Qt.py enables you to write software that runs on any of the 4 supported bindings - PySide2, PyQt5, PySide and PyQt4.
|Jan 2018||1.1.0||Adds new test suite, new members|
|Mar 2017||1.0.0||Increased safety, backwards incompatible|
|Sep 2016||0.6.9||Stable release|
|Sep 2016||0.5.0||Alpha release of
|Jun 2016||0.2.6||First release of Qt.py|
- Developing with Qt.py
- Dealing with Maya 2017 and PySide2
- Vendoring Qt.py
- Udemy Course
- PythonBytes #77 (Starts at 5:00)
Table of contents
- Project goals
- How it works
- Known problems
- Who's using Qt.py?
- Projects using Qt.py
- Projects similar to Qt.py
- Developer guide
Write once, run in any binding.
Qt.py was born in the film and visual effects industry to address the growing need for software capable of running with more than one flavor of the Qt bindings for Python - PySide, PySide2, PyQt4 and PyQt5.
|Support co-existence||Qt.py should not affect other bindings running in same interpreter session.|
|Build for one, run with all||Code written with Qt.py should run on any binding.|
|Explicit is better than implicit||Differences between bindings should be visible to you.|
CONTRIBUTING.md for more details.
# From PyPI $ pip install Qt.py
# From Anaconda $ conda config --add channels conda-forge $ conda install qt.py
- Pro tip: Never use the latest commit for production. Instead, use the latest release. That way, when you read bug reports or make one for yourself you will be able to match a version with the problem without which you will not know which fixes apply to you nor would we be able to help you. Installing via pip or conda as above ensures you are provided the latest stable release. Unstable releases are suffixed with a
- Pro tip: Supports vendoring
Use Qt.py as you would use PySide2.
import sys from Qt import QtWidgets app = QtWidgets.QApplication(sys.argv) button = QtWidgets.QPushButton("Hello World") button.show() app.exec_()
- Also see /examples
All members of
Qt stem directly from those available via PySide2, along with these additional members.
||Version of this project|
||A string reference to binding currently in use|
||Reference to version of Qt, such as Qt 5.6.1|
||Reference to version of binding, such as PySide 1.2.6|
>>> from Qt import __binding__ >>> __binding__ 'PyQt5'
Qt.py also provides compatibility wrappers for critical functionality that differs across bindings, these can be found in the added
||Minimal wrapper of PyQt4.loadUi and PySide equivalent|
||Compatibility wrapper around QCoreApplication.translate|
>>> from Qt import QtCompat >>> QtCompat.loadUi
Class specific compatibility objects
Between Qt4 and Qt5 there have been many classes and class members that are obsolete. Under Qt.QtCompat there are many classes with names matching the classes they provide compatibility functions. These will match the PySide2 naming convention.
from Qt import QtCore, QtWidgets, QtCompat header = QtWidgets.QHeaderView(QtCore.Qt.Horizontal) QtCompat.QHeaderView.setSectionsMovable(header, False) movable = QtCompat.QHeaderView.sectionsMovable(header)
This also covers inconsistencies between bindings. For example PyQt4's QFileDialog matches Qt4's return value of the selected. While all other bindings return the selected filename and the file filter the user used to select the file.
Qt.QtCompat.QFileDialog ensures that getOpenFileName(s) and getSaveFileName always return the tuple.
These are the publicly facing environment variables that in one way or another affect the way Qt.py is run.
|QT_PREFERRED_BINDING||str||Override order and content of binding to try.|
|QT_VERBOSE||bool||Be a little more chatty about what's going on with Qt.py|
|QT_SIP_API_HINT||int||Sets the preferred SIP api version that will be attempted to set.|
Subset (or "common members")
Members of Qt.py is a subset of PySide2. Which means for a member to be made accessible via Qt.py, it will need to (1) be accessible via PySide2 and (2) each of the other supported bindings. This excludes large portions of the Qt framework, including the newly added QtQml and QtQuick modules but guarantees that anything you develop with Qt.py will work identically on any binding - PySide, PySide2, PyQt4 and PyQt5. If you need to use such excluded modules with Qt.py, please see QtSiteConfig.py.
