cmd/compile: go1.8 regression: sync/atomic loop elided #19182

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peterGo opened this Issue Feb 19, 2017 · 31 comments

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peterGo commented Feb 19, 2017

sync/atomic: go1.8 regression: atomic.AddUint64 is unreliable

Sometimes atomic.AddUint64 has no effect.

Update: @cespare has discovered that the loop containing atomic.AddUint64 has been elided.

Update: @rjeczalik has reported that this behavior also occurs with atomic.StoreUint64 and atomic.CompareAndSwapUint64 functions.

atomic.go:


package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"runtime"
	"sync/atomic"
	"time"
)

var a uint64 = 0

func main() {
	runtime.GOMAXPROCS(runtime.NumCPU())
	fmt.Println(runtime.NumCPU(), runtime.GOMAXPROCS(0))

	go func() {
		for {
			atomic.AddUint64(&a, uint64(1))
		}
	}()

	for {
		val := atomic.LoadUint64(&a)
		fmt.Println(val)
		time.Sleep(time.Second)
	}
}

For go1.4, go1.5, go1.6, and go1.7:

The atomic.AddUint64(&a, uint64(1)) statement works as expected.

$ go version
go version go1.4-bootstrap-20161024 linux/amd64
go version go1.5.4 linux/amd64
go version go1.6.4 linux/amd64
go version go1.7.5 linux/amd64
$ go build atomic.go && ./atomic
4 4
0
96231831
192599210
289043510
385369439
481772231
578143106
674509741
770966820
867408361
963866833
1060299901
<SNIP>
^C

For go1.8 and go tip:

The atomic.AddUint64(&a, uint64(1)) statement appears to have no effect.

go version go1.8 linux/amd64
go version devel +1e69aef Sat Feb 18 19:01:08 2017 +0000 linux/amd64
go version devel +1e69aef Sat Feb 18 19:01:08 2017 +0000 windows/amd64
$ uname -a
Linux peter 4.8.0-36-generic #36~16.04.1-Ubuntu SMP Sun Feb 5 09:39:57 UTC 2017 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
$ go env
GOARCH="amd64"
GOBIN=""
GOEXE=""
GOHOSTARCH="amd64"
GOHOSTOS="linux"
GOOS="linux"
GOPATH="/home/peter/gopath"
GORACE=""
GOROOT="/home/peter/go"
GOTOOLDIR="/home/peter/go/pkg/tool/linux_amd64"
GCCGO="gccgo"
CC="gcc"
GOGCCFLAGS="-fPIC -m64 -fmessage-length=0 -fdebug-prefix-map=/tmp/go-build842347949=/tmp/go-build -gno-record-gcc-switches"
CXX="g++"
CGO_ENABLED="0"
PKG_CONFIG="pkg-config"
CGO_CFLAGS="-g -O2"
CGO_CPPFLAGS=""
CGO_CXXFLAGS="-g -O2"
CGO_FFLAGS="-g -O2"
CGO_LDFLAGS="-g -O2"
$ go build atomic.go && ./atomic
4 4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
<SNIP>
^C

Interestingly, we can make go1.8 and go tip work with a simple code modification that should not have any effect:

atomic_pass.go:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"runtime"
	"sync/atomic"
	"time"
)

var a uint64 = 0

func main() {
	runtime.GOMAXPROCS(runtime.NumCPU())
	fmt.Println(runtime.NumCPU(), runtime.GOMAXPROCS(0))

	go func() {
		for {
			new := atomic.AddUint64(&a, uint64(1))
			if new == 0 {
				runtime.Gosched() // or print()
			}
		}
	}()

	for {
		val := atomic.LoadUint64(&a)
		fmt.Println(val)
		time.Sleep(time.Second)
	}
}
$ go version
go version go1.8 linux/amd64
$ go build atomic_pass.go && ./atomic_pass
4 4
0
126492073
253613883
378888824
506065798
633247293
760383560
887553077
1014723419
<SNIP>
^C

After AddUint64(&a, uint64(1), new should be greater than zero and runtime.Gosched() should not be executed. Substituting print() for runtime.Gosched() also works. If the line runtime.Gosched() // or print() is commented out the program reverts to failure.

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Hmm. Let me tag some runtime and sync experts @aclements @dvyukov @randall77.

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odeke-em commented Feb 19, 2017

Hmm. Let me tag some runtime and sync experts @aclements @dvyukov @randall77.

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Looking at the assembly, the increment (and in fact the whole for loop) has been (over-)optimized away.

(Edit: I missed the jmp initially -- as @dvyukov points out, there is an empty loop.)

I'll bisect.

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cespare commented Feb 19, 2017

Looking at the assembly, the increment (and in fact the whole for loop) has been (over-)optimized away.

(Edit: I missed the jmp initially -- as @dvyukov points out, there is an empty loop.)

I'll bisect.

@peterGo peterGo changed the title from sync/atomic: go1.8 regression: atomic.AddUint64 is unreliable to cmd/compile: go1.8 regression: loop elided Feb 19, 2017

@ianlancetaylor ianlancetaylor added this to the Go1.8.1 milestone Feb 19, 2017

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A git bisect indicates d6098e4.

cmd/compile: intrinsify sync/atomic for amd64

Uses the same implementation as runtime/internal/atomic.

Reorganize the intrinsic detector to make it more table-driven.

Also works on amd64p32.

/cc @randall77

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cespare commented Feb 19, 2017

A git bisect indicates d6098e4.

cmd/compile: intrinsify sync/atomic for amd64

Uses the same implementation as runtime/internal/atomic.

Reorganize the intrinsic detector to make it more table-driven.

Also works on amd64p32.

/cc @randall77

@peterGo peterGo changed the title from cmd/compile: go1.8 regression: loop elided to cmd/compile: go1.8 regression: sync/atomic loop elided Feb 19, 2017

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rjeczalik Feb 20, 2017

This bug applies also to atomic.StoreUint64 and atomic.CompareAndSwapUint64 functions, they also reproduce the buggy behaviour shown in the atomic.go repro. Just a heads up, as it may be not obvious just by reading the description.

This bug applies also to atomic.StoreUint64 and atomic.CompareAndSwapUint64 functions, they also reproduce the buggy behaviour shown in the atomic.go repro. Just a heads up, as it may be not obvious just by reading the description.

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The atomic.AddUint64 loop is compiled to an empty loop.
Strictly saying this is confirming behavior as we don't give any guarantees about scheduler (just like any other language, e.g. C++). This can be explained as "the goroutine is just not scheduled".
However I think we should fix this and not compile this to an empty loop. Akin to the C++ guarantee of "atomic writes should be visible to other threads in a finite amount of time". It is OK to combine up to inifinte number of non atomic writes, because that's invisible without data races, and I am not a fan of making programs with data races any more useful. But side effects of atomic writes are observable without data races, so it's fine to combine any finite number of atomic writes (e.g. atomic.Store(&x, 1); atomic.Store(&x, 2) can be compiled as atomic.Store(&x, 2)), but not an infinite number of atomic writes. Language implementation become useless when they take formal properties to the extreme.

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dvyukov commented Feb 20, 2017

The atomic.AddUint64 loop is compiled to an empty loop.
Strictly saying this is confirming behavior as we don't give any guarantees about scheduler (just like any other language, e.g. C++). This can be explained as "the goroutine is just not scheduled".
However I think we should fix this and not compile this to an empty loop. Akin to the C++ guarantee of "atomic writes should be visible to other threads in a finite amount of time". It is OK to combine up to inifinte number of non atomic writes, because that's invisible without data races, and I am not a fan of making programs with data races any more useful. But side effects of atomic writes are observable without data races, so it's fine to combine any finite number of atomic writes (e.g. atomic.Store(&x, 1); atomic.Store(&x, 2) can be compiled as atomic.Store(&x, 2)), but not an infinite number of atomic writes. Language implementation become useless when they take formal properties to the extreme.

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Is the runtime miscompiled like this?

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dgryski commented Feb 20, 2017

Is the runtime miscompiled like this?

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I don't think the runtime contains any loops like that, so yes (same optimizations) and no (no code matching this amusing optimization).

Is this breaking any real applications? I had to write a compiler test program (for loop rescheduling, hence could not contain any function calls) very carefully to ensure that the loop remained, but that was only a test.

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dr2chase commented Feb 20, 2017

I don't think the runtime contains any loops like that, so yes (same optimizations) and no (no code matching this amusing optimization).

Is this breaking any real applications? I had to write a compiler test program (for loop rescheduling, hence could not contain any function calls) very carefully to ensure that the loop remained, but that was only a test.

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rjeczalik Feb 20, 2017

Is this breaking any real applications?

@dr2chase: I'm using a for-loop with atomic read+cas, so I guess in go1.8 it won't work anymore: index.go#L55-L62.

Is this breaking any real applications?

@dr2chase: I'm using a for-loop with atomic read+cas, so I guess in go1.8 it won't work anymore: index.go#L55-L62.

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@rjeczalik from @dvyukov's description above, I don't think that type of code would be affected (the loop has an exit condition).

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RaduBerinde commented Feb 20, 2017

@rjeczalik from @dvyukov's description above, I don't think that type of code would be affected (the loop has an exit condition).

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Is this breaking any real applications?

The code in the original post is real enough. This program has side-effect – it prints to stdout. Someone can use this output to produce different results.

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AlekSi commented Feb 20, 2017

Is this breaking any real applications?

The code in the original post is real enough. This program has side-effect – it prints to stdout. Someone can use this output to produce different results.

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It also affects AddUintptr/LoadUintptr, AddInt32/LoadInt32 and AddUint32/LoadUint32.

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ucirello commented Feb 20, 2017

It also affects AddUintptr/LoadUintptr, AddInt32/LoadInt32 and AddUint32/LoadUint32.

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canoon Feb 21, 2017

Isn't 0 a valid value after the loop has executed 2^64 times and the atomic has overflowed?

canoon commented Feb 21, 2017

Isn't 0 a valid value after the loop has executed 2^64 times and the atomic has overflowed?

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Isn't 0 a valid value after the loop has executed 2^64 times and the atomic has overflowed?

Yeah...after 584 years (at 1 ns / loop).

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josharian commented Feb 21, 2017

Isn't 0 a valid value after the loop has executed 2^64 times and the atomic has overflowed?

Yeah...after 584 years (at 1 ns / loop).

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ghost Feb 21, 2017

This is perfectly valid given Go's memory model. Are there any plans to update the memory model to include happens-before semantics on the atomic operations?

ghost commented Feb 21, 2017

This is perfectly valid given Go's memory model. Are there any plans to update the memory model to include happens-before semantics on the atomic operations?

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@nikdeapen there is always #5045: "define how sync/atomic interacts with memory model".

However, I'm 99% certain that any memory model updates for #5045 won't add more happens-before edges to this program.

The issue here is more one of visibility -- as @dvyukov said, the expectation is something like "atomic writes should be visible to other threads in a finite amount of time". Perhaps something similar to that would be codified in a future MM change regarding sync/atomic.

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cespare commented Feb 21, 2017

@nikdeapen there is always #5045: "define how sync/atomic interacts with memory model".

However, I'm 99% certain that any memory model updates for #5045 won't add more happens-before edges to this program.

The issue here is more one of visibility -- as @dvyukov said, the expectation is something like "atomic writes should be visible to other threads in a finite amount of time". Perhaps something similar to that would be codified in a future MM change regarding sync/atomic.

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canoon Feb 21, 2017

@josharian where are you getting the 1ns from? Is there a minimum amount of time an operation needs to take?

canoon commented Feb 21, 2017

@josharian where are you getting the 1ns from? Is there a minimum amount of time an operation needs to take?

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@cespare thanks for the reply.

Java has volatile (and atomic) variables which provide happens-before semantics that allow them to be used as flags and other types of synchronizers. In Go you would also have provide some type of synchronization along with the atomic variable to ensure memory visibility. But if you are already using another type of synchronization it seems unlikely that you would even need the atomic update. Maybe i'm misssing something, but I just don't see too many realistic use cases for atomic variables if they don't have happens-before semantics.

The "atomic writes should be visible to other threads in a finite amount of time" statement seem too "maybe-maybe-not" for a programming language. It seems like this would lead to bugs that are nearly impossible to test for.

I'd love to see happens-before on atomics but mutexes and channels work great for now.

ghost commented Feb 21, 2017

@cespare thanks for the reply.

Java has volatile (and atomic) variables which provide happens-before semantics that allow them to be used as flags and other types of synchronizers. In Go you would also have provide some type of synchronization along with the atomic variable to ensure memory visibility. But if you are already using another type of synchronization it seems unlikely that you would even need the atomic update. Maybe i'm misssing something, but I just don't see too many realistic use cases for atomic variables if they don't have happens-before semantics.

The "atomic writes should be visible to other threads in a finite amount of time" statement seem too "maybe-maybe-not" for a programming language. It seems like this would lead to bugs that are nearly impossible to test for.

I'd love to see happens-before on atomics but mutexes and channels work great for now.

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Happens-before is unrelated to this case. Even if we document happens-before relations for atomic variables (note that currently they are still implied), there is nothing that will force the loop to see the updates as there is yet no any happens-before relations. Happens-before is only about visibility of secondary/dependent data, not about primary visibility.

To guarantee that the loop prints increasing values over times we need 2 guarantees:

  1. Atomic writes are visible to other goroutine in a finite amount of time (yes, it's vague, but you can't do any better in a formal language specification, you can't put any absolute values in it, that's the guarantee that all other languages provide).
  2. All runnable goroutines are executed in finite amount of time. It's also vague and I am not sure we need this. For example, neither C++ nor Java provide this guarantee. However, since we have own scheduler it's more realistic for us to provide such guarantee (but gccgo and other impls that use thread can be in trouble then).
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dvyukov commented Feb 21, 2017

Happens-before is unrelated to this case. Even if we document happens-before relations for atomic variables (note that currently they are still implied), there is nothing that will force the loop to see the updates as there is yet no any happens-before relations. Happens-before is only about visibility of secondary/dependent data, not about primary visibility.

To guarantee that the loop prints increasing values over times we need 2 guarantees:

  1. Atomic writes are visible to other goroutine in a finite amount of time (yes, it's vague, but you can't do any better in a formal language specification, you can't put any absolute values in it, that's the guarantee that all other languages provide).
  2. All runnable goroutines are executed in finite amount of time. It's also vague and I am not sure we need this. For example, neither C++ nor Java provide this guarantee. However, since we have own scheduler it's more realistic for us to provide such guarantee (but gccgo and other impls that use thread can be in trouble then).
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@dr2chase I can imagine some real uses of this (though, probably not very representative for Go). For example, during very fine-grained parallelization you may have a dedicated goroutine running on the HT sibling spin wait for input using atomic.Load, do some (inline) computations and store result back using atomic.Store, and then repeat.

However, now I realized that any such program will necessary hang dead during GC (as the loop is not preemptible even with 1.7). And since we have forced GCs every few minutes, not allocating will not help. So I bet the original program hangs dead with 1.7 after 5 minutes, which can't be considered as "working".

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dvyukov commented Feb 21, 2017

@dr2chase I can imagine some real uses of this (though, probably not very representative for Go). For example, during very fine-grained parallelization you may have a dedicated goroutine running on the HT sibling spin wait for input using atomic.Load, do some (inline) computations and store result back using atomic.Store, and then repeat.

However, now I realized that any such program will necessary hang dead during GC (as the loop is not preemptible even with 1.7). And since we have forced GCs every few minutes, not allocating will not help. So I bet the original program hangs dead with 1.7 after 5 minutes, which can't be considered as "working".

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So I bet the original program hangs dead with 1.7 after 5 minutes

Can't verify that – running it on macOS for an hour now, it's working, numbers are increasing.

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AlekSi commented Feb 21, 2017

So I bet the original program hangs dead with 1.7 after 5 minutes

Can't verify that – running it on macOS for an hour now, it's working, numbers are increasing.

@mandarjog mandarjog referenced this issue in istio/old_mixer_repo Feb 21, 2017

Closed

Switch to Go 1.8 #265

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RLH commented Feb 21, 2017

@mwhooker mwhooker referenced this issue in hashicorp/packer Feb 21, 2017

Closed

build with go 1.8 #4568

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I think the "hang in 5 minutes" estimate was based on a conservative guess about GC frequency in usual programs (as opposed to this tiny test). Throw a little gratuitous memory allocation in there, it will hang soon enough. The test program I carefully wrote to avoid this was for the rescheduling-check-on-loop-backedges experiment; default compilation with no rescheduling check, call-free infinite loops cause GC to block forever.

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dr2chase commented Feb 21, 2017

I think the "hang in 5 minutes" estimate was based on a conservative guess about GC frequency in usual programs (as opposed to this tiny test). Throw a little gratuitous memory allocation in there, it will hang soon enough. The test program I carefully wrote to avoid this was for the rescheduling-check-on-loop-backedges experiment; default compilation with no rescheduling check, call-free infinite loops cause GC to block forever.

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CL https://golang.org/cl/37333 mentions this issue.

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@RLH The phrase to search for in the C++ standard is "forward progress."

As far as I can tell the C++ standard does not require such a program to complete, but it does "encourage" it.

If a thread offers concurrent forward progress guarantee, it will make progress (as defined above) in finite amount of time, for as long as it has not terminated, regardless of whether other threads (if any) are making progress.
The standard encourages, but doesn't require that the main thread and the threads started by std::thread offer concurrent forward progress guarantee.

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ianlancetaylor commented Feb 21, 2017

@RLH The phrase to search for in the C++ standard is "forward progress."

As far as I can tell the C++ standard does not require such a program to complete, but it does "encourage" it.

If a thread offers concurrent forward progress guarantee, it will make progress (as defined above) in finite amount of time, for as long as it has not terminated, regardless of whether other threads (if any) are making progress.
The standard encourages, but doesn't require that the main thread and the threads started by std::thread offer concurrent forward progress guarantee.

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By-the-way, try that program on a uniprocessor, let me know what it prints.

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dr2chase commented Feb 21, 2017

By-the-way, try that program on a uniprocessor, let me know what it prints.

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@dr2chase 5 minutes is actually 2 minutes, and it is based on:

// proc.go
var forcegcperiod int64 = 2 * 60 * 1e9
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dvyukov commented Feb 22, 2017

@dr2chase 5 minutes is actually 2 minutes, and it is based on:

// proc.go
var forcegcperiod int64 = 2 * 60 * 1e9
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@RLH

Memory model rules are usually framed as "if a then b" as opposed to "time
and single events happen". I did a search for the above rule and couldn't
immediately find it in any C/C++ standards doc. A reference would be of
interest.

1.10/25
An implementation should ensure that the last value (in modification order) assigned by an atomic or
synchronization operation will become visible to all other threads in a finite period of time.

Yes, it's atypical, but it's still better to at least document the intention rather than say nothing. This is essentially the limit of what you can say in a formal language spec.

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dvyukov commented Feb 22, 2017

@RLH

Memory model rules are usually framed as "if a then b" as opposed to "time
and single events happen". I did a search for the above rule and couldn't
immediately find it in any C/C++ standards doc. A reference would be of
interest.

1.10/25
An implementation should ensure that the last value (in modification order) assigned by an atomic or
synchronization operation will become visible to all other threads in a finite period of time.

Yes, it's atypical, but it's still better to at least document the intention rather than say nothing. This is essentially the limit of what you can say in a formal language spec.

@gopherbot gopherbot closed this in 11b2830 Feb 22, 2017

@dmcgowan dmcgowan referenced this issue in docker/distribution Mar 3, 2017

Merged

go 1.8: update dockerfile and circle #2207

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Re-opening for cherry-pick to 1.8.1.

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aclements commented Mar 21, 2017

Re-opening for cherry-pick to 1.8.1.

@aclements aclements reopened this Mar 21, 2017

gentoo-bot pushed a commit to gentoo/gentoo that referenced this issue Mar 22, 2017

William Hubbs
dev-lang/go: 1.8-r1 revision bump
This fixes #19182 upstream [1].

[1] golang/go#19182

Package-Manager: Portage-2.3.3, Repoman-2.3.2
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Cherry-picked to release.

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aclements commented Apr 5, 2017

Cherry-picked to release.

@aclements aclements closed this Apr 5, 2017

gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue Apr 5, 2017

[release-branch.go1.8] cmd/compile: add opcode flag hasSideEffects fo…
…r do-not-remove

Added a flag to generic and various architectures' atomic
operations that are judged to have observable side effects
and thus cannot be dead-code-eliminated.

Test requires GOMAXPROCS > 1 without preemption in loop.

Fixes #19182.

Change-Id: Id2230031abd2cca0bbb32fd68fc8a58fb912070f
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/39595
Run-TryBot: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: David Chase <drchase@google.com>

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