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A simple python library to interact with Microsoft Graph and Office 365 API
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README.md

O365 - Microsoft Graph and Office 365 API made easy

Detailed usage documentation is still in progress

This project aims is to make interact with Microsoft Graph and Office 365 easy to do in a Pythonic way. Access to Email, Calendar, Contacts, OneDrive, etc. Are easy to do in a way that feel easy and straight forward to beginners and feels just right to seasoned python programmer.

The project is currently developed and maintained by Janscas.

Core developers:

We are always open to new pull requests!

This is for example how you send a message:

from O365 import Account

credentials = ('client_id', 'client_secret')

account = Account(credentials)
m = account.new_message()
m.to.add('to_example@example.com')
m.subject = 'Testing!'
m.body = "George Best quote: I've stopped drinking, but only while I'm asleep."
m.send()

Why choose O365?

  • Almost Full Support for MsGraph and Office 365 Rest Api.
  • Good Abstraction layer between each Api. Change the api (Graph vs Office365) and don't worry about the api internal implementation.
  • Full oauth support with automatic handling of refresh tokens.
  • Automatic handling between local datetimes and server datetimes. Work with your local datetime and let this library do the rest.
  • Change between different resource with ease: access shared mailboxes, other users resources, sharepoint resources, etc.
  • Pagination support through a custom iterator that handles future requests automatically. Request Infinite items!
  • A query helper to help you build custom OData queries (filter, order, select and search).
  • Modular ApiComponents can be created and built to achieve further functionality.

This project was also a learning resource for us. This is a list of not so common python idioms used in this project:

  • New unpacking technics: def method(argument, *, with_name=None, **other_params):
  • Enums: from enum import Enum
  • Factory paradigm
  • Package organization
  • Timezone conversion and timezone aware datetimes
  • Etc. (see the code!)

What follows is kind of a wiki...

Table of contents

Install

O365 is available on pypi.org. Simply run pip install O365 to install it.

Requirements: >= Python 3.4

Project dependencies installed by pip:

  • requests
  • requests-oauthlib
  • beatifulsoup4
  • stringcase
  • python-dateutil
  • tzlocal
  • pytz

Usage

The first step to be able to work with this library is to register an application and retrieve the auth token. See Authentication.

It is highly recommended to add the "offline_access" permission and request this scope when authenticating. Otherwise the library will only have access to the user resources for 1 hour. See Permissions and Scopes.

With the access token retrieved and stored you will be able to perform api calls to the service.

A common pattern to check for authentication and use the library is this one:

scopes = ['my_required_scopes']  # you can use scope helpers here (see Permissions and Scopes section)

account = Account(credentials)

if not account.is_authenticated:  # will check if there is a token and has not expired
    # ask for a login
    # console based authentication See Authentication for other flows
    account.authenticate(scopes=scopes)

# now we are autheticated
# use the library from now on

# ...

Authentication

You can only authenticate using oauth athentication as Microsoft deprecated basic auth on November 1st 2018.

There are currently two authentication methods:

  • Authenticate on behalf of a user: Any user will give consent to the app to access it's resources. This oauth flow is called authorization code grant flow. This is the default authentication method used by this library.

  • Authenticate with your own identity: This will use your own identity (the app identity). This oauth flow is called client credentials grant flow.

    'Authenticate with your own identity' is not an allowed method for Microsoft Personal accounts.

When to use one or the other and requirements:

Topic On behalf of a user (auth_flow_type=='authorization') With your own identity (auth_flow_type=='credentials')
Register the App Required Required
Requires Admin Consent Only on certain advanced permissions Yes, for everything
App Permission Type Delegated Permissions (on behalf of the user) Application Permissions
Auth requirements Client Id, Client Secret, Authorization Code Client Id, Client Secret
Authentication 2 step authentication with user consent 1 step authentication
Auth Scopes Required None
Token Expiration 60 Minutes without refresh token or 90 days* 60 Minutes*
Login Expiration Unlimited if there is a refresh token and as long as a refresh is done within the 90 days Unlimited
Resources Access the user resources, and any shared resources All Azure AD users the app has access to
Microsoft Account Type Any Not Allowed for Personal Accounts
Tenant ID Required Defaults to "common" Required (can't be "common")

*O365 will automatically refresh the token for you on either authentication method. The refresh token lasts 90 days but it's refreshed on each connection so as long as you connect within 90 days you can have unlimited access.

The Connection Class handles the authentication.

Oauth Authentication

This section is explained using Microsoft Graph Protocol, almost the same applies to the Office 365 REST API.

Authentication Steps
  1. To allow authentication you first need to register your application at Azure App Registrations.

    1. Login at Azure Portal (App Registrations)

    2. Create an app. Set a name.

    3. In Supported account types choose "Accounts in any organizational directory and personal Microsoft accounts (e.g. Skype, Xbox, Outlook.com)", if you are using a personal account.

    4. Set the redirect uri (Web) to: https://login.microsoftonline.com/common/oauth2/nativeclient and click register. This is the default redirect uri used by this library, but you can use any other if you want.

    5. Write down the Application (client) ID. You will need this value.

    6. Under "Certificates & secrets", generate a new client secret. Set the expiration preferably to never. Write down the value of the client secret created now. It will be hidden later on.

