A high-resolution direction-of-arrival finding algorithm relying on finite rate of innovation sampling with a robust reconstruction algorithm.
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README.md
check_requirements.py
figure_doa_9_mics_10_src.py
figure_doa_9_mics_10_src_plot.py
figure_doa_experiment.py
figure_doa_experiment_plot.py
figure_doa_separation.py
figure_doa_separation_plot.py
figure_doa_synthetic.py
figure_doa_synthetic_plot.py
make_all_figures.sh
requirements.txt
system_install.sh
test_doa_recorded.py
test_doa_simulated.py
test_doa_whitenoise.py

README.md

FRIDA: FRI-based DOA Estimation for Arbitrary Array Layout

This repository contains all the code to reproduce the results of the paper FRIDA: FRI-based DOA Estimation for Arbitrary Array Layout.

FRIDA is a new algorithm for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation for acoustic sources. This repository contains a python implementation of the algorithm, as well as five conventional methods: MUSIC, SRP-PHAT, CSSM, WAVES, and TOPS (in the doa folder).

A number of scripts were written to evaluate the performance of FRIDA and the other algorithms in different scenarios. Monte-Carlo simulations were used to study the noise robustness and the minimum angle of separation for close source resolution (figure_doa_separation.py, figure_doa_synthetic.py). A number of experiment on recorded data were done and the scripts for processing this data are also available (figure_doa_experiment.py, figure_doa_9_mics_10_src.py).

We are available for any question or request relating to either the code or the theory behind it. Just ask!

Abstract

In this paper we present FRIDA --- an algorithm for estimating directions of arrival of multiple wideband sound sources. FRIDA combines multi-band information coherently and achieves state-of-the-art resolution at extremely low signal-to-noise ratios. It works for arbitrary array layouts, but unlike the various steered response power and subspace methods, it does not require a grid search. FRIDA leverages recent advances in sampling signals with a finite rate of innovation. It is based on the insight that for any array layout, the entries of the spatial covariance matrix can be linearly transformed into a uniformly sampled sum of sinusoids.

Authors

Hanjie Pan, Robin Scheibler, Eric Bezzam, and Martin Vetterli are with Audiovisual Communications Laboratory (LCAV) at EPFL.

Ivan Dokmanić is with Institut Langevin, CNRS, EsPCI Paris, PSL Research University.

Contact

Robin Scheibler
EPFL-IC-LCAV
BC Building
Station 14
1015 Lausanne

Recreate the figures and sound samples

The first step is to make sure that all the dependencies are satisfied. Check this in the Dependencies section or just run the following to check if you are missing something.

python check_requirements.py

If some dependencies are missing, they can be installed with pip install -r requirements.txt.

Second, download the recordings data by running the following at the root of the repository

wget https://zenodo.org/record/345132/files/FRIDA_recordings.tar.gz
tar xzfv FRIDA_recordings.tar.gz

For a quick test that everythin works, you can run the main script in test mode. This will run just one loop of every simulation.

./make_all_figures.sh -t

For the real deal, run the same command without any options.

./make_all_figures.sh

Parallel computation engines can be used by adding -n X where X is the number of engines to use. Typically this is the number of cores available minus one.

./make_all_figures.sh -n X

Alternatively, start an ipython cluster

ipcluster start -n <number_workers>

and then type in the following commands in an ipython shell.

# Simulation with different SNR values
%run figure_doa_synthetic.py -f <filename>
%run figure_doa_synthetic_plot.py -f <filename>

# Simulation of closely spaced sources
%run figure_doa_separation.py -f <filename>
%run figure_doa_separation_plot.py -f <filename>

# Experiment on speech recordings
%run figure_doa_experiment.py -f <filename>
%run figure_doa_experiment_plot.py -f <filename>

# Experiment with 10 loudspeakers and 9 microphones
%run figure_doa_9_mics_10_src.py -o <filename>
%run figure_doa_9_mics_10_src_plot.py -f <filename>

The data is saved in the data folder and the figures generated are collected in figures.

Data used in the paper

The output from the simulation and processing that was used for the figures in the paper is stored in the repository in the following files.

