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Universal Binary JSON Java Library

About this project...
This code base is actively under development and implements the latest 
specification of Universal Binary JSON (Draft 8).

I/O is handled through the following core classes:

	* UBJOutputStream
	* UBJInputStream
	* UBJInputStreamParser
Additionally, if you are working with Java's NIO and need byte[]-based
results, you can wrap any of the above I/O classes around one of the highly
optimized custom byte[]-stream impls:

	* ByteArrayInputStream	(optimized for reuse, not from JDK)
	* ByteArrayOutputStream (optimized for reuse, not from JDK)
If you are working with NIO and want maximum performance by using (and reusing)
direct ByteBuffers along with the UBJSON stream impls, take a look at the:

	* ByteBufferInputStream
	* ByteBufferOutputStream
classes. You can wrap any ByteBuffer source or destination with this stream type,
then wrap that stream type with a UBJSON stream impl and utilize the full
potential of Java's NIO with Universal Binary JSON without giving yourself an

This allows you to re-use the streams over and over again in a pool of reusable
streams for high-performance I/O with no object creation and garbage collection
overhead; a perfect match for high frequency NIO-based communication.

All of the core I/O classes have been stable for a while, with tweaks to make the
performance tighter and the error messages more informative over the last few

More Java-convenient reflection-based I/O classes are available in the package, but they are under active development.

There are other efforts (like utilities) in other sub portions of the source
tree. This project intends to eventually contain a multitude of UBJSON 
abstraction layers, I/O methods and utilities.

	* Added ByteBuffer input and output stream impls as compliments to the
	re-usable byte[] stream impls.
	Provides a fast translation layer between standard Java stream-IO and the
	new Buffer-based I/O in NIO (including transparent support for using
	ultra-fast direct ByteBuffers).
	* Optimized some of the read/write methods by removing unnecessary bounds
	checks that are done by subsequent Input or Output stream impls themselves.

	* Fixed bug with readHugeAsBigInteger returning an invalid value and not
	treating the underlying bytes as a string-encoded value.
	* Removed implicit buffer.flip() at the end of StreamDecoder; there is no 
	way	to know what the caller had planned for the buffer before reading all 
	the data back out. Also the flip was in the wrong place and in the case of 
	an empty decode request (length=0) the flip would not have been performed, 
	providing the caller with a "full" buffer of nothing.
	* Rewrote all readHugeXXX method impls; now huge's can be read in as a 
	simple Number (BigInteger or BigDecimal) as well as raw bytes and even
	decoded chars. Additionally the methods can even accept and use existing
	buffers to write into to allow for tighter optimizations.
	* Rewrote all readStringXXX methods using the same optimizations and
	flexibility that readHuge methods now use.

	More Memory and CPU optimizations across all the I/O impls.
	* StreamDecoder was rewritten to no longer create a ByteBuffer on every
	invocation and instead re-use the same one to decode from on every single call.
	* StreamDecoder now requires the call to pass in a CharBuffer instance to hold
	the result of the decode operation. This avoids the creation of a CharBuffer
	and allows for large-scale optimization by re-using existing buffers between
	* StreamEncoder was rewritten to no longer create a ByteBuffer on every
	invocation either and now re-uses the same single instance over and over
	* UBJOutputStream writeHuge and writeString series of methods were all
	rewritten to accept a CharBuffer in the rawest form (no longer char[]) to stop
	hiding the fact that the underlying encode operation required one.
	This gives the caller an opportunity to cache and re-use CharBuffers over 
	and over again if they can; otherwise this just pushes the CharBuffer.wrap() 
	call up to the caller instead of hiding it secretly in the method impl under 
	the guise of accepting a raw char[] (that it couldn't use directly).
	For callers that can re-use buffers, this will lead to big performance gains
	now that were previously impossible.
	* UBJInputStream added readHuge and readString methods that accept an existing
	CharBuffer argument to make use of the optimizations made in the Stream encoder
	and decoder impls.