    7. Under Api Permissions:

      • When authenticating "on behalf of a user":
        1. add the delegated permissions for Microsoft Graph you want (see scopes).
        2. It is highly recommended to add "offline_access" permission. If not the user you will have to re-authenticate every hour.
      • When authenticating "with your own identity":
        1. add the application permissions for Microsoft Graph you want.
        2. Click on the Grant Admin Consent button (if you have admin permissions) or wait until the admin has given consent to your application.

      As an example, to read and send emails use:

      1. Mail.ReadWrite
      2. Mail.Send
      3. User.Read
  2. Then you need to login for the first time to get the access token that will grant access to the user resources.

    To authenticate (login) you can use different authentication interfaces. On the following examples we will be using the Console Based Interface but you can use any one.

    • When authenticating on behalf of a user:

      1. Instantiate an Account object with the credentials (client id and client secret).

      2. Call account.authenticate and pass the scopes you want (the ones you previously added on the app registration portal).

        Note: when using the "on behalf of a user" authentication, you can pass the scopes to either the Account init or to the authenticate method. Either way is correct.

        You can pass "protocol scopes" (like: "https://graph.microsoft.com/Calendars.ReadWrite") to the method or use "scope helpers" like ("message_all"). If you pass protocol scopes, then the account instance must be initialized with the same protocol used by the scopes. By using scope helpers you can abstract the protocol from the scopes and let this library work for you.
        Finally, you can mix and match "protocol scopes" with "scope helpers". Go to the procotol section to know more about them.

        For Example (following the previous permissions added):

        from O365 import Account
        credentials = ('my_client_id', 'my_client_secret')
        
        # the default protocol will be Microsoft Graph
        # the default authentication method will be "on behalf of a user"
        
        account = Account(credentials)
        if account.authenticate(scopes=['basic', 'message_all']):
           print('Authenticated!')
        
        # 'basic' adds: 'offline_access' and 'https://graph.microsoft.com/User.Read'
        # 'message_all' adds: 'https://graph.microsoft.com/Mail.ReadWrite' and 'https://graph.microsoft.com/Mail.Send'

        When using the "on behalf of the user" authentication method, this method call will print a url that the user must visit to give consent to the app on the required permissions.

        The user must then visit this url and give consent to the application. When consent is given, the page will rediret to: "https://login.microsoftonline.com/common/oauth2/nativeclient" by default (you can change this) with a url query param called 'code'.

        Then the user must copy the resulting page url and paste it back on the console. The method will then return True if the login attempt was succesful.

    • When authenticating with your own identity:

      1. Instantiate an Account object with the credentials (client id and client secret), specifying the parameter auth_flow_type to "credentials". You also need to provide a 'tenant_id'. You don't need to specify any scopes.

      2. Call account.authenticate. This call will request a token for you and store it in the backend. No user interaction is needed. The method will store the token in the backend and return True if the authentication succeeded.

        For Example:

        from O365 import Account
        
        credentials = ('my_client_id', 'my_client_secret')
        
        # the default protocol will be Microsoft Graph
        
        account = Account(credentials, auth_flow_type='credentials', tenant_id='my-tenant-id')
        if account.authenticate():
           print('Authenticated!')
  3. At this point you will have an access token stored that will provide valid credentials when using the api.

    The access token only lasts 60 minutes, but the app try will automatically request new access tokens.

    When using the "on behalf of a user" authentication method this is accomplished through the refresh tokens (if and only if you added the "offline_access" permission), but note that a refresh token only lasts for 90 days. So you must use it before or you will need to request a new access token again (no new consent needed by the user, just a login). If your application needs to work for more than 90 days without user interaction and without interacting with the API, then you must implement a periodic call to Connection.refresh_token before the 90 days have passed.

    Take care: the access (and refresh) token must remain protected from unauthorized users.

    Under the "on behalf of a user" authentication method, if you change the scope requested, then the current token won't work, and you will need the user to give consent again on the application to gain access to the new scopes requested.

Different Authentication Interfaces

To acomplish the authentication you can basically use different approaches. The following apply to the "on behalf of a user" authentication method as this is 2-step authentication flow. For the "with your own identity" authentication method, you can just use account.authenticate as it's not going to require a console input.

  1. Console based authentication interface:

    You can authenticate using a console. The best way to achieve this is by using the authenticate method of the Account class.

    account = Account(credentials)
    account.authenticate(scopes=['basic', 'message_all'])

    The authenticate method will print into the console a url that you will have to visit to achieve authentication. Then after visiting the link and authenticate you will have to paste back the resulting url into the console. The method will return True and print a message if it was succesful.

    Tip: When using MacOs the console is limited to 1024 characters. If your url has multiple scopes it can exceed this limit. To solve this. Just import readline a the top of your script.

  2. Web app based authentication interface:

    You can authenticate your users in a web environment by following this steps:

    1. First ensure you are using an appropiate TokenBackend to store the auth tokens (See Token storage below).
    2. From a handler redirect the user to the Microsoft login url. Provide a callback. Store the state.
    3. From the callback handler complete the authentication with the state and other data.

    The following example is done using Flask.

