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Archived source for rayshade 4.0 release
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This is version 4.0 of rayshade, a ray tracing program. Rayshade reads a multi-line ASCII file describing a scene to be rendered and produces a Utah Raster Toolkit "RLE" format file containing the ray traced image. Rayshade features: Eleven primitives (blob, box, cone, cylinder, height field, plane, polygon, sphere, torus, flat- and Phong-shaded triangle) Aggregate objects Constructive solid geometry Point, directional, extended, spot, and quadrilateral light sources Solid procedural texturing, bump mapping, and 2D "image" texture mapping Antialiasing through variable-rate "jittered" sampling Arbitrary linear transformations on objects and texture/bump maps. Use of uniform spatial subdivision or hierarchy of bounding volumes to speed rendering Options to facilitate rendering of stereo pairs Rudimentary animation support There are many differences between rayshade versions 3.0 and 4.0. In particular, the input syntax has changed. Input files created for version 3.0 must be converted to version 4.0 syntax using the provided conversion utility, rsconvert. See Doc/Changes for a list of some of the more important changes. Rayshade v4.0 has been tested on many different UNIX-based computers, including: SGI 4D, IBM RS6000, Sun Sparcstation 1, Sun 3, DECstation, Apollo DN10000, NeXT. If your machine has a C compiler, enough memory (at least 2Mb), and runs something resembling UNIX, rayshade should be fairly easy to port. Be warned that rayshade uses yacc and lex to process input files. If you do not have lex and yacc, try to get flex and bison from the Free Software Foundation folks (ftp to prep.ai.mit.edu). Attempts to port rayshade to 16-bit machines will likely lead to nothing but a profound sense of frustration. Rayshade uses a Configure script in order to determine how it should be compiled. This means that if you're not runing under UNIX, you'll probably have to create a config.h and edit the Makefiles by hand. If you create a config.h file and/or Makefiles for use in an non-UNIX environment, send them to us and we will make it available for use by others. The prototype config.H file may be of some help. Normally, rayshade makes use of the Utah Raster toolkit. You are strongly encouraged to get a copy of the toolkit, as it provides a host of useful tools for image manipulation and a library for reading/writing the toolkit's "RLE" format image files. "blurb.urt" is the "blurb" file from the latest distribution of the toolkit. Also of interest is the "fbm" library, available from nl.cs.cmu.edu:/usr/mlm/ftp/fbm.tar.Z, which provides additional tools for converting Utah Raster format images to/from other formats. If you do not want to or cannot use the Utah Raster toolkit, rayshade can be configured to create image files using a generic format identical to that used by Mark VandeWettering's "mtv" ray tracer. The rayshade distribution consists of two libraries (libray, libshade) and several applications (rayshade proper, rayview, raypaint) that are linked against these libraries. To compile, run the Configure script to generate config.h and the Makefiles, then run "make depend" followed by "make". If the Configuration script fails, or if it can't determine a way to generate dependencies, you'll probably have to edit the Makefiles or extract them from the Makefile.SH scripts by hand. Don't be overly alarmed if there are a few non-fatal error messages while running "make depend" The Doc directory contains a User's Guide in the Guide subdirectory, as well as a quick-reference sheet and some information that might be useful in porting or modifying rayshade. To create a formatted version of the User's Guide, you'll need LaTeX. If you don't have LaTeX, a postscript version of the Guide is available via anonymous ftp from weedeater.math.yale.edu (see below). The etc directory contains miscellaneous goodies, including the source to a filter to convert rayshade v3.0 input to rayshade 4.0. The Example directory contains example input files, which may be used to test rayshade and to familiarize yourself with rayshade's input syntax. You can also run any one of Eric Haines' Standard Procedural Databases through awk using the etc/nff2shade.awk script, and then feed the results to rayshade. Note that for several of the databases, you will need to tweak the data a bit to achieve optimal runtimes. See nff2shade.awk for details. Rayshade was not designed to be, nor is it, the be-all and end-all of ray tracers. It was meant to be reasonably fast, portable, and easy to modify. It has some nice features which allow you to produce pretty pictures, but there are countless extensions, modifications, and improvements which could be made. There are many routines which may be optimized and many features which could be added. For a list of suggested improvements and projects see "TODO". You are strongly encouraged to modify the source code left and right. While there is currently no documentation for the libraries, it should be easy for you to add your own primitives, textures, aggregates, and light sources by looking at the code and sending mail if you get stuck. Additional rayshade goodies are available via anonymous ftp from weedeater.math.yale.edu (126.96.36.199) in pub/rayshade.4.0. If you have contributions of new objects, textures, input files, configuration files, or images to make, feel free to send us email or to drop off a copy via ftp in the "incoming" directory on weedeater. The first version of rayshade was written by Craig Kolb, David P. Dobkin, and David C. Hoffman during 1987-1988, and was heavily based on an "introductory" public domain ray tracer written by Roman Kuchkuda. Rayshade v3.0 was written by Craig Kolb and released in the Fall of 1989. Rayshade v4.0 was written by Craig Kolb and Rod Bogart during 1990-1991. Rayshade was made possible by many people who have made suggestions, fixed bugs, and who have been all-around good sports about the whole thing. Thanks to Gavin Bell, David Dobkin, Eric Haines, Lefteris Koutsofios, Ken Musgrave, Przemek Prusinkiewicz, and Allan Snider for their encouragement, comments, and willingness to be on the Front Lines. Thanks to Roman Kuchkuda for providing such a solid base upon which to build. Special thanks to Robert Skinner for providing the Noise(), DNoise(), and other texturing functions and allowing them to be redistributed. Pat Hanrahan's OOGL provided the spirit (if not the letter) of the modularity of rayshade v4.0. Thanks to Pat and to Mark VandeWettering for the 'net tracer' conversations and for the inspiration to do something to clean up rayshade. Thanks to Marc Andreessen, Tony Apodaca, Ray Bellis, Dominique Boisvert, William Bouma, Allen Braunsdorf, Jeff Butterworth, Nick Carriero, Nancy Everson, Tom Friedel, Robert Funchess, David Gelernter, Mike Gigante, Ed Herderick, John Knuston, Raphael Manfredi, Lee Moore, Dietmar Saupe, Iain Sinclair, Brian Wyvill, and everybody else for their bugfixes, suggestions, input files, encouragement, and other feedback. Thanks also to Mark Podlipec for providing the blob and torus objects. Thanks to Jochen Schwarze for the cubic and quartic root-finding functions. His code, and a host of other useful routines, can be found in "Graphics Gems", edited by Andrew Glassner. Thanks to Benoit Mandelbrot for the support he provided this project. If you find any bugs, make any useful extensions, have a nice input file, port rayshade to a new environment, or need assistance understanding a particularly braindamaged section of code, please let us know. We can be most easily reached by email. Once you start using rayshade, and you'd like to be kept abreast of changes and extensions, send a message to email@example.com, and we'll add you to the rayshade mailing list. Craig Kolb Rod Bogart 10 January 1992 firstname.lastname@example.org Craig Kolb Computer Science Department Princeton University 35 Olden St. Princeton, NJ 08544