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JavaScript Style Guide

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README.md

Ian's JavaScript Style Guide() {

A mostly reasonable approach to JavaScript

Based on the Airbnb style guide and just slightly the Mozilla Coding Style Guide. Customized by/for Ian Bicking.

Table of Contents

  1. Types
  2. undefined
  3. Objects
  4. Arrays
  5. Strings
  6. Functions
  7. Properties
  8. Variables
  9. Hoisting
  10. Conditional Expressions & Equality
  11. Blocks
  12. Comments
  13. Whitespace
  14. Leading Commas
  15. Semicolons
  16. Type Casting & Coercion
  17. Naming Conventions
  18. Accessors
  19. Constructors
  20. JSHint
  21. Modules
  22. jQuery
  23. ES5 Compatibility
  24. Testing
  25. Performance
  26. Resources
  27. In the Wild
  28. Translation
  29. The JavaScript Style Guide Guide
  30. Contributors
  31. License

Types

  • Primitives: When you access a primitive type you work directly on its value

    • string
    • number
    • boolean
    • null
    • undefined
    var foo = 1,
        bar = foo;
    
    bar = 9;
    
    console.log(foo, bar); // => 1, 9
  • Complex: When you access a complex type you work on a reference to its value

    • object
    • array
    • function
    var foo = [1, 2],
        bar = foo;
    
    bar[0] = 9;
    
    console.log(foo[0], bar[0]); // => 9, 9

    [⬆]

undefined

  • undefined is an object. You should use it as an object. You can test for it. For instance:

    // good
    function pow(a, b) {
      if (b === undefined) {
        b = 1;
      }
      return Math.pow(a, b);
    }
    
    // bad
    function pow(a, b) {
      if (typeof b == "undefined") {
        b = 1;
      }
      return Math.pow(a, b);
    }
  • Only use typeof x == "undefined" when the variable (x) may not be declared, and it would be an error to test x === undefined:

    if (typeof Module == "undefined") {
      Module = {};
    }
    
    // But also okay, for browser-only code:
    if (window.Module === undefined) {
      Module = {};
    }

    Note that you can't use window in Node.js; if you think your code could be used in a server context you should use the first form.

Objects

  • Use the literal syntax for object creation.

    // bad
    var item = new Object();
    
    // good
    var item = {};
  • You may use reserved words as keys.

    As an example that reserved words are both okay right now and will be indefinitely, the IndexedDB API uses cursor.continue()

    [⬆]

Arrays

  • Use the literal syntax for array creation

    // bad
    var items = new Array();
    
    // good
    var items = [];
  • If you don't know array length use Array#push.

    var someStack = [];
    
    
    // bad
    someStack[someStack.length] = 'abracadabra';
    
    // good
    someStack.push('abracadabra');
  • When you need to copy an array use Array#slice. jsPerf

    var len = items.length,
        itemsCopy = [],
        i;
    
    // bad
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
      itemsCopy[i] = items[i];
    }
    
    // good
    itemsCopy = Array.prototype.slice.call(items);
  • If you want to use the value of arguments anywhere, as a list, turn it into a real Array using Array#slice.

    function applyall(func) {
      var rest = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1);
      rest.map(func);
    }

    [⬆]

Strings

  • Use single or double quotes (' or ") for strings. There is a slight preference for double-quotes, aligning with Mozilla style.

  • Strings longer than 80 characters should be written across multiple lines using string concatenation. (FIXME: I can't decide how much I care)

  • Note: If overused, long strings with concatenation could impact performance. jsPerf & Discussion

    // bad
    var errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do with this, you would get nowhere fast.';
    
    // bad
    var errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that \
    was thrown because of Batman. \
    When you stop to think about \
    how Batman had anything to do \
    with this, you would get nowhere \
    fast.';
    
    
    // good
    var errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that ' +
      'was thrown because of Batman.' +
      'When you stop to think about ' +
      'how Batman had anything to do ' +
      'with this, you would get nowhere ' +
      'fast.';
  • When programatically building up a string, use Array#join instead of string concatenation. Mostly for IE: jsPerf.

