JavaScript Style Guide
JavaScript

README.md

ExactTarget JavaScript Style Guide

A mostly reasonable approach to JavaScript

Table of Contents

  1. Types
  2. Objects
  3. Arrays
  4. Strings
  5. Functions
  6. Properties
  7. Variables
  8. Hoisting
  9. Comparison Operators & Equality
  10. Blocks
  11. Comments
  12. Whitespace
  13. Commas
  14. Semicolons
  15. Type Casting & Coercion
  16. Naming Conventions
  17. Accessors
  18. Constructors
  19. Modules
  20. jQuery
  21. ECMAScript 5 Compatibility
  22. Testing
  23. Performance
  24. Editorconfig Setup / Use
  25. Resources
  26. In the Wild
  27. The JavaScript Style Guide Guide
  28. Contributors
  29. License

Types

  • Primitives: When you access a primitive type you work directly on its value.

    • string
    • number
    • boolean
    • null
    • undefined
    var foo = 1;
    var bar = foo;
    
    bar = 9;
    
    console.log(foo, bar); // => 1, 9
  • Complex: When you access a complex type you work on a reference to its value.

    • object
    • array
    • function
    var foo = [1, 2];
    var bar = foo;
    
    bar[0] = 9;
    
    console.log(foo[0], bar[0]); // => 9, 9

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Objects

  • Use the literal syntax for object creation.

    // bad
    var item = new Object();
    
    // good
    var item = {};
  • Don't use reserved words as keys. It won't work in IE8. More info.

    // bad
    var superman = {
      class: 'superhero',
      default: { clark: 'kent' },
      private: true
    };
    
    // good
    var superman = {
      cssClass: 'superhero',
      defaults: { clark: 'kent' },
      hidden: true
    };
  • Use readable synonyms in place of reserved words.

    // bad
    var superman = {
      class: 'alien'
    };
    
    // bad
    var superman = {
      klass: 'alien'
    };
    
    // good
    var superman = {
      type: 'alien'
    };

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Arrays

  • Use the literal syntax for array creation.

    // bad
    var items = new Array();
    
    // good
    var items = [];
  • Use Array#push instead of direct assignment to add items to an array.

    var someStack = [];
    
    
    // bad
    someStack[someStack.length] = 'abracadabra';
    
    // good
    someStack.push('abracadabra');
  • When you need to copy an array use Array#slice. jsPerf

    var len = items.length;
    var itemsCopy = [];
    var i;
    
    // bad
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
      itemsCopy[i] = items[i];
    }
    
    // good
    itemsCopy = items.slice();
  • To convert an array-like object to an array, use Array#slice.

    function trigger() {
      var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
      ...
    }

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Strings

  • Use single quotes '' for strings.

    // bad
    var name = "Bob Parr";
    
    // good
    var name = 'Bob Parr';
    
    // bad
    var fullName = "Bob " + this.lastName;
    
    // good
    var fullName = 'Bob ' + this.lastName;

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Functions

  • Function expressions:

    // anonymous function as event handler
    $el.on('click', function () {
      return true;
    });
    
    // optional name to aid debugging with stack traces
    $el.on('click', function elClick() {
      return true;
    });
    
    // anonymous function as method
    MyObject.prototype.isTrue = function () {
      return true;
    };
    
    // immediately-invoked function expression (IIFE)
    (function () {
      console.log('Welcome to the Internet. Please follow me.');
    })();
  • Function declarations:

    // use a named declaration when appropriate mainly
    // for internal helper logic and organization
    function namedFunction() {
        return true;
    }
  • Never declare a function in a non-function block (if, while, etc). Assign the function to a variable instead. Browsers will allow you to do it, but they all interpret it differently, which is bad news bears.

  • Note: ECMA-262 defines a block as a list of statements. A function declaration is not a statement. Read ECMA-262's note on this issue.

    // bad
    if (currentUser) {
      function test() {
        console.log('Nope.');
      }
    }
    
    // good
    var test;
    if (currentUser) {
      test = function test() {
        console.log('Yup.');
      };
    }
  • Never name a parameter arguments. This will take precedence over the arguments object that is given to every function scope.

    // bad
    function nope(name, options, arguments) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    function yup(name, options, args) {
      // ...stuff...
    }

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Properties

  • Use dot notation when accessing properties.

    var luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28
    };
    
    // bad
    var isJedi = luke['jedi'];
    
    // good
    var isJedi = luke.jedi;
  • Use subscript notation [] when accessing properties with a variable.

    var luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28
    };
    
    function getProp(prop) {
      return luke[prop];
    }
    
    var isJedi = getProp('jedi');

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Variables

  • Always use var to declare variables. Not doing so will result in global variables. We want to avoid polluting the global namespace. Captain Planet warned us of that.

