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Alpha status License Docs

python-mchess is a collections of libraries to work with Millennium's Chess Genius Exclusive chess board via the Chess Link interface.

Note: the client-side will be renamed to 'turquoise', hence main script is now

It provides two layers of functionality:

  • A hardware driver for the Chess Genius Exclusive chess board, supporting piece recognition and leds via USB or Bluetooth LE
  • A sample implementation to connect arbitrary UCI engines to the chess board.

Currently, the following platforms are under development:

Linux Raspberry Pi macOS (x86, ARM) Windows
USB x x x x
Bluetooth LE x x

Alpha installation instructions

This project is under heavy development, and basically everything described below might change at some point.


python-mchess is written for Python >= 3.7. If UCI-engine support (python-chess dependency) is not used, any Python 3.x works. (python-mchess makes use of latest async features of Python 3.7 and later)

python-mchess board driver for Chess Link depends on PySerial and (Linux/Raspberry Pi only) BluePy

Optional UCI engine support

In order to use UCI engines with mchess, additionally python-chess is used, the Tkinter-GUI prototype uses Pillow.

pip3 install pyserial [bluepy] [python-chess] [Pillow]

Then clone the repository

git clone

Now configure some engines:

cd mchess/engines

Copy engine-template.json for each UCI engine to a file <engine-name>.json, and edit the fields 'name' and 'path'.

A sample content for stockfish in Linux would be: engines/stockfish.json:

  "name": "stockfish",
  "path": "/usr/bin/stockfish",
  "active": true

Note: Windows users need to use paths with \\ or / for proper json encoding.

Web client

The web agent requires python modules Flask, Flask-Sockets and gevent.

pip3 install flask flask-sockets gevent

Node JS packet manager npm is needed to install the javascript dependencies:

cd mchess/web
npm install

This installs the dependencies cm-chessboard and charts.js.


Then in directory mchess, simply start from console:


This will start chess agents for the chess board, automatically detecting board hardware via USB or BLuetooth LE (Linux, Raspberry PI only), and load the [first active] UCI engine (testet with Leela Chess Zero (Lc0) and Stockfish 9).

Enter help in terminal to get an overview of available console commands (e.g. switch sides, take back moves, analyze position).

The web client can be reached at http://localhost:8001. From remote use http://computer-name:8001.

Early alpha web preview Early alpha preview of web client "Turquoise"

Note: Bluetooth LE hardware detection either requires admin privileges for the one-time intial bluetooth scan, or the setcap command below.

Bluetooth LE board search without sudo (recommended)

# adapt path:
sudo setcap 'cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin+eip' PATH/TO/LIB/python3._x_/site-packages/bluepy/bluepy-helper

# The simply start mchess, scanning is started automatically:

Bluetooth LE board search with sudo

If the above fails, try to scan once with sudo:

sudo python3

If has been started with sudo, it is advisible to change the ownership of chess_link_config.json to the user account that is used for games, otherwise cannot update the configuration (e.g. orientation changes) automatically.

Restart the program, once the board has connected (the connection address is saved in chess_link_config.json)

Do NOT use sudo on subsequent starts, or the communication might fail. If scan was executed with sudo, then you might want to set ownership for chess_link_config.json to your user-account, since the file will be rewritten, if the detected board orientation is changed. (chown your-username chess_link_config.json)

All engine descriptions in directory 'engines' will now contain the default-UCI options for each engine. Those can be edited e.g. to enable tablebases or other UCI options.

Console mchess Console output of python module, allows terminal interactions: enter 'help' for an overview of console commands


On start, the current position from Chess Genius Exclusive board is imported and displayed on the console. Simply start making a move on the board, and the UCI engine will reply. During the time, the engine calculates, the best current line is displayed on the board for up to 3 half-moves (see preferences.json to enable/disable this feature).

Enter help on the terminal console to get an overview of commands, and see below for more customization options


Currrently, there doesn't exist much of a GUI to configure mchess, and configuration relies on a number of JSON files.

preferences.json, general options for mchess

  • outdated! The documentation of preferences.json is invalid.
Field Default Description
think_ms 500 Number of milli seconds, computer calculates for a move. Better level configuration will be added at a later point.
use_unicode_figures true Most terminals can display Unicode chess figures, if that doesn't work, set to false, and letters are used for chess pieces instead.
invert_term_color false How chess board colors black and white are displayed might depend on the background color of your terminal. Change, if black and white are mixed up.
max_plies_terminal 6 The number of half-moves (plies) that are displayed in analysis in terminal. If set to 0, no move-preview is shown. That is helpful, if logs are required.
max_plies_board 3 The number of half-moves that are indicated through blink led sequences on the Millennium chess board. Maximum (due to hardware protocol limitations) is 3. If more than one UCI engine is used for analysis, the results of the first engine are shown.
ply_vis_delay 80 The delay used went indicating move-sequences on the Millennium chess board. Use a higher value (e.g. 160) to slow down the speed of change.
import_chesslink_position true On true the current position on the Millennium chess board is imported at start of On false, always the start position is used.
computer_player_name stockfish Name of the first computer UCI engine. It must correspond to the name of a json file in mchess/engines/<computername>.json. The first computerplayer is the actual oponent in human-computer games and is used for display of analysis on the Millennium board. Spelling (including case) must match engine filename _and name field in <engine>.json. [This is not really an optimal solution and will change.]
computer_player2_name "" Name of optional second UCI engine, used for computer-computer games and as second, concurrent analysis engine.
human_name human Name of human player displayed in terminal. This will change (support for second name)
active_agents { "human": ["chess_link", "terminal", "web"], "computer": ["stockfish", "lc0"]} Work in progress! A list of active agent modules. The agent-architecture is very flexible and allow adding arbitrary input and output hard- and software or interfaces to remote sites.
log_levels { "UciAgent_stockfish": "INFO", "ChessLinkBluePy": "DEBUG", "ChessLink": "WARNING", "chess.engine": "ERROR"} Example configuration to set log-levels for modules specifically. This should be used with max_plies_terminal set to 0 to prevent garbled debug output.

