Useful tools for working with iterators
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README.md

iterstuff

Useful tools for working with iterators

If the python2 itertools module is the Swiss Army Knife of functions for iterables, iterstuff is the cut-down single-blade version that you can keep on your keyring.

You can install iterstuff from pypi using pip:

pip install iterstuff

Lookahead

The Lookahead class is the main feature of iterstuff. It 'wraps' an iterable and allows:

  • Detection of the end of the generator using the atend property
  • 'Peeking' at the next item to be yielded using the peek property

Note that 'wrapping' means that the Lookahead will advance the wrapped iterable (by calling next) as needed. As per the comments on the Lookahead __init__, creating the Lookahead will advance to the first element of the wrapped iterable immediately. After that, iterating over the Lookahead will also iterate over the wrapped iterable.

We'll look at examples in a moment, but first here's a summary of usage:

>>> # Create a generator that will yield three integers
>>> g = xrange(3)
>>> # Wrap it in a Lookahead
>>> from iterstuff import Lookahead
>>> x = Lookahead(g)

Now we can use the properties of the Lookahead to check whether we're at the start and/or end of the generator sequence, and to look at the next element that would be yielded:

>>> x.atstart
True
>>> x.atend
False
>>> x.peek
0

Let's grab the first element and see how the properties change:

>>> x.next()
0
>>> x.atstart
False
>>> x.atend
False
x.peek
1

We have two ways to iterate over a sequence wrapped in a Lookahead:

>>> # The usual way
>>> x = Lookahead(xrange(3))
>>> for y in x: print y
0
1
2

>>> # By checking for the end of the sequence
>>> x = Lookahead(xrange(3))
>>> while not x.atend:
...     y = x.next()
...     print y
...     
0
1
2

And we can detect a completely empty Lookahead:

>>> if x.atstart and x.atend:
...    # x is an empty Lookahead

The obvious question is: how is this useful?

Repeating a takewhile

The itertools.takewhile function can yield items from an iterable while some condition is satisfied. However, it only yields items up until the condition is no longer satisfied, then it stops, after testing the next element. Let's see what happens if we want to use it to break a sequence of characters into letters and digits.

>>> from itertools import takewhile
>>> # Build a generator that returns a sequence
>>> data = iter('abcd123ghi')
>>>
>>> # Ok, let's get the characters that are not digits
>>> print list(takewhile(lambda x: not x.isdigit(), data))
['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
>>> 
>>> # Great, now let's get the digits
>>> print list(takewhile(lambda x: x.isdigit(), data))
['2', '3']

What happened to '1'? When we were processing the non-digits, the takewhile function read the '1' from data, passed it to the lambda and when that returned False, terminated. But of course, by then the '1' had already been consumed, so when we started the second takewhile, the first character it got was '2'.

We can solve this with a Lookahead. Here's a repeatable takewhile equivalent (that's in the iterstuff module):

def repeatable_takewhile(predicate, iterable):
    """
    Like itertools.takewhile, but does not consume the first
    element of the iterable that fails the predicate test.
    """
    
    # Assert that the iterable is a Lookahead. The act of wrapping
    # an iterable in a Lookahead consumes the first element, so we
    # cannot do the wrapping inside this function.
    if not isinstance(iterable, Lookahead):
        raise TypeError("The iterable parameter must be a Lookahead")
    
    # Use 'peek' to check if the next element will satisfy the
    # predicate, and yield while this is True, or until we reach
    # the end of the iterable.
    while (not iterable.atend) and predicate(iterable.peek):
        yield iterable.next()

Let's see how this behaves:

>>> from iterstuff import repeatable_takewhile, Lookahead
>>> data = Lookahead('abcd123ghi')
>>> print list(repeatable_takewhile(lambda x: not x.isdigit(), data))
['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
>>> print list(repeatable_takewhile(lambda x: x.isdigit(), data))
['1', '2', '3']

Examine data before it's used

The pandas library can build a DataFrame from almost any sequence of records. The DataFrame constructor checks the first record to determine the data types of the columns. If we pass a generator data to the DataFrame constructor, almost the first thing that happens is that data is turned into a list, so that pandas can access data[0] to examine the data types. If your generator yields many records, though, this is bad - it's just built a list of those many records in memory, effectively doubling the amount of memory used (memory to hold the list plus memory to hold the DataFrame).

A Lookahead allows code to peek ahead at the next row. So we could do the same job as pandas in a different way:

# Wrap the data in a Lookahead so we can peek at the first row
peekable = Lookahead(data)

# If we're at the end of the Lookahead, there's no data
if peekable.atend:
    return
    
# Grab the first row so we can look at the data types
first_row = peekable.peek

# ...process the data types...

Simple pairwise

There's a beautiful recipe in the itertools documentation for yielding pairs from an iterable:

def pairwise(iterable):
    "s -> (s0,s1), (s1,s2), (s2, s3), ..."
    a, b = tee(iterable)
    next(b, None)
    return izip(a, b)

Beautiful, but a little complex. We can make a simpler version with a Lookahead:

def pairwise(iterable):
    "s -> (s0,s1), (s1,s2), (s2, s3), ..."
    it = Lookahead(iterable)
    while not it.atend:
        yield it.next(), it.peek

Let's try it:

>>> data = iter('abcd123ghi')
>>> print list(pairwise(data))
[('a', 'b'), ('b', 'c'), ('c', 'd'), ('d', '1'), ('1', '2'), ('2', '3'), ('3', 'g'), ('g', 'h'), ('h', 'i'), ('i', None)]

Chunking

Chunking is like using the repeatable takewhile, but for a specific use-case.