    // bad
    superPower = new SuperPower();
    
    // good
    var superPower = new SuperPower();
  • Use one var declaration per variable. It's easier to add new variable declarations this way, and you never have to worry about swapping out a ; for a , or introducing punctuation-only diffs.

    // bad
    var items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true,
        dragonball = 'z';
    
    // bad
    // (compare to above, and try to spot the mistake)
    var items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true;
        dragonball = 'z';
    
    // good
    var items = getItems();
    var goSportsTeam = true;
    var dragonball = 'z';
  • Declare unassigned variables last. This is helpful when later on you might need to assign a variable depending on one of the previous assigned variables. Multiple unassigned variables can be declared in a single-line var declaration.

      // good
      var items = getItems();
      var goSportsTeam = true;
      var i, j, length;
  • Assign variables at the top of their scope. This helps avoid issues with variable declaration and assignment hoisting related issues.

    // bad
    function () {
      test();
      console.log('doing stuff..');
    
      //..other stuff..
    
      var name = getName();
    
      if (name === 'test') {
        return false;
      }
    
      return name;
    }
    
    // good
    function () {
      var name = getName();
    
      test();
      console.log('doing stuff..');
    
      //..other stuff..
    
      if (name === 'test') {
        return false;
      }
    
      return name;
    }
    
    // bad - unnecessary function call
    function () {
      var name = getName();
    
      if (!arguments.length) {
        return false;
      }
    
      this.setFirstName(name);
    
      return true;
    }
    
    // good
    function () {
      var name;
    
      if (!arguments.length) {
        return false;
      }
    
      name = getName();
      this.setFirstName(name);
    
      return true;
    }

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Hoisting

  • Variable declarations get hoisted to the top of their scope, but their assignment does not.

    // we know this wouldn't work (assuming there
    // is no notDefined global variable)
    function example() {
      console.log(notDefined); // => throws a ReferenceError
    }
    
    // creating a variable declaration after you
    // reference the variable will work due to
    // variable hoisting. Note: the assignment
    // value of `true` is not hoisted.
    function example() {
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined
      var declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
    
    // The interpreter is hoisting the variable
    // declaration to the top of the scope,
    // which means our example could be rewritten as:
    function example() {
      var declaredButNotAssigned;
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined
      declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
  • Anonymous function expressions hoist their variable name, but not the function assignment.

    function example() {
      console.log(anonymous); // => undefined
    
      anonymous(); // => TypeError anonymous is not a function
    
      var anonymous = function () {
        console.log('anonymous function expression');
      };
    }
  • Named function expressions hoist the variable name, not the function name or the function body.

    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined
    
      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function
    
      superPower(); // => ReferenceError superPower is not defined
    
      var named = function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      };
    }
    
    // the same is true when the function name
    // is the same as the variable name.
    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined
    
      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function
    
      var named = function named() {
        console.log('named');
      };
    }
  • Function declarations hoist their name and the function body.

    function example() {
      superPower(); // => Flying
    
      function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      }
    }
  • For more information refer to JavaScript Scoping & Hoisting by Ben Cherry.

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Comparison Operators & Equality

  • Use === and !== over == and !=.
  • Conditional statements such as the if statement evaluate their expression using coercion with the ToBoolean abstract method and always follow these simple rules:

    • Objects evaluate to true
    • Undefined evaluates to false
    • Null evaluates to false
    • Booleans evaluate to the value of the boolean
    • Numbers evaluate to false if +0, -0, or NaN, otherwise true
    • Strings evaluate to false if an empty string '', otherwise true
    if ([0]) {
      // true
      // An array is an object, objects evaluate to true
    }
  • Use shortcuts.

    // bad
    if (name !== '') {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    if (name) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // bad
    if (collection.length > 0) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    if (collection.length) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
  • For more information see Truth Equality and JavaScript by Angus Croll.

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Blocks

  • Use braces with all multi-line blocks.

    // bad
    if (test)
      return false;
    
    // acceptable (only for very simple statements and early function return)
    if (test) return false;
    
    // good
    if (test) {
      return false;
    }
    
    // bad
    function () { return false; }
    
    // good
    function () {
      return false;
    }
  • If you're using multi-line blocks with if and else, put else on the same line as your if block's closing brace.