We call this subset "common members" and these can be generated by running the
build_membership.sh script. The script will output all modules and members of each binding into individual JSON files. These JSON files are then compared and a
common_members.json file is generated. The contents of this file is copy-pasted into the
_common_members dictionary of Qt.py. Please note that the script will only use the very latest version of our Docker test suite to generate the common members subset, using the most up-to-date set of VFX Platform-stipulated software versions.
Branch binding-specific code
Some bindings offer features not available in others, you can use
__binding__ to capture those.
if "PySide" in __binding__: do_pyside_stuff()
Override preferred choice
If your system has multiple choices where one or more is preferred, you can override the preference and order in which they are tried with this environment variable.
$ set QT_PREFERRED_BINDING=PyQt5 # Windows $ export QT_PREFERRED_BINDING=PyQt5 # Unix/OSX $ python -c "import Qt;print(Qt.__binding__)" PyQt5
Constrain available choices and order of discovery by supplying multiple values.
# Try PyQt first and then PySide, but nothing else. $ export QT_PREFERRED_BINDING=PyQt:PySide
Using the OS path separator (
os.pathsep) which is
: on Unix systems and
; on Windows.
Add or remove members from Qt.py at run-time.
If you need to expose a module that isn't included in Qt.py by default or wish to remove something from being exposed in Qt.py you can do so by creating a
QtSiteConfig.py module and making it available to Python.
- Create a new file
- Expose to Python
# QtSiteConfig.py def update_members(members): """Called by Qt.py at run-time to modify the modules it makes available. Arguments: members (dict): The members considered by Qt.py """ members.pop("QtCore")
Finally, expose the module to Python.
$ set PYTHONPATH=/path/to $ python -c "import Qt.QtCore" ImportError: No module named Qt.QtCore
Linux and MacOS users, replace
Compile Qt Designer files
WARNING - ALPHA FUNCTIONALITY
See #132 for details.
.ui files compiled via
pyside2-uic inherently contain traces of PySide2 - e.g. the line
from PySide2 import QtGui.
In order to use these with Qt.py, or any other binding, one must first erase such traces and replace them with cross-compatible code.
$ pyside2-uic my_ui.ui -o my_ui.py $ python -m Qt --convert my_ui.py # Creating "my_ui_backup.py".. # Successfully converted "my_ui.py"
Now you may use the file as you normally would, with Qt.py
Loading Qt Designer files
uic.loadUi function of PyQt4 and PyQt5 as well as the
QtUiTools.QUiLoader().load function of PySide/PySide2 are mapped to a convenience function
import sys from Qt import QtCompat app = QtWidgets.QApplication(sys.argv) ui = QtCompat.loadUi(uifile="my.ui") ui.show() app.exec_()
PyQt bindings it uses their native implementation, whereas for
PySide bindings it uses our custom implementation borrowed from the qtpy project.
loadUi has two arguments as opposed to the multiple that PyQt ships with. See here for details - in a nutshell, those arguments differ between PyQt and PySide in incompatible ways.
The second argument is
baseinstance which allows a ui to be dynamically loaded onto an existing QWidget instance.
uifile is the string path to the ui file to load.
None, the a new instance of the top-level
widget will be created. Otherwise, the user interface is created within
baseinstance. In this case
baseinstance must be an
instance of the top-level widget class in the UI file to load, or a
subclass thereof. In other words, if you've created a
interface in the designer,
baseinstance must be a
or a subclass thereof, too. You cannot load a
QMainWindow UI file
with a plain
baseinstance is provided.
Otherwise it will return the newly created instance of the user interface.
sip API v2
If you're using PyQt4,
sip attempts to set its API to version 2 for the following:
The PyQt and PySide bindings are similar, but not identical. Where there is ambiguity, there must to be a clear direction on which path to take.
The official Qt 5 documentation is always right. Where the documentation lacks answers, PySide2 is right.