    var items,
        messages,
        length, i;
    
    messages = [{
        state: 'success',
        message: 'This one worked.'
    },{
        state: 'success',
        message: 'This one worked as well.'
    },{
        state: 'error',
        message: 'This one did not work.'
    }];
    
    length = messages.length;
    
    // bad
    function inbox(messages) {
      items = '<ul>';
    
      for (i = 0; i < length; i++) {
        items += '<li>' + messages[i].message + '</li>';
      }
    
      return items + '</ul>';
    }
    
    // good
    function inbox(messages) {
      items = [];
    
      for (i = 0; i < length; i++) {
        items[i] = messages[i].message;
      }
    
      return '<ul><li>' + items.join('</li><li>') + '</li></ul>';
    }

    [⬆]

Functions

  • Function expressions:

    // anonymous function expression
    var anonymous = function () {
      return true;
    };
    
    // named function expression
    var named = function named() {
      return true;
    };
    
    // immediately-invoked function expression (IIFE)
    (function () {
      console.log('Welcome to the Internet. Please follow me.');
    })();
  • Never declare a function in a non-function block (if, while, etc). Assign the function to a variable instead. Browsers will allow you to do it, but they all interpret it differently, which is bad news bears.

  • Note: ECMA-262 defines a block as a list of statements. A function declaration is not a statement. Read ECMA-262's note on this issue.

    // bad
    if (currentUser) {
      function test() {
        console.log('Nope.');
      }
    }
    
    // good
    if (currentUser) {
      var test = function test() {
        console.log('Yup.');
      };
    }
  • Never name a parameter arguments, this will take precedence over the arguments object that is given to every function scope.

    // bad
    function nope(name, options, arguments) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    function yup(name, options, args) {
      // ...stuff...
    }

    [⬆]

Properties

  • Use dot notation when accessing properties.

    var luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28
    };
    
    // bad
    var isJedi = luke['jedi'];
    
    // good
    var isJedi = luke.jedi;
  • Use subscript notation [] when accessing properties with a variable.

    var luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28
    };
    
    function getProp(prop) {
      return luke[prop];
    }
    
    var isJedi = getProp('jedi');
  • Also use subscript notation when accessing a property that is not a valid identifier.

    var preferredName = props['preferred-name'];

    [⬆]

Variables

  • Always use var to declare variables. Not doing so will result in global variables. We want to avoid polluting the global namespace. Captain Planet warned us of that.

    // bad
    superPower = new SuperPower();
    
    // good
    var superPower = new SuperPower();
  • Use a separate var declaration for each variable. This allows variable declarations to be individually reordered or deleted.

    // good
    var items = getItems();
    var goSportsTeam = true;
    var dragonball = 'z';
    
    // bad
    var items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true,
        dragonball = 'z';
  • Assign variables at the top of their scope. This helps avoid issues with variable declaration and assignment hoisting related issues.

    // bad
    function() {
      test();
      console.log('doing stuff..');
    
      //..other stuff..
    
      var name = getName();
    
      if (name === 'test') {
        return false;
      }
    
      return name;
    }
    
    // good
    function() {
      var name = getName();
    
      test();
      console.log('doing stuff..');
    
      //..other stuff..
    
      if (name === 'test') {
        return false;
      }
    
      return name;
    }
    
    // bad
    function() {
      var name = getName();
    
      if (!arguments.length) {
        return false;
      }
    
      return true;
    }
    
    // good
    function() {
      if (!arguments.length) {
        return false;
      }
    
      var name = getName();
    
      return true;
    }
  • As an exception, declaring a variable in a for loop is common and okay.

    // ok
    for (var i=0; i<array.length; i++) {...}

    [⬆]

Hoisting

  • Variable declarations get hoisted to the top of their scope, their assignment does not.