Suppose you're reading data from a database: the results of a big query over a LEFT OUTER JOIN between several tables. Let's create a simplified (but real-world) example.

We store data that relates to timing of web pages. We store an event for each page, and for each event we store multiple values. Our tables look something like:

Event
ID  Created             Session URL
01  2014-12-17 01:00:00 ab12f43 http://www.mobify.com/
02  2014-12-17 01:00:01 ab12f43 http://www.mobify.com/jobs
...and so on for millions of events...

Value
Event_ID  Name              Value
01        DOMContentLoaded     83
01        Load                122
02        DOMContentLoaded     64
02        Load                345
...and so on for millions of values for millions of events...

At the end of every day, we process the records for that day, by doing a query like:

SELECT *
FROM Event LEFT OUTER JOIN Value ON Event.ID = Value.Event_ID
ORDER BY Event.ID

We'll probably end up with something like a SQLAlchemy ResultProxy or a Django QuerySet - an iterable thing that yields records (and here we're assuming that your database will stream the results back to your Python client so that you can process much more data than you could ever fit into memory). Let's call that iterable thing records.

What we want to do is to process each event. The problem is that if we just iterate over the records:

for record in records:
    print record.ID, record.Created, record.Name, record.Value

...we'll get one record per value - more than one record per event:

01 2014-12-17 01:00:00 DOMContentLoaded 83
01 2014-12-17 01:00:00 Load 122
02 2014-12-17 01:00:01 DOMContentLoaded 64
02 2014-12-17 01:00:01 Load 345

It's be better if we could handle all the records for one event together, then all the records for the next event, and so on.

We could use repeatable_takewhile to grab all the records belonging to the same event:

it = Lookahead(records)

while not it.atend:
    current_event_id = it.peek.ID
    event_records = list(
        repeatable_takewhile(
            lambda r: r.ID == current_event_id,
            it
        )
    )
    
    # Now we have just the records for the next event
    ...process...

But because this is a common use case, Lookahead has a helper function to make this even easier. The chunked function takes a function to extract a 'key' value from each element, and yields successive iterables, each of which has records with the same key value.

from iterstuff import chunked
for records_for_events in chunked(
        records,
        lambda r: r.ID
    ):
    # records_for_events is a sequence of records for
    # one event.
    ...process...

In fact, we can use chunking in the character class problem we showed earlier:

>>> data = (x for x in 'abcd123ghi')
>>> for charset in chunked(data, lambda c: c.isdigit()):
...     print list(charset)
...     
['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
['1', '2', '3']
['g', 'h', 'i']

Batching

The batch method is a simplification of a common use for itertools.islice.

Suppose your generator yields records that you're reading from a file, or a database. Suppose that there may be many hundreds of thousands of records, or even millions, so you can't fit them all into memory, and you need to do them in batches of 1000.

Here's one way to do this using islice:

from itertools import islice
CHUNK = 1000
while True:
    # Listify the records so that we can check if
    # there were any returned.
    chunk = list(islice(records, CHUNK))
    if not chunk:
        break
    
    # Process the records in this chunk
    for record in chunk:
        process(record)

Or the iterstuff batch function will do this for you in a simpler way:

from iterstuff import batch
CHUNK = 1000
for chunk in batch(records, CHUNK):
    # Chunk is an iterable of up to CHUNK records
    for record in chunk:
        process(record)

Here's an elegant batch solution provided by Hamish Lawson for ActiveState recipes: http://code.activestate.com/recipes/303279-getting-items-in-batches/)

from itertools import islice, chain
def batch(iterable, size):
    sourceiter = iter(iterable)
    while True:
        batchiter = islice(sourceiter, size)
        yield chain([batchiter.next()], batchiter)

Note how this uses a call to batchiter.next() to cause StopIteration to be raised when the source iterable is exhausted. Because this consumes an element, itertools.chain needs to be used to 'push' that element back onto the head of the chunk. Using a Lookahead allows us to peek at the next element of the iterable and avoid the push. Here's how iterstuff.batch works:

def batch(iterable, size):
    # Wrap an enumeration of the iterable in a Lookahead so that it
    # yields (count, element) tuples
    it = Lookahead(enumerate(iterable))

    while not it.atend:
        # Set the end_count using the count value
        # of the next element.
        end_count = it.peek[0] + size

        # Yield a generator that will then yield up to
        # 'size' elements from 'it'.
        yield (
            element
            for counter, element in repeatable_takewhile(
                # t[0] is the count part of each element
                lambda t: t[0] < end_count,
                it
            )
        )

A Conclusion

Python generators are a wonderful, powerful, flexible language feature. The atend and peek properties of the Lookahead class enable a whole set of simple recipes for working with generators.

You can see examples of use in the unit tests for this package, and run them by executing the tests.py file directly.

Thanks

...to the Engineering Gang at Mobify ...to https://github.com/landonjross for Python3 support