085 assembly language and targets
the Telemark Cross Assembler (TASM).
build.bat can be used to call TASM with the appropriate arguments,
although you may need to tweak the batch file for your computer.
MFORTH uses a perfect hash table to accelerate its access to the ROM-based dictionary. The first build pass creates the standard ROM, with the traditional, linked list dictionary structure. MFORTH's PhashGen tool then reads the dictionary out of the ROM file, generates the hash tables, and writes those hash tables out as an assembler file. The second build pass compiles the hash tables into the ROM and enables the hash-based dictionary search.
PhashGen is a C# application, but should work fine with Mono. MFORTH operates both with and without the hash table if you do not have the ability to run the PhashGen tool. Only a single build pass is needed if you are not using PhashGen.
MFORTH must be added to the system menu before it can be used. Perform the following steps on your Model 100 or Model 102 laptop in order to use MFORTH for the first time:
- Select BASIC from the system menu.
CALL 63012at the
Okprompt and hit ENTER.
- MFORTH will load and add itself to the system menu.
byeto return to the system menu. MFORTH should now appear on the system menu and can be accessed by selecting MFORTH and pressing ENTER.
You can use the M100's TEXT editor to write programs for MFORTH. Type the programs into a new .DO file and then load them with MFORTH using the following phrase (assuming that you named your file "TEST.DO"):
S" TEST" INCLUDED
Note the space after the
S" word. Also, note that MFORTH is not case
sensitive when it comes to words, but that it is case sensitive when it
comes to file names. In other words, you could also type the following
phrase to load the file:
s" TEST" included
MFORTH supports multiple levels of file inclusion, so you could create a MAIN.DO file that includes other .DO files. This might make it easier to structure and test your program. You could put common utility words in a file called UTILS.DO and then test those words in MFORTH by including UTILS.DO. Later, when you are ready to run your entire program, you could include MAIN.DO. MAIN.DO would include those other files and then call the main entry point for your program.
MFORTH includes a full 8085 assembler, allowing easy access to the
M100's ROM routines or to improve the performance of key words. The
assembler is accessed from the
The assembler creates Forth words that can be called as part of a normal
Forth definition or from the interpreter. The following code gives you
access to the Main ROM's
PLOT routine, which draws a pixel at any
location on the screen:
code plot ( x y --) saveregs h pop l e mov h pop l d mov 29772 romcall restoreregs next end-code
You can then use
PLOT just like any other MFORTH word:
120 30 plot 120 31 plot 120 32 plot 120 33 plot
Note that the MFORTH assembler is a traditional, postfix assembler, so the arguments are "reversed" from how they might look in something like TASM. The benefit of this approach is that the assembler has all of the power of the Forth environment, so you can easily write loops and if statements without having to deal with labels. Here is an example of a word that converts a lower case string to upper case:
hex code toupper ( c-addr u --) saveregs d pop h pop begin d a mov e ora 0<> while m a mov 60 cpi cc if 20 sui a m mov then d dcx h inx repeat restoreregs next end-code decimal
Here is how to use the new word:
S" Hello World" 2DUP TOUPPER TYPE
MFORTH includes a cooperative multitasking system based on the
word. You can create multiple tasks and have them execute alongside
each other, even while you are writing more code and interacting with
MFORTH. Tasks are very small (256 bytes). Tasks are created by passing
an xt to the
TASK word; the task will then run that xt until it
returns (which, in most cases, it should never do). Tasks can suspend
themselves and give time to the next task by calling
PAUSE and should
do that fairly often. The primary task (the one that provides the text
PAUSE every time it checks the keyboard queue, for
Here is an example of a task that displays a clock in the upper-right corner of the screen. The clock will continue to update, even as you do other things in MFORTH:
: .NN ( u) 0 <# # # #> TYPE ; : .NNNN ( u) 0 <# # # # # #> TYPE ; : .- [CHAR] - EMIT ; : .DATE ( d m y) .NNNN .- .NN .- .NN ; : .: [CHAR] : EMIT ; : .TIME ( s m h) .NN .: .NN .: .NN ; : .TIME&DATE TIME&DATE .DATE SPACE .TIME ; : SEC ( --u) TIME&DATE 2DROP 2DROP DROP ; : NEWSEC? ( u1--u2 f) SEC TUCK <> ; : .CLOCK GET-XY 21 0 AT-XY .TIME&DATE AT-XY ; : CLOCK 0 BEGIN NEWSEC? IF .CLOCK THEN PAUSE AGAIN ;
You start the clock by typing:
' CLOCK TASK
There is no way to stop the clock display other than to exit MFORTH.
Copyright and License
Copyright © 2009-2012, Michael Alyn Miller malyn@strangeGizmo.com All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
- Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice unmodified, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer.
- Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
- Neither the name of Michael Alyn Miller nor the names of the contributors to this software may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.