    // bad
    if (test) {
      thing1();
      thing2();
    }
    else {
      thing3();
    }
    
    // good
    if (test) {
      thing1();
      thing2();
    } else {
      thing3();
    }

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Comments

  • Use /** ... */ for multi-line comments. Include a description, specify types and values for all parameters and return values.

    // bad
    // make() returns a new element
    // based on the passed in tag name
    //
    // @param {String} tag
    // @return {Element} element
    function make(tag) {
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      return element;
    }
    
    // good
    /**
     * make() returns a new element
     * based on the passed in tag name
     *
     * @param {String} tag
     * @return {Element} element
     */
    function make(tag) {
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      return element;
    }
  • Use // for single line comments. Place single line comments on a newline above the subject of the comment. Put an empty line before the comment.

    // bad
    var active = true;  // is current tab
    
    // good
    // is current tab
    var active = true;
    
    // bad
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
      // set the default type to 'no type'
      var type = this._type || 'no type';
    
      return type;
    }
    
    // good
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
    
      // set the default type to 'no type'
      var type = this._type || 'no type';
    
      return type;
    }
  • Prefixing your comments with FIXME or TODO helps other developers quickly understand if you're pointing out a problem that needs to be revisited, or if you're suggesting a solution to the problem that needs to be implemented. These are different than regular comments because they are actionable. The actions are FIXME -- need to figure this out or TODO -- need to implement.

  • Use // FIXME: to annotate problems.

    function Calculator() {
    
      // FIXME: shouldn't use a global here
      total = 0;
    
      return this;
    }
  • Use // TODO: to annotate solutions to problems.

    function Calculator() {
    
      // TODO: total should be configurable by an options param
      this.total = 0;
    
      return this;
    }

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Whitespace

  • Use tabs. One per indent level. This allows developers to choose their preferred display width.

    // bad
    function () {
    ∙∙var name;
    }
    
    // bad
    function () {
    ∙∙∙∙var name;
    }
    
    // good
    function () {
        var name;
    }
  • Place 1 space before the leading brace.

    // bad
    function test(){
      console.log('test');
    }
    
    // good
    function test() {
      console.log('test');
    }
    
    // bad
    dog.set('attr',{
      age: '1 year',
      breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog'
    });
    
    // good
    dog.set('attr', {
      age: '1 year',
      breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog'
    });
  • Place 1 space before the opening parenthesis in control statements (if, while etc.). Place no space before the argument list in function calls and declarations.

    // bad
    if(isJedi) {
      fight ();
    }
    
    // good
    if (isJedi) {
      fight();
    }
    
    // bad
    function fight () {
      console.log ('Swooosh!');
    }
    
    // good
    function fight() {
      console.log('Swooosh!');
    }
  • Place 1 space before anonymous function parenthesis.

    // bad
    function() {
        var name;
    }
    
    // good
    function () {
        var name;
    }
  • Set off operators with spaces.

    // bad
    var x=y+5;
    
    // good
    var x = y + 5;
  • End files with a single newline character.

    // bad
    (function (global) {
      // ...stuff...
    })(this);
    // bad
    (function (global) {
      // ...stuff...
    })(this);↵
    ↵
    // good
    (function (global) {
      // ...stuff...
    })(this);↵
  • Use indentation when making long method chains. Long method chains should be avoided except in cases of a performance benefit or significant readability benefit.

    // bad
    $('#items').find('.selected').highlight().end().find('.open').updateCount();
    
    // good
    $('#items')
      .find('.selected')
        .highlight()
        .end()
      .find('.open')
        .updateCount();
    
    // bad
    var leds = stage.selectAll('.led').data(data).enter().append("svg:svg").class('led', true)
        .attr('width',  (radius + margin) * 2).append("svg:g")
        .attr("transform", "translate(" + (radius + margin) + "," + (radius + margin) + ")")
        .call(tron.led);
    
    // good
    var leds = stage.selectAll('.led')
        .data(data)
      .enter().append("svg:svg")
        .class('led', true)
        .attr('width',  (radius + margin) * 2)
      .append("svg:g")
        .attr("transform", "translate(" + (radius + margin) + "," + (radius + margin) + ")")
        .call(tron.led);

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Commas

  • Leading commas: Nope.

    // bad
    var story = [
        once
      , upon
      , aTime
    ];
    
    // good
    var story = [
      once,
      upon,
      aTime
    ];
    
    // bad
    var hero = {
        firstName: 'Bob'
      , lastName: 'Parr'
      , heroName: 'Mr. Incredible'
      , superPower: 'strength'
    };
    
    // good
    var hero = {
      firstName: 'Bob',
      lastName: 'Parr',
      heroName: 'Mr. Incredible',
      superPower: 'strength'
    };
  • Additional trailing comma: Nope. This can cause problems with IE6/7 and IE9 if it's in quirksmode. Also, in some implementations of ES3 would add length to an array if it had an additional trailing comma. This was clarified in ES5 (source):

    Edition 5 clarifies the fact that a trailing comma at the end of an ArrayInitialiser does not add to the length of the array. This is not a semantic change from Edition 3 but some implementations may have previously misinterpreted this.