    // we know this wouldn't work (assuming there
    // is no notDefined global variable)
    function example() {
      console.log(notDefined); // => throws a ReferenceError
    }
    
    // creating a variable declaration after you
    // reference the variable will work due to
    // variable hoisting. Note: the assignment
    // value of `true` is not hoisted.
    function example() {
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined
      var declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
    
    // The interpreter is hoisting the variable
    // declaration to the top of the scope.
    // Which means our example could be rewritten as:
    function example() {
      var declaredButNotAssigned;
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined
      declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
  • Anonymous function expressions hoist their variable name, but not the function assignment.

    function example() {
      console.log(anonymous); // => undefined
    
      anonymous(); // => TypeError anonymous is not a function
    
      var anonymous = function() {
        console.log('anonymous function expression');
      };
    }
  • Named function expressions hoist the variable name, not the function name or the function body.

    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined
    
      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function
    
      superPower(); // => ReferenceError superPower is not defined
    
      var named = function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      };
    
    
      // the same is true when the function name
      // is the same as the variable name.
      function example() {
        console.log(named); // => undefined
    
        named(); // => TypeError named is not a function
    
        var named = function named() {
          console.log('named');
        };
      }
    }
  • Function declarations hoist their name and the function body.

    function example() {
      superPower(); // => Flying
    
      function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      }
    }
  • For more information refer to JavaScript Scoping & Hoisting by Ben Cherry

    [⬆]

Conditional Expressions & Equality

  • Use === and !== over == and !=. This is not a hard requirement, except when comparing something specifically against 0, null or undefined. (The Mozilla guide specifically discourages ===, so I'm landing somewhere in between.)
  • Conditional expressions are evaluated using coercion with the ToBoolean method and always follow these simple rules:

    • Objects evaluate to true
    • Undefined evaluates to false
    • Null evaluates to false
    • Booleans evaluate to the value of the boolean
    • Numbers evalute to false if +0, -0, or NaN, otherwise true
    • Strings evaluate to false if an empty string '', otherwise true
    if ([0]) {
      // true
      // An array is an object, objects evaluate to true
    }
  • Use shortcuts.

    // bad
    if (name !== '') {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    if (name) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // bad
    if (collection.length > 0) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    if (collection.length) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
  • For more information see Truth Equality and JavaScript by Angus Croll

    [⬆]

Blocks

  • Use braces with all blocks.

    // bad
    if (test)
      return false;
    
    // bad
    if (test) return false;
    
    // good
    if (test) {
      return false;
    }
    
    // usually bad (sometimes fine, like in a call to Array#filter)
    function () { return false; }
    
    // good
    function() {
      return false;
    }

    [⬆]

Comments

  • Use /** ... */ for multiline comments, especially documentation. Include a description, specify types and values for all parameters and return values. For commentary or FIXMEs this is less of a concern.

    // bad
    // make() returns a new element
    // based on the passed in tag name
    //
    // @param <String> tag
    // @return <Element> element
    function make(tag) {
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      return element;
    }
    
    // good FIXME: not sure if I care about leading *'s
    /**
     * make() returns a new element
     * based on the passed in tag name
     *
     * @param <String> tag
     * @return <Element> element
     */
    function make(tag) {
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      return element;
    }
  • Use // for single line comments. Place single line comments on a newline above the subject of the comment. End a comment in : to make it clear what the subject of the comment is.

    // bad
    var active = true;  // is current tab
    
    // good
    // is current tab
    var active = true;
    
    // bad
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
      // set the default type to 'no type'
      var type = this._type || 'no type';
      return type;
    }
    
    // good
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
      // set the default type to 'no type':
      var type = this._type || 'no type';
      return type;
    }

    [⬆]

  • Use // FIXME ... liberally. Sometimes you are focused on one thing while coding, and want to avoid getting distracted by another issue, but you sense the issue exists: it is better to put in a FIXME note than to leave it forgotten. But do try to delete obsolete FIXMEs.

Whitespace

  • Use soft tabs set to 2 spaces

    // bad
    function() {
    ∙∙∙∙var name;
    }
    
    // bad
    function() {
    ∙var name;
    }
    
    // good
    function() {
    ∙∙var name;
    }
  • Place 1 space before the leading brace.

    // bad
    function test(){
      console.log('test');
    }
    
    // good
    function test() {
      console.log('test');
    }
    
    // bad
    dog.set('attr',{
      age: '1 year',
      breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog'
    });
    
    // good
    dog.set('attr', {
      age: '1 year',
      breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog'
    });
  • Place an empty newline at the end of the file.