    @route('/stepone')
    def auth_step_one()
    
        callback = 'my absolute url to auth_step_two_callback'
        account = Account(credentials)
        url, state = account.con.get_authorization_url(requested_scopes=my_scopes
                                                       redirect_uri=callback)
        
        # the state must be saved somewhere as it will be needed later
        my_db.store_state(state) # example...
        
        return redirect(url)
    
    @route('/steptwo')
    def auth_step_two_callback():
        account = Account(credentials)
        
        # retreive the state saved in auth_step_one
        my_saved_state = my_db.get_state()  # example...
        
        # rebuild the redirect_uri used in auth_step_one
        callback = 'my absolute url to auth_step_two_callback'
        
        result = account.con.request_token(request.url, 
                                           state=my_saved_state,
                                           redirect_uri=callback)
        # if result is True, then authentication was succesful 
        #  and the auth token is stored in the token backend
        if result:
            return render_template('auth_complete.html')
        # else ....
  3. Other authentication interfaces:

    Finally you can configure any other flow by using connection.get_authorization_url and connection.request_token as you want.

Permissions and Scopes:
Permissions

When using oauth, you create an application and allow some resources to be accessed and used by its users. These resources are managed with permissions. These can either be delegated (on behalf of a user) or aplication permissions. The former are used when the authentication method is "on behalf of a user". Some of these require administrator consent. The latter when using the "with your own identity" authentication method. All of these require administrator consent.

Scopes

The scopes only matter when using the "on behalf of a user" authentication method.

Note: You only need the scopes when login as those are kept stored within the token on the token backend.

The user of this library can then request access to one or more of this resources by providing scopes to the oauth provider.

Note: If you latter on change the scopes requested, the current token will be invaled and you will have to re-authenticate. The user that logins will be asked for consent.

For example your application can have Calendar.Read, Mail.ReadWrite and Mail.Send permissions, but the application can request access only to the Mail.ReadWrite and Mail.Send permission. This is done by providing scopes to the Account instance or account.authenticate method like so:

from O365 import Account

credentials = ('client_id', 'client_secret')

scopes = ['https://graph.microsoft.com/Mail.ReadWrite', 'https://graph.microsoft.com/Mail.Send']

account = Account(credentials, scopes=scopes)
account.authenticate()

# The latter is exactly the same as passing scopes to the authenticate method like so:
# account = Account(credentials)
# account.authenticate(scopes=scopes)

Scope implementation depends on the protocol used. So by using protocol data you can automatically set the scopes needed. This is implemented by using 'scope helpers'. Those are little helpers that group scope functionallity and abstract the procotol used.

Scope Helper Scopes included
basic 'offline_access' and 'User.Read'
mailbox 'Mail.Read'
mailbox_shared 'Mail.Read.Shared'
message_send 'Mail.Send'
message_send_shared 'Mail.Send.Shared'
message_all 'Mail.ReadWrite' and 'Mail.Send'
message_all_shared 'Mail.ReadWrite.Shared' and 'Mail.Send.Shared'
address_book 'Contacts.Read'
address_book_shared 'Contacts.Read.Shared'
address_book_all 'Contacts.ReadWrite'
address_book_all_shared 'Contacts.ReadWrite.Shared'
calendar 'Calendars.Read'
calendar_shared 'Calendars.Read.Shared'
calendar_all 'Calendars.ReadWrite'
calendar_shared_all 'Calendars.ReadWrite.Shared'
users 'User.ReadBasic.All'
onedrive 'Files.Read.All'
onedrive_all 'Files.ReadWrite.All'
sharepoint 'Sites.Read.All'
sharepoint_dl 'Sites.ReadWrite.All'

You can get the same scopes as before using protocols and scope helpers like this:

protocol_graph = MSGraphProtocol()

scopes_graph = protocol.get_scopes_for('message all')
# scopes here are: ['https://graph.microsoft.com/Mail.ReadWrite', 'https://graph.microsoft.com/Mail.Send']

account = Account(credentials, scopes=scopes_graph)
protocol_office = MSOffice365Protocol()

scopes_office = protocol.get_scopes_for('message all')
# scopes here are: ['https://outlook.office.com/Mail.ReadWrite', 'https://outlook.office.com/Mail.Send']

account = Account(credentials, scopes=scopes_office)

Note: When passing scopes at the Account initialization or on the account.authenticate method, the scope helpers are autommatically converted to the protocol flavor. Those are the only places where you can use scope helpers. Any other object using scopes (such as the Connection object) expects scopes that are already set for the protocol.

Token storage:

When authenticating you will retrieve oauth tokens. If you don't want a one time access you will have to store the token somewhere. O365 makes no assumptions on where to store the token and tries to abstract this from the library usage point of view.

You can choose where and how to store tokens by using the properly Token Backend.

Take care: the access (and refresh) token must remain protected from unauthorized users.

To store the token you will have to provide a properly configured TokenBackend. Actually there are only two implemented (but you can easely implement more like a CookieBackend, etc.):

  • FileSystemTokenBackend (Default backend): Stores and retrieves tokens from the file system. Tokens are stored as files.
  • FirestoreTokenBackend: Stores and retrives tokens from a Google Firestore Datastore. Tokens are stored as documents within a collection.