      // bad
      var hero = {
        firstName: 'Kevin',
        lastName: 'Flynn',
      };
    
      var heroes = [
        'Batman',
        'Superman',
      ];
    
      // good
      var hero = {
        firstName: 'Kevin',
        lastName: 'Flynn'
      };
    
      var heroes = [
        'Batman',
        'Superman'
      ];

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Semicolons

  • Yup.

    // bad
    (function () {
      var name = 'Skywalker'
      return name
    })()
    
    // good
    (function () {
      var name = 'Skywalker';
      return name;
    })();
    
    // good (guards against the function becoming an argument when two files with IIFEs are concatenated)
    ;(function () {
      var name = 'Skywalker';
      return name;
    })();

    Read more.

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Type Casting & Coercion

  • Perform type coercion at the beginning of the statement.
  • Strings:

    //  => this.reviewScore = 9;
    
    // bad
    var totalScore = this.reviewScore + '';
    
    // good
    var totalScore = '' + this.reviewScore;
    
    // bad
    var totalScore = '' + this.reviewScore + ' total score';
    
    // good
    var totalScore = this.reviewScore + ' total score';
  • Use parseInt for Numbers and always with a radix for type casting.

    var inputValue = '4';
    
    // bad
    var val = new Number(inputValue);
    
    // bad
    var val = +inputValue;
    
    // bad
    var val = inputValue >> 0;
    
    // bad
    var val = parseInt(inputValue);
    
    // good
    var val = Number(inputValue);
    
    // good
    var val = parseInt(inputValue, 10);
  • If for whatever reason you are doing something wild and parseInt is your bottleneck and need to use Bitshift for performance reasons, leave a comment explaining why and what you're doing.

    // good
    /**
     * parseInt was the reason my code was slow.
     * Bitshifting the String to coerce it to a
     * Number made it a lot faster.
     */
    var val = inputValue >> 0;
  • Note: Be careful when using bitshift operations. Numbers are represented as 64-bit values, but Bitshift operations always return a 32-bit integer (source). Bitshift can lead to unexpected behavior for integer values larger than 32 bits. Discussion. Largest signed 32-bit Int is 2,147,483,647:

    2147483647 >> 0 //=> 2147483647
    2147483648 >> 0 //=> -2147483648
    2147483649 >> 0 //=> -2147483647
  • Booleans:

    var age = 0;
    
    // bad
    var hasAge = new Boolean(age);
    
    // good
    var hasAge = Boolean(age);
    
    // good
    var hasAge = !!age;

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Naming Conventions

  • Avoid single letter names. Be descriptive with your naming.

    // bad
    function q() {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    function query() {
      // ..stuff..
    }
  • Use camelCase when naming objects, functions, and instances.

    // bad
    var OBJEcttsssss = {};
    var this_is_my_object = {};
    var o = {};
    function c() {}
    var u = new user({
      name: 'Bob Parr'
    });
    
    // good
    var thisIsMyObject = {};
    function thisIsMyFunction() {};
    var user = new User({
      name: 'Bob Parr'
    });
  • Use PascalCase when naming constructors or classes.

    // bad
    function user(options) {
      this.name = options.name;
    }
    
    var bad = new user({
      name: 'nope'
    });
    
    // good
    function User(options) {
      this.name = options.name;
    }
    
    var good = new User({
      name: 'yup'
    });
  • Use a leading underscore _ when naming private properties.

    // bad
    this.__firstName__ = 'Panda';
    this.firstName_ = 'Panda';
    
    // good
    this._firstName = 'Panda';
  • When saving a reference to this use self.

    // bad
    function () {
      var that = this;
      return function () {
        console.log(that);
      };
    }
    
    // bad
    function () {
      var _this = this;
      return function () {
        console.log(_this);
      };
    }
    
    // good
    function () {
      var self = this;
      return function () {
        console.log(self);
      };
    }
  • Name your functions. This is helpful for stack traces.

    // bad
    var log = function (msg) {
      console.log(msg);
    };
    
    // good
    var log = function log(msg) {
      console.log(msg);
    };

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Accessors

  • Accessor functions for properties are not required.
  • If you do make accessor functions use getVal() and setVal('hello').