    // bad
    (function(global) {
      // ...stuff...
    })(this);
    // good
    (function(global) {
      // ...stuff...
    })(this);
    
  • Use indentation when making long method chains.

    // bad
    $('#items').find('.selected').highlight().end().find('.open').updateCount();
    
    // good
    $('#items')
      .find('.selected')
        .highlight()
        .end()
      .find('.open')
        .updateCount();
    
    // bad
    var leds = stage.selectAll('.led').data(data).enter().append("svg:svg").class('led', true)
        .attr('width',  (radius + margin) * 2).append("svg:g")
        .attr("transform", "translate(" + (radius + margin) + "," + (radius + margin) + ")")
        .call(tron.led);
    
    // good
    var leds = stage.selectAll('.led')
        .data(data)
      .enter().append("svg:svg")
        .class('led', true)
        .attr('width',  (radius + margin) * 2)
      .append("svg:g")
        .attr("transform", "translate(" + (radius + margin) + "," + (radius + margin) + ")")
        .call(tron.led);
  • Always put a space after function (you wouldn't do while(x) {...}, would you?)

    // bad
    el.addEventListener(function() {...});
    
    // good
    el.addEventListener(function () {...});

    [⬆]

Leading Commas

  • Nope.

    // bad
    var once
      , upon
      , aTime;
    
    // good
    var once,
        upon,
        aTime;
    
    // bad
    var hero = {
        firstName: 'Bob'
      , lastName: 'Parr'
      , heroName: 'Mr. Incredible'
      , superPower: 'strength'
    };
    
    // good
    var hero = {
      firstName: 'Bob',
      lastName: 'Parr',
      heroName: 'Mr. Incredible',
      superPower: 'strength'
    };

    [⬆]

Semicolons

  • Yup.

    // bad
    (function() {
      var name = 'Skywalker'
      return name
    })()
    
    // good
    (function() {
      var name = 'Skywalker';
      return name;
    })();
    
    // good
    ;(function() {
      var name = 'Skywalker';
      return name;
    })();

    [⬆]

Type Casting & Coercion

  • Perform type coercion at the beginning of the statement.
  • Strings:

    //  => this.reviewScore = 9;
    
    // bad FIXME: not sure why this is bad
    var totalScore = this.reviewScore + '';
    
    // good
    var totalScore = '' + this.reviewScore;
    
    // bad
    var totalScore = '' + this.reviewScore + ' total score';
    
    // good
    var totalScore = this.reviewScore + ' total score';
  • Use parseInt for Numbers and always with a radix for type casting, like parseInt(x, 10), never parseInt(x).

  • If for whatever reason you are doing something wild and parseInt is your bottleneck and need to use Bitshift for performance reasons, leave a comment explaining why and what you're doing.

    var inputValue = '4';
    
    // bad
    var val = new Number(inputValue);
    
    // bad
    var val = +inputValue;
    
    // bad
    var val = inputValue >> 0;
    
    // bad
    var val = parseInt(inputValue);
    
    // good
    var val = Number(inputValue);
    
    // good
    var val = parseInt(inputValue, 10);
    
    // good
    /**
     * parseInt was the reason my code was slow.
     * Bitshifting the String to coerce it to a
     * Number made it a lot faster.
     */
    var val = inputValue >> 0;
  • Booleans:

    var age = 0;
    
    // bad
    var hasAge = new Boolean(age);
    
    // iffy
    var hasAge = Boolean(age);
    
    // good
    var hasAge = !!age;

    [⬆]

Naming Conventions

  • Avoid single letter names. Be descriptive with your naming.