# Simulation with different SNR values
data/20160911-035215_doa_synthetic.npz
data/20160911-161112_doa_synthetic.npz
data/20160911-175127_doa_synthetic.npz
data/20160911-192530_doa_synthetic.npz
data/20160911-225325_doa_synthetic.npz

# Simulation of closely spaced sources
data/20160910-192848_doa_separation.npz

# Experiment on speech recordings
data/20160909-203344_doa_experiment.npz

# Experiment with 10 loudspeakers and 9 microphones
data/20160913-011415_doa_9_mics_10_src.npz

Recorded Data

DOI

The recorded speech and noise samples used in the experiment have been published both in Dataverse and Zenodo. The folder containing the recordings should be at the root of the repository and named recordings. Detailed description and instructions are provided along the data.

wget https://zenodo.org/record/345132/files/FRIDA_recordings.tar.gz
tar xzfv FRIDA_recordings.tar.gz

Overview of results

We implemented for comparison five algorithms: incoherent MUSIC, SRP-PHAT, CSSM, WAVES, and TOPS.

Influence of Noise (Fig. 1A)

We compare the robustness to noise of the different algorithms when a single source is present.

Resolving power (Fig. 1B)

We study the resolution power of the different algorithms. How close can two sources become before the algorithm breaks down.

Experiment on speech data (Fig. 2C)

We record signals from 8 loudspeakers with 1, 2, or 3 sources active simultaneously. We use the algorithm to reconstruct the DOA and plot the statistics of the error.

Experiment with more sources than microphone (Fig. 2D)

FRIDA can identifies DOA of more sources than it uses microphones. We demonstrate this by playing 10 loudspeakers simultaneously and recovering all DOA with only 9 microphones.

Dependencies

For a quick check of the dependencies, run

python check_requirements.py

The script system_install.sh was used to install all the required software on a blank UBUNTU Xenial server.

  • A working distribution of Python 2.7.
  • Numpy, Scipy
  • We use the distribution anaconda to simplify the setup of the environment.
  • Computations are very heavy and we use the MKL extension of Anaconda to speed things up. There is a free license for academics.
  • We used ipyparallel and joblib for parallel computations.
  • matplotlib and seaborn for plotting the results.

The pyroomacoustics is used for STFT, fractionnal delay filters, microphone arrays generation, and some more.

pip install git+https://github.com/LCAV/pyroomacoustics

List of standard packages needed

numpy, scipy, pandas, ipyparallel, seaborn, zmq, joblib

In addition the two following libraries are not really needed to recreate the figures, but were used to resample and process the recording files

scikits.audiolab, sickits.samplerate

They require install of shared libraries

# Ubuntu code
apt-get install libsndfile1 libsndfile1-dev libsamplerate0 libsamplerate0-dev  # Ubuntu

# OS X install
brew install libsndfile
brew install libsamplerate

Systems Tested

###Linux

Machine ICCLUSTER EPFL
System Ubuntu 16.04.5
CPU Intel Xeon E5-2680 v3 (Haswell)
RAM 64 GB

###OS X

Machine MacBook Pro Retina 15-inch, Early 2013
System OS X Maverick 10.11.6
CPU Intel Core i7
RAM 16 GB
System Info:
------------
Darwin 15.6.0 Darwin Kernel Version 15.6.0: Mon Aug 29 20:21:34 PDT 2016; root:xnu-3248.60.11~1/RELEASE_X86_64 x86_64

Python Info:
------------
Python 2.7.11 :: Anaconda custom (x86_64)

Python Packages Info (conda)
----------------------------
# packages in environment at /Users/scheibler/anaconda:
accelerate                2.0.2              np110py27_p0  
accelerate_cudalib        2.0                           0  
anaconda                  custom                   py27_0  
ipyparallel               5.0.1                    py27_0  
ipython                   4.2.0                    py27_0  
ipython-notebook          4.0.4                    py27_0  
ipython-qtconsole         4.0.1                    py27_0  
ipython_genutils          0.1.0                    py27_0  
joblib                    0.9.4                    py27_0  
mkl                       11.3.3                        0  
mkl-rt                    11.1                         p0  
mkl-service               1.1.2                    py27_2  
mklfft                    2.1                np110py27_p0  
numpy                     1.11.0                    <pip>
numpy                     1.11.1                   py27_0  
numpydoc                  0.5                       <pip>
pandas                    0.18.1              np111py27_0  
pyzmq                     15.2.0                   py27_1  
scikits.audiolab          0.11.0                    <pip>
scikits.samplerate        0.3.3                     <pip>
scipy                     0.17.0                    <pip>
scipy                     0.18.0              np111py27_0  
seaborn                   0.7.1                    py27_0  
seaborn                   0.7.1                     <pip>

License

Copyright (c) 2016, Hanjie Pan, Robin Scheibler, Eric Bezzam, Ivan Dokmanić, Martin Vetterli

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.