For example using the FileSystem Token Backend:

from O365 import Account, FileSystemTokenBackend

credentials = ('id', 'secret')

# this will store the token under: "my_project_folder/my_folder/my_token.txt".
# you can pass strings to token_path or Path instances from pathlib
token_backend = FileSystemTokenBackend(token_path='my_folder', token_filename='my_token.txt')
account = Account(credentials, token_backend=token_backend)

# This account instance tokens will be stored on the token_backend configured before.
# You don't have to do anything more
# ...

And now using the same example using FirestoreTokenBackend:

from O365 import Account
from O365.utils import FirestoreBackend
from google.cloud import firestore

credentials = ('id', 'secret')

# this will store the token on firestore under the tokens collection on the defined doc_id.
# you can pass strings to token_path or Path instances from pathlib
user_id = 'whatever the user id is'  # used to create the token document id
document_id = 'token_{}'.format(user_id)  # used to uniquely store this token
token_backend = FirestoreBackend(client=firestore.Client(), collection='tokens', doc_id=document_id)
account = Account(credentials, token_backend=token_backend)

# This account instance tokens will be stored on the token_backend configured before.
# You don't have to do anything more
# ...

To implement a new TokenBackend:

  1. Subclass BaseTokenBackend

  2. Implement the following methods:

    • __init__ (don't forget to call super().__init__)
    • load_token: this should load the token from the desired backend and return a Token instance or None
    • save_token: this should store the self.token in the desired backend.
    • Optionally you can implement: check_token and delete_token

Protocols

Protocols handles the aspects of communications between different APIs. This project uses either the Microsoft Graph APIs (by default) or the Office 365 APIs. But, you can use many other Microsoft APIs as long as you implement the protocol needed.

You can use one or the other:

Both protocols are similar but consider the following:

Reasons to use MSGraphProtocol:

  • It is the recommended Protocol by Microsoft.
  • It can access more resources over Office 365 (for example OneDrive)

Reasons to use MSOffice365Protocol:

The default protocol used by the Account Class is MSGraphProtocol.

You can implement your own protocols by inheriting from Protocol to communicate with other Microsoft APIs.

You can instantiate and use protocols like this:

from O365 import Account, MSGraphProtocol  # same as from O365.connection import MSGraphProtocol

# ...

# try the api version beta of the Microsoft Graph endpoint.
protocol = MSGraphProtocol(api_version='beta')  # MSGraphProtocol defaults to v1.0 api version
account = Account(credentials, protocol=protocol)
Resources:

Each API endpoint requires a resource. This usually defines the owner of the data. Every protocol defaults to resource 'ME'. 'ME' is the user which has given consent, but you can change this behaviour by providing a different default resource to the protocol constructor.

Note: When using the "with your own identity" authentication method the resource 'ME' is overwritten to be blank as the authentication method already states that you are login with your own identity.

For example when accessing a shared mailbox:

# ...
account = Account(credentials=my_credentials, main_resource='shared_mailbox@example.com')
# Any instance created using account will inherit the resource defined for account.

This can be done however at any point. For example at the protocol level:

# ...
protocol = MSGraphProtocol(default_resource='shared_mailbox@example.com')

account = Account(credentials=my_credentials, protocol=protocol)

# now account is accesing the shared_mailbox@example.com in every api call.
shared_mailbox_messages = account.mailbox().get_messages()

Instead of defining the resource used at the account or protocol level, you can provide it per use case as follows:

# ...
account = Account(credentials=my_credentials)  # account defaults to 'ME' resource

mailbox = account.mailbox('shared_mailbox@example.com')  # mailbox is using 'shared_mailbox@example.com' resource instead of 'ME'

# or:

message = Message(parent=account, main_resource='shared_mailbox@example.com')  # message is using 'shared_mailbox@example.com' resource

Usually you will work with the default 'ME' resource, but you can also use one of the following:

  • 'me': the user which has given consent. the default for every protocol. Overwritten when using "with your own identity" authentication method (Only available on the authorization auth_flow_type).
  • 'user:user@domain.com': a shared mailbox or a user account for which you have permissions. If you don't provide 'user:' will be infered anyways.
  • 'site:sharepoint-site-id': a sharepoint site id.
  • 'group:group-site-id': a office365 group id.

By setting the resource prefix (such as 'user:' or 'group:') you help the library understand the type of resource. You can also pass it like 'users/example@exampl.com'. Same applies to the other resource prefixes.

Account Class and Modularity

Usually you will only need to work with the Account Class. This is a wrapper around all functionality.

But you can also work only with the pieces you want.

For example, instead of:

from O365 import Account

account = Account(('client_id', 'client_secret'))
message = account.new_message()
# ...
mailbox = account.mailbox()
# ...

You can work only with the required pieces:

from O365 import Connection, MSGraphProtocol
from O365.message import Message
from O365.mailbox import MailBox

protocol = MSGraphProtocol()
scopes = ['...']
con = Connection(('client_id', 'client_secret'), scopes=scopes)

message = Message(con=con, protocol=protocol)
# ...
mailbox = MailBox(con=con, protocol=protocol)
message2 = Message(parent=mailbox)  # message will inherit the connection and protocol from mailbox when using parent.
# ...

It's also easy to implement a custom Class.