    // bad
    function q() {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    function query() {
      // ..stuff..
    }
  • Use camelCase when naming objects, functions, and instances

    // bad
    var OBJEcttsssss = {};
    var this_is_my_object = {};
    // so bad it's just silly
    var this-is-my-object = {};
    function c() {};
    var u = new user({
      name: 'Bob Parr'
    });
    
    // good
    var thisIsMyObject = {};
    function thisIsMyFunction() {};
    var user = new User({
      name: 'Bob Parr'
    });
  • Use PascalCase when naming constructors or classes

    // bad
    function user(options) {
      this.name = options.name;
    }
    
    var bad = new user({
      name: 'nope'
    });
    
    // good
    function User(options) {
      this.name = options.name;
    }
    
    var good = new User({
      name: 'yup'
    });
  • Use a leading underscore _ when naming private properties

    // bad
    this.__firstName__ = 'Panda';
    this.firstName_ = 'Panda';
    
    // good
    this._firstName = 'Panda';
  • When saving a reference to this use _this or self FIXME: only _this?

    // ok?
    function() {
      var self = this;
      return function() {
        console.log(self);
      };
    }
    
    // bad
    function() {
      var that = this;
      return function() {
        console.log(that);
      };
    }
    
    // good
    function() {
      var _this = this;
      return function() {
        console.log(_this);
      };
    }
  • Name your functions. This is helpful for stack traces. FIXME: I don't know if it really matters. In the browser stack traces give line numbers, the name isn't that big of a deal.

    // bad
    var log = function(msg) {
      console.log(msg);
    };
    
    // good
    var log = function log(msg) {
      console.log(msg);
    };
  • Name your functions if they are self-recursive.

    $.ajax({
      success: function success(result) {
        if (Array.isArray(result)) {
          result.forEach(function (item) {
            success(item);
          });
        }
        // normal behavior...
      }
    });

    [⬆]

Accessors

  • Accessor functions for properties are not required
  • If you do make accessor functions use getVal() and setVal('hello')

    // bad
    dragon.age();
    
    // good
    dragon.getAge();
    
    // bad
    dragon.age(25);
    
    // good
    dragon.setAge(25);
  • If the property is a boolean, use isVal() or hasVal()

    // bad
    if (!dragon.age()) {
      return false;
    }
    
    // good
    if (!dragon.hasAge()) {
      return false;
    }
  • It's okay to create get() and set() functions, but be consistent.

    function Jedi(options) {
      options || (options = {});
      var lightsaber = options.lightsaber || 'blue';
      this.set('lightsaber', lightsaber);
    }
    
    Jedi.prototype.set = function(key, val) {
      this[key] = val;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.get = function(key) {
      return this[key];
    };

    [⬆]

Constructors

  • Prefer Object.create over the new operator.

    var MyClass = function () {
      var obj = Object.create(Class.prototype);
      obj.constructor.apply(obj, arguments);
      return obj;
    };
    MyClass.prototype = {...};

    This is essentially equivalent to what new does, but is less error-prone (you can't call it incorrectly), and easier to work with when defining different object layouts. I prefer this class pattern:

    function Class(super, properties) {
      // The case when there is no superclass:
      var prototype = super;
      // Otherwise:
      if (properties) {
        prototype = Object.create(super);
        for (var a in properties) {
          if (properties.hasOwnProperty(a)) {
            prototype[a] = properties[a];
          }
        }
      }
      return function () {
        var obj = Objet.create(prototype);
        obj.constructor.apply(this, arguments);
        return obj;
      };
    }
    
    MyClass = Class({
      constructor: function (...) {...}
    });
  • Methods can return this to help with method chaining. Or not, whatever.

    // bad (the return is pointless!)
    Jedi.prototype.jump = function() {
      this.jumping = true;
      return true;
    };
    
    // fine
    Jedi.prototype.setHeight = function(height) {
      this.height = height;
    };
    
    var luke = new Jedi();
    luke.jump(); // => true
    luke.setHeight(20) // => undefined
    
    // maybe better
    Jedi.prototype.jump = function() {
      this.jumping = true;
      return this;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.setHeight = function(height) {
      this.height = height;
      return this;
    };
    
    var luke = new Jedi();
    
    luke.jump()
      .setHeight(20);
  • It's okay to write a custom toString() method, just make sure it works successfully and causes no side effects.

    function Jedi(options) {
      options || (options = {});
      this.name = options.name || 'no name';
    }
    
    Jedi.prototype.getName = function getName() {
      return this.name;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.toString = function toString() {
      return 'Jedi - ' + this.getName();
    };

    You may also wish to write a .toSource() method, which is a rough convention for a "programmer friendly" representation of the object.