    // bad
    dragon.age();
    
    // good
    dragon.getAge();
    
    // bad
    dragon.age(25);
    
    // good
    dragon.setAge(25);
  • If the property is a boolean, use isVal() or hasVal().

    // bad
    if (!dragon.age()) {
      return false;
    }
    
    // good
    if (!dragon.hasAge()) {
      return false;
    }
  • It's okay to create get() and set() functions, but be consistent.

    function Jedi(options) {
      options || (options = {});
      var lightsaber = options.lightsaber || 'blue';
      this.set('lightsaber', lightsaber);
    }
    
    Jedi.prototype.set = function (key, val) {
      this[key] = val;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.get = function (key) {
      return this[key];
    };

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Constructors

  • Assign methods to the prototype object, instead of overwriting the prototype with a new object. Overwriting the prototype makes inheritance impossible: by resetting the prototype you'll overwrite the base!

    function Jedi() {
      console.log('new jedi');
    }
    
    // bad
    Jedi.prototype = {
      fight: function fight() {
        console.log('fighting');
      },
    
      block: function block() {
        console.log('blocking');
      }
    };
    
    // good
    Jedi.prototype.fight = function fight() {
      console.log('fighting');
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.block = function block() {
      console.log('blocking');
    };
  • Methods can return this to help with method chaining.

    // bad
    Jedi.prototype.jump = function () {
      this.jumping = true;
      return true;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.setHeight = function (height) {
      this.height = height;
    };
    
    var luke = new Jedi();
    luke.jump(); // => true
    luke.setHeight(20); // => undefined
    
    // good
    Jedi.prototype.jump = function () {
      this.jumping = true;
      return this;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.setHeight = function (height) {
      this.height = height;
      return this;
    };
    
    var luke = new Jedi();
    
    luke.jump()
      .setHeight(20);
  • It's okay to write a custom toString() method, just make sure it works successfully and causes no side effects.

    function Jedi(options) {
      options || (options = {});
      this.name = options.name || 'no name';
    }
    
    Jedi.prototype.getName = function getName() {
      return this.name;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.toString = function toString() {
      return 'Jedi - ' + this.getName();
    };

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Modules

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jQuery

  • Prefix jQuery object variables with a $.

    // bad
    var sidebar = $('.sidebar');
    
    // good
    var $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
  • Cache jQuery lookups.

    // bad
    function setSidebar() {
      $('.sidebar').hide();
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      $('.sidebar').css({
        'background-color': 'pink'
      });
    }
    
    // good
    function setSidebar() {
      var $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
      $sidebar.hide();
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      $sidebar.css({
        'background-color': 'pink'
      });
    }
  • For DOM queries use Cascading $('.sidebar ul') or parent > child $('.sidebar > ul'). jsPerf

  • Use find with scoped jQuery object queries.

    // bad
    $('ul', '.sidebar').hide();
    
    // bad
    $('.sidebar').find('ul').hide();
    
    // good
    $('.sidebar ul').hide();
    
    // good
    $('.sidebar > ul').hide();
    
    // good (slower)
    $sidebar.find('ul');
    
    // good (faster)
    $($sidebar[0]).find('ul');

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ECMAScript 5 Compatibility

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Testing

  • Yup.

    function () {
      return true;
    }

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Performance

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Editorconfig Setup / Use

  • Usually for a project with more than one developer involved, it is essentially important for the project to define and maintain a consistent coding style. Most code editors and IDEs, such as Vim, Emacs, Code::Blocks, provide settings related to coding styles, such as the width of tab, the size of indentation, end of line, etc. However, it is hard to provide the same settings for different Editors and IDEs: we have to maintain many config files for different editors and IDEs, such as .vimrc for Vim, .emacs for Emacs. In order to solve this, EditorConfig was born. By defining coding style in files named .editorconfig, the EditorConfig plugins for different editors and IDEs will automatically adjust your coding style.
  • To use EditorConfig, you have to download the corresponding EditorConfig plugins for your Editor or IDE. Follow the installation instructions to install them.
  • The "base" .editorconfig file goes in the root directory. You can have other config files in specific folders if wanted. The only difference would be at the top of the file to remove root = true from any file that isn't the root.

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Resources

Read This

Other Style Guides

Other Styles

Further Reading

Books

Blogs

Podcasts

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The JavaScript Style Guide Guide

License

(The MIT License)

Copyright (c) 2012 Airbnb

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the 'Software'), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED 'AS IS', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


Copyright (c) 2014 ExactTarget, Inc.

All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

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