Just Inherit from ApiComponent, define the endpoints, and use the connection to make requests. If needed also inherit from Protocol to handle different comunications aspects with the API server.

from O365.utils import ApiComponent 

class CustomClass(ApiComponent):
    _endpoints = {'my_url_key': '/customendpoint'}
    
    def __init__(self, *, parent=None, con=None, **kwargs):
        # connection is only needed if you want to communicate with the api provider
        self.con = parent.con if parent else con
        protocol = parent.protocol if parent else kwargs.get('protocol')
        main_resource = parent.main_resource
        
        super().__init__(protocol=protocol, main_resource=main_resource)
        # ...

    def do_some_stuff(self):
        
        # self.build_url just merges the protocol service_url with the enpoint passed as a parameter
        # to change the service_url implement your own protocol inherinting from Protocol Class
        url = self.build_url(self._endpoints.get('my_url_key'))  
        
        my_params = {'param1': 'param1'}

        response = self.con.get(url, params=my_params)  # note the use of the connection here.

        # handle response and return to the user...

# the use it as follows:
from O365 import Connection, MSGraphProtocol

protocol = MSGraphProtocol()  # or maybe a user defined protocol
con = Connection(('client_id', 'client_secret'), scopes=protocol.get_scopes_for(['...']))
custom_class = CustomClass(con=con, protocol=protocol)

custom_class.do_some_stuff()

MailBox

Mailbox groups the funcionality of both the messages and the email folders.

These are the scopes needed to work with the MailBox and Message classes.

Raw Scope Included in Scope Helper Description
Mail.Read mailbox To only read my mailbox
Mail.Read.Shared mailbox_shared To only read another user / shared mailboxes
Mail.Send message_send, message_all To only send message
Mail.Send.Shared message_send_shared, message_all_shared To only send message as another user / shared mailbox
Mail.ReadWrite message_all To read and save messages in my mailbox
Mail.ReadWrite.Shared message_all_shared To read and save messages in another user / shared mailbox
mailbox = account.mailbox()

inbox = mailbox.inbox_folder()

for message in inbox.get_messages():
    print(message)

sent_folder = mailbox.sent_folder()

for message in sent_folder.get_messages():
    print(message)

m = mailbox.new_message()

m.to.add('to_example@example.com')
m.body = 'George Best quote: In 1969 I gave up women and alcohol - it was the worst 20 minutes of my life.'
m.save_draft()

Email Folder

Represents a Folder within your email mailbox.

You can get any folder in your mailbox by requesting child folders or filtering by name.

mailbox = account.mailbox()

archive = mailbox.get_folder(folder_name='archive')  # get a folder with 'archive' name

child_folders = archive.get_folders(25) # get at most 25 child folders of 'archive' folder

for folder in child_folders:
    print(folder.name, folder.parent_id)

new_folder = archive.create_child_folder('George Best Quotes')

Message

An email object with all it's data and methods.

Creating a draft message is as easy as this:

message = mailbox.new_message()
message.to.add(['example1@example.com', 'example2@example.com'])
message.sender.address = 'my_shared_account@example.com'  # changing the from address
message.body = 'George Best quote: I might go to Alcoholics Anonymous, but I think it would be difficult for me to remain anonymous'
message.attachments.add('george_best_quotes.txt')
message.save_draft()  # save the message on the cloud as a draft in the drafts folder

Working with saved emails is also easy:

query = mailbox.new_query().on_attribute('subject').contains('george best')  # see Query object in Utils
messages = mailbox.get_messages(limit=25, query=query)

message = messages[0]  # get the first one

message.mark_as_read()
reply_msg = message.reply()

if 'example@example.com' in reply_msg.to:  # magic methods implemented
    reply_msg.body = 'George Best quote: I spent a lot of money on booze, birds and fast cars. The rest I just squandered.'
else:
    reply_msg.body = 'George Best quote: I used to go missing a lot... Miss Canada, Miss United Kingdom, Miss World.'

reply_msg.send()
Sending Inline Images

You can send inline images by doing this:

# ...
msg = account.new_message()
msg.to.add('george@best.com')
msg.attchments.add('my_image.png')
att = msg.attchments[0]  # get the attachment object

# this is super important for this to work.
att.is_inline = True
att.content_id = 'image.png'

# notice we insert an image tag with source to: "cid:{content_id}"
body = """
    <html>
        <body>
            <strong>There should be an image here:</strong>
            <p>
                <img src="cid:image.png">
            </p>
        </body>
    </html>
    """
msg.body = body
msg.send()
Retrieving Message Headers

You can retrieve message headers by doing this:

# ...
mb = account.mailbox()
msg = mb.get_message(query=mb.q().select('internet_message_headers'))
print(msg.message_headers)  # returns a list of dicts.

Note that only message headers and other properties added to the select statement will be present.

Saving as EML

Messages and attached messages can be saved as *.eml.

  • Save message as "eml":

        msg.save_as_eml(to_path=Path('my_saved_email.eml'))
  • Save attached message as "eml":

    Carefull: there's no way to identify that an attachment is in fact a message. You can only check if the attachment.attachment_type == 'item'. if is of type "item" then it can be a message (or an event, etc...). You will have to determine this yourself.

        msg_attachment = msg.attachments[0]  # the first attachment is attachment.attachment_type == 'item' and I know it's a message.
        msg.attachments.save_as_eml(msg_attachment, to_path=Path('my_saved_email.eml')) 

AddressBook

AddressBook groups the funcionality of both the Contact Folders and Contacts. Outlook Distribution Groups are not supported (By the Microsoft API's).