chess_link_config.json, configuration options for Millennium ChessLink hardware

This file configures the Millennium chess board ChessLink hardware connection. This file is created during automatic hardware detection at start of

Field Default Description
transport chess_link_usb Name of the Python module to connect to the ChessLink hardware, currently supported are chess_link_usb or chess_link_bluepy. It's possible to add additional implementations (e.g. macOS or Windows Bluetooth) at a later time.
address "" Bluetooth address or USB port name.
orientation true Orientation of the Millennium chess board. The orientation is detected and saved automatically as soon as the start position is setup on the Millennium board.
autodetect true On true, automatic hardware detection of Millennium ChessLink is tried on each start of, if the default connection does not work. Setting to false disables automatic hardware detection (e.g. if no board hardware is available)
transports_blacklist [] List of transports that should not be used for autodetect. Valid transport names are chess_link_usb and chess_link_bluepy (linux). This option is useful to prevent probing on serial or USB channels that have other devices (e.g. a terminal) connected.
protocol_debug false On true extensive logging of the hardware communication with the Millennium board is enabled for debugging purposes.
btle_iface 0 Linux Bluetooth LE interface number. If scanning continues to fail (with 17, error: Invalid Index), it might help to use values from 0..2 for alternative tests. Not used for USB connections.

Sample chess_link_config.json for USB-connection

    "transport": "chess_link_usb",
    "address": "/dev/ttyUSB0",
    "orientation": true,
    "btle_iface": 0,
    "autodetect": true,
    "protocol_debug": false

Json files in mchess/engines

Currently mchess supports up to two concurrent UCI chess engines. Each engine needs a configuration file mchess/engines/<engine-name>.json. On first start automatically searches for stockfish, komodo and crafty.

The mandatory fields in <engine-name>.json are:

Field Default Description
name e.g. "stockfish" Name of executable of the engine, e.g. stockfish. Unfortunately this name must be precisely equal to the name of the json file, and must be referenced in preferences.json as either computer_player_name or computer_player2_name and within active_agents. That is subject to improvement in the future.
path e.g. "/usr/local/bin/stockfish" Path to the engine executable. Windows users must either use \\ or / in json files as path separators.
active true currently uses only the first two active engines. If more engines are configured, the unused ones should be set to false

Once the UCI engine is started for the first time, the UCI-options of the engine are enumerated and added to the <engine-name>.json config file. That allows further customization of each engine. Some commonly used options are:

Field Default Description
Threads 1 Number of threads used for the engine, increase for higher engine performance.
Hash "" Size of hash table, usually in MB. Increase for better performance
MultiPV 1 Increasing this shows more concurrent lines during analysis both on terminal and web client. A maximum of 4 is recommended, but not enforced.
SyzygyPath "" Path to tablebase endgame databases. mchess outputs the number of tablebase references (TB)

Warning: all customizations are reset, if an engine-update changes the available UCI-options. If a new engine version introduces new UCI-options, all fields are reset to engine-defaults.

Additionally a file <engine-name>-help.json is auto-created, it contains descriptions for each UCI-option, and will be used in the future for an UCI-customization option.


                                |     |   Start and connect agents
                                +--------------------+   agents represent player activities
                        |                |               |                      |
     +---------------------+  +--------------------+  +-------------------+ +--------------+
     | |  | |  | | | |
     +---------------------+  +--------------------+  +-------------------+ +--------------+
                        |            uci-engines         I/O hardware         multiple web
                        |            Stockfish,                               clients
                        |            Lc0 etc.
 -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - | -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -
               | |           Python 3 chess link library, can be
               +---------------+           reused for other projects without agents above
                  |         |
  +-------------------+  +----------------------+
  | |  | |
  +-------------------+  +----------------------+
         Chess Genius Exclusive board hardware
         via Chess Link

It whould be straight forward to include other agents at a later point.


  • Start with option -v to get more logging output, logs are written to file turquoise.log:
python3 -v
  • Linux users: many distris require users to be be in group DIALOUT in order to access USB and serials.
usermod -aG dialout <username>
  • ChessLink communication debug

Open chess_link_config.json and insert a line:

"protocol_debug": true,

like so:

  "protocol_debug": true,
  "transport": "chess_link_bluepy",
  "address": "xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx",
  "btle_iface": 0,
  "orientation": true,
  "autodetect": true

This will show bit-level communication with the ChessLink board.


  • 2020-06-19: Main file renamed from to Major cleanup of internals, basis for extending functionality, v0.3.0
  • 2020-04-28: Work started on updating changes in module depencies (especially the async interface python-chess)


Important external projects used by this project

  • python-chess: a pure Python chess library
  • cm-chessboard: a chessboard rendered in SVG, coded in ES6. Views FEN, handles move input, animated, responsive, mobile friendly.
  • bluepy: Python interface to Bluetooth LE on Linux
  • Chess pieces by Cburnett
  • charts.js


  • Thanks to Millennium GmbH for providing all information necessary for the implementation and for providing a ChessLink sample. See: for more information on ChessLink.


Python library to interface with Millennium chess board via ChessLink hardware








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