Source code for Python 3.2 + "unless" keyword from Inside Python @ OSCON 2012
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Modified for Inside Python @ OSCON 2012

This is the vanilla source code to Python 3.2.3 + changes to introduce an
"unless" keyword for a presentation at OSCON 2012: Inside Python.

This is Python version 3.2.3

Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011,
2012 Python Software Foundation.  All rights reserved.

Python 3.x is a new version of the language, which is incompatible with the 2.x
line of releases.  The language is mostly the same, but many details, especially
how built-in objects like dictionaries and strings work, have changed
considerably, and a lot of deprecated features have finally been removed.

Build Instructions

On Unix, Linux, BSD, OSX, and Cygwin:

    make test
    sudo make install

This will install Python as python3.

You can pass many options to the configure script; run "./configure --help" to
find out more.  On OSX and Cygwin, the executable is called python.exe;
elsewhere it's just python.

On Mac OS X, if you have configured Python with --enable-framework, you should
use "make frameworkinstall" to do the installation.  Note that this installs the
Python executable in a place that is not normally on your PATH, you may want to
set up a symlink in /usr/local/bin.

On Windows, see PCbuild/readme.txt.

If you wish, you can create a subdirectory and invoke configure from there.  For

    mkdir debug
    cd debug
    ../configure --with-pydebug
    make test

(This will fail if you *also* built at the top-level directory.  You should do a
"make clean" at the toplevel first.)

What's New

We try to have a comprehensive overview of the changes in the "What's New in
Python 3.2" document, found at

For a more detailed change log, read Misc/NEWS (though this file, too, is
incomplete, and also doesn't list anything merged in from the 2.7 release under

If you want to install multiple versions of Python see the section below
entitled "Installing multiple versions".


Documentation for Python 3.2 is online, updated daily:

It can also be downloaded in many formats for faster access.  The documentation
is downloadable in HTML, PDF, and reStructuredText formats; the latter version
is primarily for documentation authors, translators, and people with special
formatting requirements.

Converting From Python 2.x to 3.x

Python starting with 2.6 contains features to help locating code that needs to
be changed, such as optional warnings when deprecated features are used, and
backported versions of certain key Python 3.x features.

A source-to-source translation tool, "2to3", can take care of the mundane task
of converting large amounts of source code.  It is not a complete solution but
is complemented by the deprecation warnings in 2.6.  See for more information.


To test the interpreter, type "make test" in the top-level directory.  This runs
the test set twice (once with no compiled files, once with the compiled files
left by the previous test run).  The test set produces some output.  You can
generally ignore the messages about skipped tests due to optional features which
can't be imported.  If a message is printed about a failed test or a traceback
or core dump is produced, something is wrong.

By default, tests are prevented from overusing resources like disk space and
memory.  To enable these tests, run "make testall".

IMPORTANT: If the tests fail and you decide to mail a bug report, *don't*
include the output of "make test".  It is useless.  Run the failing test
manually, as follows:

        ./python -m test -v test_whatever

(substituting the top of the source tree for '.' if you built in a different
directory).  This runs the test in verbose mode.

Installing multiple versions

On Unix and Mac systems if you intend to install multiple versions of Python
using the same installation prefix (--prefix argument to the configure script)
you must take care that your primary python executable is not overwritten by the
installation of a different version.  All files and directories installed using
"make altinstall" contain the major and minor version and can thus live
side-by-side.  "make install" also creates ${prefix}/bin/python3 which refers to
${prefix}/bin/pythonX.Y.  If you intend to install multiple versions using the
same prefix you must decide which version (if any) is your "primary" version.
Install that version using "make install".  Install all other versions using
"make altinstall".

For example, if you want to install Python 2.5, 2.6 and 3.2 with 2.6 being the
primary version, you would execute "make install" in your 2.6 build directory
and "make altinstall" in the others.

Issue Tracker and Mailing List

We're soliciting bug reports about all aspects of the language.  Fixes are also
welcome, preferable in unified diff format.  Please use the issue tracker:

If you're not sure whether you're dealing with a bug or a feature, use the
mailing list:

To subscribe to the list, use the mailman form:

Proposals for enhancement

If you have a proposal to change Python, you may want to send an email to the
comp.lang.python or python-ideas mailing lists for inital feedback.  A Python
Enhancement Proposal (PEP) may be submitted if your idea gains ground.  All
current PEPs, as well as guidelines for submitting a new PEP, are listed at

Release Schedule

See PEP 392 for release details:

Copyright and License Information

Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
Python Software Foundation.  All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 2000  All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 1995-2001 Corporation for National Research Initiatives.  All
rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum.  All rights reserved.

See the file "LICENSE" for information on the history of this software, terms &
conditions for usage, and a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.

This Python distribution contains *no* GNU General Public License (GPL) code, so
it may be used in proprietary projects.  There are interfaces to some GNU code
but these are entirely optional.

All trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective holders.