These are the scopes needed to work with the AddressBook and Contact classes.

Raw Scope Included in Scope Helper Description
Contacts.Read address_book To only read my personal contacts
Contacts.Read.Shared address_book_shared To only read another user / shared mailbox contacts
Contacts.ReadWrite address_book_all To read and save personal contacts
Contacts.ReadWrite.Shared address_book_all_shared To read and save contacts from another user / shared mailbox
User.ReadBasic.All users To only read basic properties from users of my organization (User.Read.All requires administrator consent).

Contact Folders

Represents a Folder within your Contacts Section in Office 365. AddressBook class represents the parent folder (it's a folder itself).

You can get any folder in your address book by requesting child folders or filtering by name.

address_book = account.address_book()

contacts = address_book.get_contacts(limit=None)  # get all the contacts in the Personal Contacts root folder

work_contacts_folder = address_book.get_folder(folder_name='Work Contacts')  # get a folder with 'Work Contacts' name

message_to_all_contats_in_folder = work_contacts_folder.new_message()  # creates a draft message with all the contacts as recipients

message_to_all_contats_in_folder.subject = 'Hallo!'
message_to_all_contats_in_folder.body = """
George Best quote:

If you'd given me the choice of going out and beating four men and smashing a goal in
from thirty yards against Liverpool or going to bed with Miss World,
it would have been a difficult choice. Luckily, I had both.
"""
message_to_all_contats_in_folder.send()

# querying folders is easy:
child_folders = address_book.get_folders(25) # get at most 25 child folders

for folder in child_folders:
    print(folder.name, folder.parent_id)

# creating a contact folder:
address_book.create_child_folder('new folder')

The Global Address List

Office 365 API (Nor MS Graph API) has no concept such as the Outlook Global Address List. However you can use the Users API to access all the users within your organization.

Without admin consent you can only access a few properties of each user such as name and email and litte more. You can search by name or retrieve a contact specifying the complete email.

  • Basic Permision needed is Users.ReadBasic.All (limit info)
  • Full Permision is Users.Read.All but needs admin consent.

To search the Global Address List (Users API):

global_address_list = account.directory()

# for backwards compatibilty only this also works and returns a Directory object:
# global_address_list = account.address_book(address_book='gal')

# start a new query:
q = global_address_list.new_query('display_name')
q.startswith('George Best')

for user in global_address_list.get_users(query=q):
    print(user)

To retrieve a contact by their email:

contact = global_address_list.get_user('example@example.com')

Contacts

Everything returned from an AddressBook instance is a Contact instance. Contacts have all the information stored as attributes

Creating a contact from an AddressBook:

new_contact = address_book.new_contact()

new_contact.name = 'George Best'
new_contact.job_title = 'football player'
new_contact.emails.add('george@best.com')

new_contact.save()  # saved on the cloud

message = new_contact.new_message()  #  Bonus: send a message to this contact

# ...

new_contact.delete()  # Bonus: deteled from the cloud

Calendar

The calendar and events functionality is group in a Schedule object.

A Schedule instance can list and create calendars. It can also list or create events on the default user calendar. To use other calendars use a Calendar instance.

These are the scopes needed to work with the Schedule, Calendar and Event classes.

Raw Scope Included in Scope Helper Description
Calendars.Read calendar To only read my personal calendars
Calendars.Read.Shared calendar_shared To only read another user / shared mailbox calendars
Calendars.ReadWrite calendar_all To read and save personal calendars
Calendars.ReadWrite.Shared calendar_shared_all To read and save calendars from another user / shared mailbox

Working with the Schedule instance:

import datetime as dt

# ...
schedule = account.schedule()

calendar = schedule.get_default_calendar()
new_event = calendar.new_event()  # creates a new unsaved event 
new_event.subject = 'Recruit George Best!'
new_event.location = 'England'

# naive datetimes will automatically be converted to timezone aware datetime
#  objects using the local timezone detected or the protocol provided timezone

new_event.start = dt.datetime(2019, 9, 5, 19, 45) 
# so new_event.start becomes: datetime.datetime(2018, 9, 5, 19, 45, tzinfo=<DstTzInfo 'Europe/Paris' CEST+2:00:00 DST>)

new_event.recurrence.set_daily(1, end=dt.datetime(2019, 9, 10))
new_event.remind_before_minutes = 45

new_event.save()

Working with Calendar instances:

calendar = schedule.get_calendar(calendar_name='Birthdays')

calendar.name = 'Football players birthdays'
calendar.update()

q = calendar.new_query('start').greater_equal(dt.datetime(2018, 5, 20))
q.chain('and').on_attribute('end').less_equal(dt.datetime(2018, 5, 24))

birthdays = calendar.get_events(query=q, include_recurring=True)  # include_recurring=True will include repeated events on the result set.

for event in birthdays:
    if event.subject == 'George Best Birthday':
        # He died in 2005... but we celebrate anyway!
        event.accept("I'll attend!")  # send a response accepting
    else:
        event.decline("No way I'm comming, I'll be in Spain", send_response=False)  # decline the event but don't send a reponse to the organizer

Notes regarding Calendars and Events:

  1. Include_recurring=True:

    It's important to know that when querying events with include_recurring=True (which is the default), it is required that you must provide a query parameter with the start and end attributes defined. Unlike when using include_recurring=False those attributes will NOT filter the data based on the operations you set on the query (greater_equal, less, etc.) but just filter the events start datetime between the provided start and end datetimes.

  2. Shared Calendars:

    There are some known issues when working with shared calendars in Microsoft Graph.

  3. Event attachments:

    For some unknow reason, microsoft does not allow to upload an attachment at the event creation time (as opposed with message attachments). See this. So, to upload attachments to Events, first save the event, then attach the message and save again.

OneDrive

The Storage class handles all functionality around One Drive and Document Library Storage in Sharepoint.

The Storage instance allows to retrieve Drive instances which handles all the Files and Folders from within the selected Storage. Usually you will only need to work with the default drive. But the Storage instances can handle multiple drives.

A Drive will allow you to work with Folders and Files.

These are the scopes needed to work with the Storage, Drive and DriveItem classes.

Raw Scope Included in Scope Helper Description
Files.Read To only read my files
Files.Read.All onedrive To only read all the files the user has access
Files.ReadWrite To read and save my files
Files.ReadWrite.All onedrive_all To read and save all the files the user has access
account = Account(credentials=my_credentials)

storage = account.storage()  # here we get the storage instance that handles all the storage options.

# list all the drives:
drives = storage.get_drives()

# get the default drive
my_drive = storage.get_default_drive()  # or get_drive('drive-id')

# get some folders:
root_folder = my_drive.get_root_folder()
attachments_folder = my_drive.get_special_folder('attachments')

# iterate over the first 25 items on the root folder
for item in root_folder.get_items(limit=25):
    if item.is_folder:
        print(item.get_items(2))  # print the first to element on this folder.
    elif item.is_file:
        if item.is_photo:
            print(item.camera_model)  # print some metadata of this photo
        elif item.is_image:
            print(item.dimensions)  # print the image dimensions
        else:
            # regular file:
            print(item.mime_type)  # print the mime type

Both Files and Folders are DriveItems. Both Image and Photo are Files, but Photo is also an Image. All have some different methods and properties. Take care when using 'is_xxxx'.

When copying a DriveItem the api can return a direct copy of the item or a pointer to a resource that will inform on the progress of the copy operation.

# copy a file to the documents special folder

documents_folder = my_drive.get_special_folder('documents')

files = my_drive.search('george best quotes', limit=1)

if files:
    george_best_quotes = files[0]
    operation = george_best_quotes.copy(target=documents_folder)  # operation here is an instance of CopyOperation
    
    # to check for the result just loop over check_status.
    # check_status is a generator that will yield a new status and progress until the file is finally copied
    for status, progress in operation.check_status():  # if it's an async operations, this will request to the api for the status in every loop
        print('{} - {}'.format(status, progress))  # prints 'in progress - 77.3' until finally completed: 'completed - 100.0'
    copied_item = operation.get_item()  # the copy operation is completed so you can get the item.
    if copied_item:
        copied_item.delete()  # ... oops!

You can also work with share permissions:

current_permisions = file.get_permissions()  # get all the current permissions on this drive_item (some may be inherited)

# share with link
permission = file.share_with_link(share_type='edit')
if permission:
    print(permission.share_link)  # the link you can use to share this drive item
# share with invite
permission = file.share_with_invite(recipients='george_best@best.com', send_email=True, message='Greetings!!', share_type='edit')
if permission:
    print(permission.granted_to)  # the person you share this item with

You can also:

# download files:
file.download(to_path='/quotes/')

# upload files:

# if the uploaded file is bigger than 4MB the file will be uploaded in chunks of 5 MB until completed.
# this can take several requests and can be time consuming.
uploaded_file = folder.upload_file(item='path_to_my_local_file')

# restore versions:
versions = file.get_versions()
for version in versions:
    if version.name == '2.0':
        version.restore()  # restore the version 2.0 of this file

# ... and much more ...

Excel

You can interact with new excel files (.xlsx) stored in OneDrive or a Sharepoint Document Library. You can retrieve workbooks, worksheets, tables, and even cell data. You can also write to any excel online.

To work with excel files, first you have to retrieve a File instance using the OneDrive or Sharepoint functionallity.

The scopes needed to work with the WorkBook and Excel related classes are the same used by OneDrive.

This is how you update a cell value:

from O365.excel import WorkBook

# given a File instance that is a xlsx file ...
excel_file = WorkBook(my_file_instance)  # my_file_instance should be an instance of File.

ws = excel_file.get_worksheet('my_worksheet')
cella1 = ws.get_range('A1')
cella1.values = 35
cella1.update()

Workbook Sessions

When interacting with excel, you can use a workbook session to efficiently make changes in a persistent or nonpersistent way. This sessions become usefull if you perform numerous changes to the excel file.

The default is to use a session in a persistent way. Sessions expire after some time of inactivity. When working with persistent sessions, new sessions will automatically be created when old ones expire.

