ERC20 in K
Branch: master
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.

ERC20-K: Formal Executable Specification of ERC20

Author: Grigore Rosu

Date: 6 December 2017


The ERC20 standard is one of the most important standards for the implementation of tokens within Ethereum smart contracts. ERC20 provides basic functionality to transfer tokens and to be approved so they can be spent by another on-chain third party. Unfortunately, ERC20 leaves several corner cases unspecified, which makes it less than ideal to use in the formal verification of token implementations. ERC20-K is a complete formal specification of the ERC20 standard. Specifically, it is a formal executable semantics of a refinement of the ERC20 standard, using the K framework.

ERC20-K clarifies what data (accounts, allowances, etc.) are handled by the various ERC20 functions and the precise meaning of those functions on such data. ERC20-K also clarifies the meaning of all the corner cases that the ERC20 standard omits to discuss, such as transfers from yourself to yourself or transfers that result in arithmetic overflows, following the most natural implementations that aim at minimizing gas consumption.

Being executable, ERC20-K can also be tested for increased confidence. Driven by the semantic rules that form ERC20-K, as well as by their side conditions, we manually but systematically produced and provide a test-suite consisting of several dozens of tests which we believe cover all the corner cases. We encourage you to analyze these tests and use them to test your implementations. Please contribute with more tests if you think that we left any interesting behaviors uncovered.


KEVM makes it possible to rigorously verify smart contracts at the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) level against higher level specifications. The most requested property to verify so far was correctness of ERC20 tokens written in languages like Solidity or Viper. But what does "correctness of ERC20 tokens" really mean? When formal verification is sought, a property (or specification) that the code must satisfy must be available. Moreover, such a specification should be unambiguous and capable of answering all the questions regarding corner-case behaviors. To our knowledge, there was no such formal specification for ERC20, or for ERC20 variants, available at the time of this writing (December 2017).

The existing ERC20 specifications are either too informal to serve as a formal specification for verification purposes, or they are not executable, incomplete and use unnecessarily advanced logical formalisms. For example, the Ethereum wiki and github variants are rather informal and imprecise, in spite of being called formalized by a coindesk article, and so are the ERC20 descriptions by McDonald, Seibel, McKie, etc., as well as the Stackoverflow explanations. On the other hand, when actual formalizations as a mathematical theory were attempted, such as McRainface's, they are paper-based (i.e., not executable) and using logical formalisms that are hard to understand by most developers, such as linear logic.


The main ERC20-K specification is defined and extensively commented in this file:

The following folder contains unit tests for the ERC20-K specification, that is, small programs that exercise the various ERC20 functions in various contexts. For that, a programming language needs to be first defined on top of ERC20-K:


We welcome contributions! The easiest way to contribute is to add more tests to existing languages in the folder tests. A more involved way to contribute is to add new languages under tests, together with their own unit tests. It would be nice to cover a variety of language paradigms, such as more imperative language, object-oriented, functional, and even logical programming languages. Finally, you can adopt ERC20-K as the standard specification of ERC20 when testing and verifying smart contracts and this way: (1) we as a community converge on one formal standard for token correctness, as opposed to each group having different versions and opinions about what correctness means, most likely missing some corner cases and thus allowing vulnerabilities; and (2) we as a community improve the test suite, for the benefit of us all.


We thank the K team who defined the KEVM semantics (see technical report, too) and verified smart contracts for ERC20 compliance. It is their effort that inevitably led to the quest for a formal specification of ERC20. In particular, we would like to thank Philip Daian for brainstorming and help with understanding the corner cases of ERC20.

We also warmly thank IOHK not only for their generous funding support of both KEVM and IELE, but also for the stimulating technical discussions we had with their research team. Discussions about IELE and about the planned separation between the settlement and the computational layers in Cardano, in particular, led to the question of whether the ERC20 specification can be defined in a more abstract way that makes it usable in combination with computational layers different from EVM.