	Huge performance boost for deserialization!
	StreamDecoder previously used separate read and write buffers for decoding 
	bytes to chars including the resulting char[] that was returned to the caller. 
	This design required at least 1 full array copy before returning a result in 
	the best case and 2x full array copies before returning the result in the 
	worst case.
	The rewrite removed the need for a write buffer entire as well as ALL array
	copies; in the best OR worse case they never occur anymore.
	Raw performance boost of roughly 25% in all UBJ I/O classes as a result. 

12-01-11 through 01-24-12
	A large amount of work has continued on the core I/O classes (stream impls)
	to help make them not only faster and more robust, but also more helpful.
	When errors are encountered in the streams, they are reported along with the
	stream positions. This is critical for debugging problems with corrupt 
	Also provided ByteArray I/O stream classes that have the potential to provide
	HUGE performance boosts for high frequency systems.
	Both these classes (ByteArrayInputStream and ByteArrayOutputStream) are
	reusable and when wrapped by a UBJInputStream or UBJOutputStream, the top
	level UBJ streams implicitly become reusable as well.
	Reusing the streams not only saves on object creation/GC cleanup but also
	allows the caller to re-use the temporary byte[] used to translate to and
	from the UBJ format, avoiding object churn entirely!
	This optimized design was chosen to be intentionally performant when combined
	with NIO implementations as the ByteBuffer's can be used to wrap() existing
	outbound buffers (avoiding the most expensive part of a buffer) or use
	array() to get access to the underlying buffer that needs to be written to
	the stream.
	In the case of direct ByteBuffers, there is no additional overhead added
	because the calls to get or put are required anyway to pull or push the 
	values from the native memory location.
	This approach allows the fastest implementation of Universal Binary JSON
	I/O possible in the JVM whether you are using the standard IO (stream) 
	classes or the NIO (ByteBuffer) classes in the JDK.
	Some ancillary work on UBJ-based command line utilities (viewers, converters,
	etc.) has begun as well.

	* Fixed UBJInputStreamParser implementation; nextType correctly implements
	logic to skip existing element (if called back to back) as well as validate
	the marker type it encounters before returning it to the caller.
	* Modified IObjectReader contract; a Parser implementation is required to 
	make traversing the UBJ stream possible without knowing what type of element
	is next.
	* Streamlined ByteArrayOutputStream implementation to ensure the capacity
	of the underlying byte[] is never grown unless absolutely necessary.
	* Rewrote class Javadoc for ByteArrayOutputStream to include a code snippet
	on how to use it.

	* Fixed major bug in how 16, 32 and 64-bit integers are re-assembled when
	read back from binary representations.
	* Added a numeric test to specifically catch this error if it ever pops up
	* Optimized reading and writing of numeric values in Input and Output
	stream implementations.
	* Optimized ObjectWriter implementation by streamlining the numeric read/write
	logic and removing the sub-optimal force-compression of on-disk storage.
	* Fixed ObjectWriter to match exactly with the output written by 
	* Normalized all testing between I/O classes so they use the same classes
	to ensure parity.

	* DRAFT 8 Spec Support Added.

	* Added support for the END marker (readEnd) to the InputStreams which is
	required for proper unbounded-container support.
	* Added support for the END marker (writeEnd) to UBJOutputStream.
	UBJInputStreamParser must be used for properly support unbounded-containers
	because you never know when the 'E' will be encountered marking the end;
	so the caller needs to pay attention to the type marker that nextType()
	returns and respond accordingly.
	* Added readHugeAsBytes to InputStream implementations, allowing the bytes
	used to represent a HUGE to be read in their raw form with no decoding.
	This can save on processing as BigInteger and BigDecimal do their own decoding
	of byte[] directly.
	* Added readHugeAsChars to InputStream implementations, allowing a HUGE 
	value to be read in as a raw char[] without trying to decode it to a 
	BigInteger or BigDecimal.
	* Added writeHuge(char[]) to support writing out HUGE values directly from
	their raw char[] form without trying to decode from a BigInteger or
	* readArrayLength and readObjectLenght were modified to return -1 when an 
	unbounded container length is encountered (255).