    [⬆]

JSHint

  • The code should be clean with JSHint.
  • JSHint is kind of tedious about variable declarations. It doesn't like this, for instance:

    try {
      var foo = bar();
    } catch (e) {
      throw 'Foo';
    }
    foo.method();

    JSHint doesn't like this, it will claim that foo is used out of scope. This is silly, but we fix it anyway just to get JSHint off our backs.

  • .jshintrc can have these options (consider this a suggestion, more than a requirement):

    {
      "curly": true,
      "noarg": true,
      "bitwise": true,
      "es5": true
    }

Modules

  • The file should be named with camelCase, and match the name of the single export (if not using a loader like require.js).
  • Add a method called noConflict() that sets the exported module to the previous version and returns this one.
  • Always declare 'use strict'; at the top of the module.

    // fancyInput/fancyInput.js
    
    !function(global) {
      'use strict';
    
      var previousFancyInput = global.FancyInput;
    
      function FancyInput(options) {
        this.options = options || {};
      }
    
      FancyInput.noConflict = function noConflict() {
        global.FancyInput = previousFancyInput;
        return FancyInput;
      };
    
      global.FancyInput = FancyInput;
    }(this);
  • Alternately when using requirejs or generally AMD-style modules, define your module like so:

    // in myModule.js
    define(["prereq"], function (prereq) {
      var myModule = {};
      myModule.foo = ...
      return myModule;
    });

    That is, create a single object that you return, which is named after the module. Then myModule.foo will go by exactly that name in all locations, including where it is used and defined.

    Do not include the name of the module in the define() call.

  • Sometimes you need to create a module-system-neutral module. There are two approaches, depending on whether you have dependencies. No dependencies:

    (function () {
    var myLibrary = {...};
    
    if (typeof define != "undefined") {
      // You can probably determine this statically:
      if (typeof myLibrary == "function") {
        define([], function () {return myLibrary;});
      } else {
        define([], myLibrary});
      }
    } else {
      window.myLibrary = myLibrary;
    }
    
    })();

    Or if you have dependencies:

    (function () {
    function init($) {
      return {my library object};
    }
    if (typeof define != "undefined") {
      define(["jquery"], init);
    } else {
      window.myLibrary = init(jQuery);
    }
    })();

    [⬆]

jQuery

  • Prefix jQuery object variables with a $. FIXME: can't decide if I care

    // bad
    var sidebar = $('.sidebar');
    
    // good
    var $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
  • Cache jQuery lookups.

    // bad
    function setSidebar() {
      $('.sidebar').hide();
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      $('.sidebar').css({
        'background-color': 'pink'
      });
    }
    
    // good
    function setSidebar() {
      var $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
      $sidebar.hide();
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      $sidebar.css({
        'background-color': 'pink'
      });
    }
  • For DOM queries use Cascading $('.sidebar ul') or parent > child $('.sidebar > .ul'). jsPerf

  • Use find with scoped jQuery object queries.

    // bad
    $('.sidebar', 'ul').hide();
    
    // bad
    $('.sidebar').find('ul').hide();
    
    // good
    $('.sidebar ul').hide();
    
    // good
    $('.sidebar > ul').hide();
    
    // good (slower)
    $sidebar.find('ul');
    
    // good (faster)
    $($sidebar[0]).find('ul');

    [⬆]

ECMAScript 5 Compatibility

Testing

  • Yup.

    function() {
      return true;
    }

    [⬆]

Performance

Resources

Read This

Other Styleguides

Other Styles

Books

Blogs

In the Wild

This is a list of organizations that are using this style guide. Send us a pull request or open an issue and we'll add you to the list.

Translation

This style guide is also available in other languages:

The JavaScript Style Guide Guide

Contributors

License

(The MIT License)

Copyright (c) 2012 Airbnb

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the 'Software'), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED 'AS IS', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

[⬆]

};

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