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A Web Push library for Java 8. Supports payloads and VAPID.

Build Status Maven Central


For Gradle, add the following dependency to build.gradle:

compile group: 'nl.martijndwars', name: 'web-push', version: '5.1.1'

For Maven, add the following dependency to pom.xml:


This library depends on BouncyCastle, which acts as a Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) provider. BouncyCastle's JARs are signed, and depending on how you package your application, you may need to include BouncyCastle yourself as well.


To assemble all archives in the project:

./gradlew assemble


This library is meant to be used as a Java API. However, it also exposes a CLI to easily generate a VAPID keypair and send a push notification.


A command-line interface is available to easily generate a keypair (for VAPID) and to try sending a notification.

$ ./gradlew run
Usage: <main class> [command] [command options]
    generate-key      Generate a VAPID keypair
      Usage: generate-key

    send-notification      Send a push notification
      Usage: send-notification [options]
            A subscription in JSON format.
            The public key as base64url encoded string.
            The private key as base64url encoded string.
            The message to send.
            Default: Hello, world!
            The number of seconds that the push service should retain the message.

For example, to generate a keypair and output the keys in base64url encoding:

$ ./gradlew run --args="generate-key"


Use the public key in the call to pushManager.subscribe to get a subscription. Then, to send a notification:

$ ./gradlew run --args='send-notification --endpoint="" --key="BOtBVgsHVWXzwhDAoFE8P2IgQvabz_tuJjIlNacmS3XZ3fRDuVWiBp8bPR3vHCA78edquclcXXYb-olcj3QtIZ4=" --auth="IOScBh9LW5mJ_K2JwXyNqQ==" --publicKey="BGgL7I82SAQM78oyGwaJdrQFhVfZqL9h4Y18BLtgJQ-9pSGXwxqAWQudqmcv41RcWgk1ssUeItv4-8khxbhYveM=" --privateKey="ANlfcVVFB4JiMYcI74_h9h04QZ1Ks96AyEa1yrMgDwn3" --payload="Hello world"'


If you are behind a corporate proxy you may need to specify the proxy host. This library respects Java's Network Properties, which means that you can pass https.proxyHost and http.proxyPort when invoking java, e.g. java -Dhttp.proxyPort=80 -Dhttps.proxyPort=443 -jar ....


First, make sure you add the BouncyCastle security provider:

Security.addProvider(new BouncyCastleProvider());

Then, create an instance of the push service, either nl.martijndwars.webpush.PushService for synchronous blocking HTTP calls, or nl.martijndwars.webpush.PushAsyncService for asynchronous non-blocking HTTP calls:

PushService pushService = new PushService(...);

Then, create a notification based on the user's subscription:

Notification notification = new Notification(...);

To send a push notification:


See wiki/Usage-Example for detailed usage instructions. If you plan on using VAPID, read wiki/VAPID.


The integration tests use Web Push Testing Service (WPTS) to handle the Selenium and browser orchestrating. We use a forked version that fixes a bug on macOS. To install WPTS:

npm i -g github:MartijnDwars/web-push-testing-service#bump-selenium-assistant

Then start WPTS:

web-push-testing-service start wpts

Then run the tests:

./gradlew clean test

Finally, stop WPTS:

web-push-testing-service stop wpts


Why does encryption take multiple seconds?

There may not be enough entropy to generate a random seed, which is common on headless servers. There exist two ways to overcome this problem:

  • Install haveged, a "random number generator that remedies low-entropy conditions in the Linux random device that can occur under some workloads, especially on headless servers." This tutorial explains how to install haveged on different Linux distributions.

  • Change the source for random number generation in the JVM from /dev/random to /dev/urandom. This page offers some explanation.


To give credit where credit is due, the PushService is mostly a Java port of marco-c/web-push. The HttpEce class is mostly a Java port of martinthomson/encrypted-content-encoding.





The web-push-libs organization hosts implementations of the Web Push protocol in several languages: