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Efficient and customizable data-encoding functions in Rust
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README.md

Data-encoding

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This repository provides a Rust library and a binary providing efficient common and custom data-encodings.

Common use-cases

The library provides the following common encodings:

  • HEXLOWER: lowercase hexadecimal
  • HEXLOWER_PERMISSIVE: lowercase hexadecimal with case-insensitive decoding
  • HEXUPPER: uppercase hexadecimal
  • HEXUPPER_PERMISSIVE: uppercase hexadecimal with case-insensitive decoding
  • BASE32: RFC4648 base32
  • BASE32_NOPAD: RFC4648 base32 without padding
  • BASE32_DNSSEC: RFC5155 base32
  • BASE32_DNSCURVE: DNSCurve base32
  • BASE32HEX: RFC4648 base32hex
  • BASE32HEX_NOPAD: RFC4648 base32hex without padding
  • BASE64: RFC4648 base64
  • BASE64_NOPAD: RFC4648 base64 without padding
  • BASE64_MIME: RFC2045-like base64
  • BASE64URL: RFC4648 base64url
  • BASE64URL_NOPAD: RFC4648 base64url without padding

Typical usage looks like:

// allocating functions
BASE64.encode(&input_to_encode)
HEXLOWER.decode(&input_to_decode)
// in-place functions
BASE32.encode_mut(&input_to_encode, &mut encoded_output)
BASE64_URL.decode_mut(&input_to_decode, &mut decoded_output)

See the documentation or the changelog for more details.

Custom use-cases

The library also provides the possibility to define custom little-endian ASCII base-conversion encodings for bases of size 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 (for which all above use-cases are particular instances). It supports:

  • padded and unpadded encodings
  • canonical encodings (e.g. trailing bits are checked)
  • in-place encoding and decoding functions
  • partial decoding functions (e.g. for error recovery)
  • character translation (e.g. for case-insensitivity)
  • most and least significant bit-order
  • ignoring characters when decoding (e.g. for skipping newlines)
  • wrapping the output when encoding

The typical definition of a custom encoding looks like:

lazy_static! {
    static ref HEX: Encoding = {
        let mut spec = Specification::new();
        spec.symbols.push_str("0123456789abcdef");
        spec.translate.from.push_str("ABCDEF");
        spec.translate.to.push_str("abcdef");
        spec.encoding().unwrap()
    };
    static ref BASE64: Encoding = {
        let mut spec = Specification::new();
        spec.symbols.push_str(
            "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/");
        spec.padding = Some('=');
        spec.encoding().unwrap()
    };
}

You may also use the macro library to define a compile-time custom encoding:

const HEX: Encoding = new_encoding!{
    symbols: "0123456789abcdef",
    translate_from: "ABCDEF",
    translate_to: "abcdef",
};
const BASE64: Encoding = new_encoding!{
    symbols: "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/",
    padding: '=',
};

See the documentation or the changelog for more details.

Performance

The performance of the encoding and decoding functions (for both common and custom encodings) are similar to existing implementations in C, Rust, and other high-performance languages. You may run the benchmarks with make bench.

Swiss-knife binary

The binary is mostly a wrapper around the library. You can run make install to install it from the repository. By default, it will be installed as ~/.cargo/bin/data-encoding. You can also run cargo install data-encoding-bin to install the latest version published on crates.io. This second alternative does not require to clone the repository.

Once installed, you can run data-encoding --help (assuming ~/.cargo/bin is in your PATH environment variable) to see the usage:

Usage: data-encoding --mode=<mode> --base=<base> [<options>]
Usage: data-encoding --mode=<mode> --symbols=<symbols> [<options>]

Options:
    -m, --mode <mode>   {encode|decode|describe}
    -b, --base <base>   {16|hex|32|32hex|64|64url}
    -i, --input <file>  read from <file> instead of standard input
    -o, --output <file> write to <file> instead of standard output
        --block <size>  read blocks of about <size> bytes
    -p, --padding <padding>
                        pad with <padding>
    -g, --ignore <ignore>
                        when decoding, ignore characters in <ignore>
    -w, --width <cols>  when encoding, wrap every <cols> characters
    -s, --separator <separator>
                        when encoding, wrap with <separator>
        --symbols <symbols>
                        define a custom base using <symbols>
        --translate <new><old>
                        when decoding, translate <new> as <old>
        --ignore_trailing_bits 
                        when decoding, ignore non-zero trailing bits
        --least_significant_bit_first 
                        use least significant bit first bit-order

Examples:
    # Encode using the RFC4648 base64 encoding
    data-encoding -mencode -b64     # without padding
    data-encoding -mencode -b64 -p= # with padding

    # Encode using the MIME base64 encoding
    data-encoding -mencode -b64 -p= -w76 -s$'\r\n'

    # Show base information for the permissive hexadecimal encoding
    data-encoding --mode=describe --base=hex

    # Decode using the DNSCurve base32 encoding
    data-encoding -mdecode \
        --symbols=0123456789bcdfghjklmnpqrstuvwxyz \
        --translate=BCDFGHJKLMNPQRSTUVWXYZbcdfghjklmnpqrstuvwxyz \
        --least_significant_bit_first
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