You can however change this when creating the Workbook instance:

excel_file = WorkBook(my_file_instance, use_session=False, persist=False)

Available Objects

After creating the WorkBook instance you will have access to the following objects:

  • WorkSheet
  • Range and NamedRange
  • Table, TableColumn and TableRow
  • RangeFormat (to format ranges)
  • Charts (not available for now)

Some examples:

Set format for a given range

# ...
my_range = ws.get_range('B2:C10')
fmt = myrange.get_format()
fmt.font.bold = True
fmt.update()

Autofit Columns:

ws.get_range('B2:C10').get_format().auto_fit_columns()

Get values from Table:

table = ws.get_table('my_table')
column = table.get_column_at_index(1)
values = column.values[0]  # values returns a two dimensional array.

Sharepoint

The sharepoint api is done but there are no docs yet. Look at the sharepoint.py file to get insights.

These are the scopes needed to work with the Sharepoint and Site classes.

Raw Scope Included in Scope Helper Description
Sites.Read.All sharepoint To only read sites, lists and items
Sites.ReadWrite.All sharepoint_dl To read and save sites, lists and items

Planner

The planner api is done but there are no docs yet. Look at the planner.py file to get insights.

The planner functionality requires Administrator Permission.

Outlook Categories

You can retrive, update, create and delete outlook categories. These categories can be used to categorize Messages, Events and Contacts.

These are the scopes needed to work with the Sharepoint and Site classes.

Raw Scope Included in Scope Helper Description
MailboxSettings.Read - To only read outlook settingss
MailboxSettings.ReadWrite settings_all To read and write outlook settings

Example:

from O365.category import CategoryColor

oc = account.outlook_categories()
categories = oc.get_categories()
for category in categories:
    print(category.name, category.color)

my_category = oc.create_category('Important Category', color=CategoryColor.RED)
my_category.update_color(CategoryColor.DARKGREEN)

my_category.delete()  # oops!

Utils

Pagination

When using certain methods, it is possible that you request more items than the api can return in a single api call. In this case the Api, returns a "next link" url where you can pull more data.

When this is the case, the methods in this library will return a Pagination object which abstracts all this into a single iterator. The pagination object will request "next links" as soon as they are needed.

For example:

mailbox = account.mailbox()

messages = mailbox.get_messages(limit=1500)  # the Office 365 and MS Graph API have a 999 items limit returned per api call.

# Here messages is a Pagination instance. It's an Iterator so you can iterate over.

# The first 999 iterations will be normal list iterations, returning one item at a time.
# When the iterator reaches the 1000 item, the Pagination instance will call the api again requesting exactly 500 items
# or the items specified in the batch parameter (see later).

for message in messages:
    print(message.subject)

When using certain methods you will have the option to specify not only a limit option (the number of items to be returned) but a batch option. This option will indicate the method to request data to the api in batches until the limit is reached or the data consumed. This is usefull when you want to optimize memory or network latency.

For example:

messages = mailbox.get_messages(limit=100, batch=25)

# messages here is a Pagination instance
# when iterating over it will call the api 4 times (each requesting 25 items).

for message in messages:  # 100 loops with 4 requests to the api server
    print(message.subject)

The Query helper

When using the Office 365 API you can filter, order, select, expand or search on some fields. This filtering is tedious as is using Open Data Protocol (OData).

Every ApiComponent (such as MailBox) implements a new_query method that will return a Query instance. This Query instance can handle the filtering, sorting, selecting, expanding and search very easily.

For example:

query = mailbox.new_query()  # you can use the shorthand: mailbox.q()

query = query.on_attribute('subject').contains('george best').chain('or').startswith('quotes')

# 'created_date_time' will automatically be converted to the protocol casing.
# For example when using MS Graph this will become 'createdDateTime'.

query = query.chain('and').on_attribute('created_date_time').greater(datetime(2018, 3, 21))

print(query)

# contains(subject, 'george best') or startswith(subject, 'quotes') and createdDateTime gt '2018-03-21T00:00:00Z'
# note you can pass naive datetimes and those will be converted to you local timezone and then send to the api as UTC in iso8601 format

# To use Query objetcs just pass it to the query parameter:
filtered_messages = mailbox.get_messages(query=query)

You can also specify specific data to be retrieved with "select":

# select only some properties for the retrieved messages:
query = mailbox.new_query().select('subject', 'to_recipients', 'created_date_time')

messages_with_selected_properties = mailbox.get_messages(query=query)

You can also search content. As said in the graph docs:

You can currently search only message and person collections. A $search request returns up to 250 results. You cannot use $filter or $orderby in a search request.

If you do a search on messages and specify only a value without specific message properties, the search is carried out on the default search properties of from, subject, and body.

# searching is the easy part ;)
query = mailbox.q().search('george best is da boss')
messages = mailbox.get_messages(query=query)

Request Error Handling

Whenever a Request error raises, the connection object will raise an exception. Then the exception will be captured and logged it to the stdout with it's message, an return Falsy (None, False, [], etc...)

HttpErrors 4xx (Bad Request) and 5xx (Internal Server Error) are considered exceptions and raised also by the connection. You can tell the Connection to not raise http errors by passing raise_http_errors=False (defaults to True).

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