Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?

Latest commit

Bumps [bedrock2]( from `471d059` to `eb7c242`.
- [Release notes](
- [Commits](mit-plv/bedrock2@471d059...eb7c242)

- dependency-name: bedrock2
  dependency-type: direct:production

Signed-off-by: dependabot[bot] <>

Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

Rupicola: Relation compilation for performance-critical applications badge

Rupicola rupicola

Rupicola is a relational-compilation toolkit. It lets you build customized compilers that translate (low-level) functional programs into imperative code, like this:

Definition onec_add16 (z1 z2: Z) :=
  let sum := z1 + z2 in ( sum 0xffff + (Z.shiftr sum 16)).

Definition ip_checksum (bs: list byte) :=
  let c := List.fold_left onec_add16 ( le_combine (chunk 2 bs)) 0xffff in (Z.lnot c) 0xffff.
uintptr_t ip_checksum(uintptr_t data,
                      uintptr_t len) {
  uintptr_t idx, to, b0, b1, chk17, w16, chk16;
  chk16 = 65535;
  idx = 0; to = len >> (uintptr_t)1;
  while (idx < to) {
    b0 = _br2_load(data + 2 * idx, 1);
    b1 = _br2_load(data + 2 * idx + 1, 1);
    w16 = b0 | (b1 << (uintptr_t)8);
    chk17 = chk16 + w16;
    chk16 = (chk17 & (uintptr_t)65535) +
            (chk17 >> (uintptr_t)16);
    idx = idx + (uintptr_t)1;
  if (len & (uintptr_t)1) {
    b0 = _br2_load(data + (len - (uintptr_t)1), 1);
    w16 = b0 | (((uintptr_t)0) << ((uintptr_t)8));
    chk17 = chk16 + w16;
    chk16 = (chk17 & (uintptr_t)65535) +
            (chk17 >> (uintptr_t)16);
  chk16 = (chk16 ^ UINTPTR_MAX) & (uintptr_t)65535;
  return chk16;

Chose your own adventure below:

Using Rupicola

If you don’t want to set up Coq, clone Rupicola, and figure out dependencies, we recommend downloading our artifact. The VM contains a detailed README and a step-by-step guide to reproduce the results in the paper. Otherwise, follow along below.

Setting up Rupicola on your own machine

A complete setup and build process is provided as a commented script in `etc/ <etc/>`__. We recommend reading through that file if you prefer to run everything on your own machine. (In fact, our artifact VM was built just by running the script found at etc/pldi2022-ae/ in the pldi2022-ae branch of the repository).

Use make -j to build Rupicola and its dependencies. The build can be pretty chatty at times, and some of the libraries we depend on (including Bedrock2 and coqutils) have build-time warnings (mostly due to backwards compatibility concerns).

We develop and test Rupicola only on GNU/Linux machines, though we have had students use it on macOS machines as well.

Getting started

We have an interactive, standalone tutorial on relational compilation in etc/relational-compilation-tutorial.v, which you can following in your favorite Coq editor. This is an implementation of section 2 of the PLDI 2022 paper.

Once you’ve read through that, you can step through src/Rupicola/Examples/Uppercase.v (this is an implementation of the example in section 3 of the PLDI 2022 paper), which showcases the basics of compiling code with Rupicola.

Experimenting with this file is a good way to get a feel for Rupicola: you can try changing parts of the source code and looking at what part of the derivation breaks, for example.

By the way: “Rupicola Rupicola” is the scientific name of the Guianan cock-of-the-rock — a fitting name, since Rupicola compiles from Coq to Bedrock(2)!

Browsing other examples

The following files are not commented but should be reasonably easy to follow:

Error-detecting codes (cyclic redundancy check)
crc32: src/Rupicola/Examples/CRC32/CRC32.v
Branchless UTF-8 decoding
utf8: src/Rupicola/Examples/Utf8/Utf8.v
Scramble part of the Murmur3 algorithm
m3s: src/Rupicola/Examples/Arithmetic.v (module Murmur3)
IP (one's-complement) checksum (RFC 1071)
ip: src/Rupicola/Examples/Net/IPChecksum/IPChecksum.v
In-place DNA sequence complement
fasta: src/Rupicola/Examples/RevComp.v
Fowler-Noll-Vo (noncryptographic) hash
fnv1a: src/Rupicola/Examples/Arithmetic.v (module FNV1A)
A modern pseudorandom number generator
l64x128: src/Rupicola/Examples/L64X128.v
Memory cells
src/Rupicola/Examples/Cells/Cells.v, src/Rupicola/Examples/Cells/IndirectAdd.v
src/Rupicola/Examples/Nondeterminism/StackAlloc.v, src/Rupicola/Examples/Nondeterminism/Peek.v

Reproducing benchmarks

THe VM contains complete benchmarking scripts, which are also on the pldi2022-ae branch. Each benchmark includes a script, as well as a manual C implementation of the same algorithm, and a driver for the C code generated by Rupicola. Both pieces of C code are benchmarked in the same conditions. Concretely, for e.g. Uppercase.v, we have in src/Rupicola/Examples/:


The Coq source code. Note the fragment at the end that generates C code:

Definition upstr_cbytes := Eval vm_compute in
  list_byte_of_string (ToCString.c_module [upstr_br2fn]).
A generator that produces testdata.bin, the data fed to the C programs
The handwritten C version of the algorithm
A C driver for the benchmarks
A script that prints out upstr_bytes from the Coq file into upstr_rupicola.c, then runs the benchmarks
Uppercase/upstr_rupicola.c (auto-generated)
The Rupicola-generated C version of the algorithm

Compiling your own code with Rupicola

We wrote up a small exercise for the artifact evaluation, found in src/Examples/Exercises/ByteOps.v in the pldi2022-ae branch of the repo. It explores an extension of Rupicola’s expression compiler by using an arithmetic operator that is not supported out of the box by Rupicola and looking at how the compiler breaks and how support can be added for the new operator. A solution (in the form of a literate program) is in src/Examples/Exercises/ByteOps_Solution.v.

Here are some other tasks that you may consider:

  • Compile a new small program, for example one that computes the max of three numbers (for an additional twist, read the three numbers from an array). The files Examples/Conditionals.v and Examples/Arrays.v are good places to start from.
  • Change the Uppercase example to apply a different transformation on strings. For example, write a string sanitizer that replaces every non-printable character by a space. If you get stuck, look at RevComp.v for inspiration.