# PyQt5 adheres to PySide2 signals and slots PyQt5.Signal = PyQt5.pyqtSignal PyQt5.Slot = PyQt5.pyqtSlot # PySide2 adheres to the official documentation PySide2.QtCore.QStringListModel = PySide2.QtGui.QStringListModel
There are cases where Qt.py is not handling incompatibility issues. Please see
CAVEATS.md for more information.
Send us a pull-request with known problems here!
Who's using Qt.py?
Send us a pull-request with your studio here.
- Atomic Fiction
- Industrial Brothers
- Moonbot Studios
- Sony Pictures Imageworks
- Method Studios
- Weta Digital
- Disney Animation
- Rising Sun Pictures
- Blur Studio
- Mikros Image
- Epic Games
- Digital Domain
- Overmind Studios
Presented at Siggraph 2016, BOF!
Projects using Qt.py
Send us a pull-request with your project here.
Projects similar to Qt.py
Also worth mentioning, pyqt4topyqt5; a good starting point for transitioning to Qt.py.
Send us a pull-request with your project here.
Tests are performed on each aspect of the shim.
Each of these are run under..
- Python 2.7
- Python 3.4
- Python 3.5
- Python 3.6
..once for each binding or under a specific binding only.
Each test is run within it's own isolated process, so as to allow an
import to occur independently from other tests. Process isolation is handled via nosepipe.
Tests that are written at module level are run four times - once per binding - whereas tests written under a specific if-statement are run only for this particular binding.
if binding("PyQt4"): def test_something_related_to_pyqt4(): pass
Below are some of the conventions that used throughout the Qt.py module and tests.
- Etiquette: PEP8
- All code is written in PEP8. It is recommended you use a linter as you work, flake8 and pylinter are both good options. Anaconda if using Sublime is another good option.
- Etiquette: Double quotes
- " = yes, ' = no.
- Etiquette: Napoleon docstrings
- Any docstrings are made in Google Napoleon format. See Napoleon for details.
- Etiquette: Semantic Versioning
- This project follows semantic versioning.
- Etiquette: Underscore means private
- Anything prefixed with an underscore means that it is internal to Qt.py and not for public consumption.
Due to the nature of multiple bindings and multiple interpreter support, setting up a development environment in which to properly test your contraptions can be challenging. So here is a guide for how to do just that using Docker.
With Docker setup, here's what you do. Please note this will pull down a ~1 GB image.
cd Qt.py # Run nosetests (Linux/OSX) docker run --rm -v $(pwd):/Qt.py -e PYTHON=2.7 fredrikaverpil/qt.py:2018 docker run --rm -v $(pwd):/Qt.py -e PYTHON=3.4 fredrikaverpil/qt.py:2018 docker run --rm -v $(pwd):/Qt.py -e PYTHON=3.5 fredrikaverpil/qt.py:2018 docker run --rm -v $(pwd):/Qt.py -e PYTHON=3.6 fredrikaverpil/qt.py:2018 # Run nosetests (Windows) docker run --rm -v %CD%:/Qt.py -e PYTHON=2.7 fredrikaverpil/qt.py:2018 docker run --rm -v %CD%:/Qt.py -e PYTHON=3.4 fredrikaverpil/qt.py:2018 docker run --rm -v %CD%:/Qt.py -e PYTHON=3.5 fredrikaverpil/qt.py:2018 docker run --rm -v %CD%:/Qt.py -e PYTHON=3.6 fredrikaverpil/qt.py:2018 # Doctest: test_caveats.test_1_qtgui_qabstractitemmodel_createindex ... ok # Doctest: test_caveats.test_2_qtgui_qabstractitemmodel_createindex ... ok # Doctest: test_caveats.test_3_qtcore_qitemselection ... ok # ... # # ---------------------------------------------------------------------- # Ran 21 tests in 7.799s # # OK
Now both you and Travis are operating on the same assumptions which means that when the tests pass on your machine, they pass on Travis. And everybody wins!
For details on the Docker image for testing, see
CONTRIBUTING.md for more of the good stuff.