	* Fixed UBJInputStreamParser.nextType to correctly skip past any NOOP
	markers found in the underlying stream before returning a valid next type.
	* Normalized all reading of "next byte" to the singular
	UBJInputStream.nextMarker method -- correctly skips over NOOP until end of 
	stream OR until the next valid marker byte, then returns it.

	* Modified readNull behavior to have no return type. It is already designed
	to throw an exception when 'NULL' isn't found, no need for the additional
	return type.
	* Began work on a simple abstract representation of the UBJ data types as
	objects that can be assembled into maps and lists and written/read easily
	using the IO package.
	This is intended to be a higher level of abstraction than the IO streams,
	but lower level (and faster) than the reflection-based work that inspects
	user-provided classes.
	* Refactored StreamDecoder and StreamEncoder into the core IO package, 
	because they are part of core IO.
	* Refactored StreamParser into the io.parser package to more clearly denote
	its relationship to the core IO classes. It is a slightly higher level
	abstraction ontop of the core IO, having it along side the core IO classes
	while .reflect was a subpackage was confusing and suggested that 
	StreamParser was somehow intended as a swapable replacement for 
	UBJInputStream which is not how it is intended to be used.
	* Refactored org.ubjson.reflect to to more correctly
	communicate the relationship -- the reflection-based classes are built on
	the core IO classes and are just a higher abstraction to interact with UBJSON
	* Renamed IDataType to IMarkerType to follow the naming convention for the
	marker bytes set forth by the spec doc.

	* ObjectWriter rewritten and works correctly. Tested with the example test
	data and wrote out the compressed and uncompressed formats files correctly
	from their original object representation.
	* Added support for reading and writing huge values as BigInteger as well
	as BigDecimal.
	* Added automatic numeric storage compression support to ObjectWriter - based
	on the numeric value (regardless of type) the value will be stored as the
	smallest possible representation in the UBJ format if requested.
	* Added mapping support for BigDecimal, BigInteger, AtomicInteger and 
	AtomicLong to ObjectWriter.
	* Added readNull and readBoolean to the UBJInputStream and 
	UBJInputStreamParser implementations to make the API feel complete and feel
	more natural to use.

	* AND are finalized against the 
	Draft 8 specification.
	* The lowest level UBJInput/OuputStream classes were tightened up to run as 
	fast as possible showing an 800ns-per-op improvement in speed.
	* Profiled core UBJInput/OuputStream classes using HPROF for a few million
	iterations and found no memory leaks and no performance traps; everything at
	that low level is as tight as it can be.
	* Stream-parsing facilities were moved out of the overloaded UBJInputStream
	class and into their own subclass called UBJInputStreamParser which operates
	exactly like a pull-parsing scenario (calling nextType then switching on the
	value and pulling the appropriate value out of the stream).
	* More example testing/benchmarking data checked into /test/java/com/ubjson/data
	Will begin reworking the Reflection based Object mapping in the 
	org.ubjson.reflect package now that the core IO classes are finalized.
	* Removed all old scratch test files from the org.ubjson package, this was

	* Initial check-in of core IO classes to read/write spec.

Using the standard UBJInputStream, UBJInputStreamParser and UBJOutputStream
implementations to manually read/write UBJ objects is stable and tuned for
optimal performance.

Automatic mapping of objects to/from UBJ format via the reflection-based 
implementation is not tuned yet. Writing is implemented, but not tuned for
optimal performance and reading still has to be written.

	* - ALPHA
	* org.ubjson.model - BETA

This library is released under the Apache 2 License. See LICENSE.

This project represents (the official?) Java implementations of the 
Universal Binary JSON specification:

Comming soon...

Comming soon...

Universal Binary JSON Specification -
JSON Specification -


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