Skip to content


Repository files navigation

Snap! Websites


Snap! C++ is a website backend project mainly written in C++ (there is a little bit of C and it uses many C libraries).

The project includes many libraries, many daemons/servers, it supports plugins for third party extensions, and it uses Cassandra as its database of choice (especially, a NoSQL, although Cassandra now has CQL...)

Click on this link to go to the official home page for the development of Snap! C++. The website includes documentation about the core plugins and their more or less current status. It also includes many pages about the entire environment. How things work, etc.


Each project has an Open Source license, however, it changes slightly depending on the project. Most of the projects use the GNU GPL or GNU LGPL version 2. You will also find public domain code and MIT or FreeBSD licenses.

Details About Snap! Websites

Cluster Requirement

Please make sure to understand that Snap! Websites are not for a one quick computer install a la Wordpress or Drupal. Snap! Websites only runs well on a cluster. It is built to run any number of websites within one cluster. Making it easy to share resources of large powerful websites with tiny websites. Both benefit from the other!

Your cluster should have at least:

  • 4 frontend computers to run Apache2, snap.cgi and snapserver (1Gb)
  • 4 Cassandra nodes (at least 2 CPU and 4Gb of RAM)
  • 1 snapbackend computer (for the CRON like tasks) (1Gb)
  • 1 other services (mail, DNS, etc.) (1Gb)

Less than those 10 computers and you are likely to have some slowness unless you have a monster computer with 14 processors, really fast hard drives (i.e. SSD), and a lot of RAM (32Gb+). But even that won't work right because you want separate computers for the Cassandra nodes. Otherwise loss of data is very high (only the Cassandra cluster retains website data, other computers may have various caches, but they do not retain the official website data.)

Port Allocation & Socket Names

The project uses ports in the range 4000 and 4999 inclusive. The following lists the current usage so we can make sure that we do not attempt to assign the same port number to two different services.

  • snapserver / tcp -- 4004
  • sendmail / udp -- 4005
  • pagelist / udp -- 4006
  • snapserver / udp -- 4007
  • communicatord / tcp / local network (loopback) -- 4040 (sc)
  • communicatord / udp -- 4041 (scu)
  • communicatord / tcp / private network (remote) -- 4042 (sc)
  • communicatord / tcp / secure -- 4043 (scs)
  • communicatord / stream -- (sc) /run/communicatord/communicatord.sock
  • communicatord / datagram -- (scu) -- NOT AVAILABLE
  • snaprfs / tcp | udp / private network -- 4044 (rfs -- plain data connection)
  • snaprfs / tcp / secure -- 4045 (rfs -- encrypted data connection)
  • snapdbproxy / tcp -- 4048 (will be retired--was 4042)
  • fluid-settingsd / tcp -- 4049
  • snaploggerd / tcp -- 4050
  • snaploggerd / udp -- 4051 (log rotate)
  • fluid-settings-gui / udp -- 4052 (log rotate)

At this time, the number of ports is relatively small because most of our services connect to the snapcommunicatord and then it sends messages through that system instead of each service having a listening server and making sure that all IPs and Ports are correct. The snapcommunicator sends the messages between services making it really easy for each service to send and receive messages. That also means those services connect to port 4040 locally and then communicate to all the other services anywhere in the cluster that way.

Cassandra Requirement (will be replaced by Prinbee)

The reason for having at least 4 Cassandra nodes is because you want a minimum of 3 as the replication factor and with only 3 computers, you cannot do an upgrade without stopping everything. With 4 computers, you can stop one Cassandra node, upgrade that computer, restart the node. Proceed to the next node.

Note: ScyllaDB should work just fine too. We are planning in testing that theory soon.

Horizontal Growth

Note that the number of frontend computers, middle-end if you separate the snapserver entries, and the Cassandra nodes can be much larger. At this time we think that the current implementation can support up to 300 computers in all, without too much trouble. In other words, the system is built to grow horizontally. If all your Cassandra nodes are always very busy (75%+) or all your frontend computers are always very busy, then you can just add more and the load will automatically be shared between the additional computers. (It is not currently dynamic, but we may at some point offer such a capability too!)

Backend Growth, also horizontal

Similarly, some of the backends can be duplicated to share the load, although there are some limits on this one: one backend process can run against one website; another backend instance on another computer can run against another website. So in other words, we do not allow multiple backend run against the same website in parallel.

Developement and Testing

To test or as a developer, you can test on a single machine, but of course that won't prove the cluster mechanisms work as expected. For such a test, you should at least have 8Gb or have another machine to run a Cassandra node.

In other words, you do not need to have a cluster to work on Snap! Websites as a developer. You can even have a single Cassandra node. It will be somewhat slower, but it is bearable. Of course, as a developer with a single node, you may lose the data in that node, but I would imagine it would only be test data...

A Snap! Websites Cluster

The following images shows you an installation example. The cloud represents clients accessing your Snap! environment. The Apache + snap.cgi represents access points (you can have as many as you want to load balance the incoming hits). All the other computers can be 100% private (i.e. no direct access to the Internet). The snapserver computers represent the frontend of Snap! (middle-end as far as the cluster is concerned.) At some point snap.cgi will be smart enough to auto-load balance your stack, right now we just use a simple round robin DNS definition. The Cassandra computers each run one node. Those must have at least 4Gb of RAM in a valid live system. The snapbackend run CRON like tasks. However, those are dynamic and receive a PING message from the snapserver whenever a client makes a change (on a POST). So really it does work in the background but instantly once data to crunch is available.

Snap! Websites Cluster Setup

The Snap! Websites Stack

We have another picture and more details on this page showing how the processes are linked together. It does not show all the details, such as the fact that snapcommunicator is used as the inter-process and inter-computer hub (i.e. snapserver sends the PING message to snapcommunicator, which knows where the snapbackends are and thus forwards the message to the correct computer automatically.)

We see that a connection has to first be accepted by the firewall which is dynamically updated by our anti-hacker/spam processes. If it does go through, it gets sent to Apache2. If Apache2 is happy (you may put all sorts of protections in Apache2 such as mod_security), then it loads snap.cgi and runs it with a set of variables representing the header we just received and a packet with POST data if any was attached.

At that point, the snap.cgi choose a snapserver that's not too loaded, and sends the access data to it and wait for the reply which is then sent to Apache2 and finally back to the client.

The snapserver will access the database, Cassandra, through the snapdbproxy daemon (which allows us to have the system go really fast because we connect to it on localhost instead of directly to Cassandra, which can be much slower, especially if through an SSL connection. We also gather the meta data only once and cache it.)

Getting Started

If you are an administrator who just wants to install Snap! on your systems, then you want to look at the Launchpad section below.

If you are a developer and want to work on the source code, check We are using the PPA environment again at this time... If you want a pre-compiled version, that's the way to go!

Basics about the Snap! C++ Projects

We now make use of Launchpad, also called the PPA repository of Ubuntu, to compile and generate all our public Snap! packages.

We currently have three main sections:

  • cmake
  • contribs, and
  • snapwebsites

The cmake folder includes various cmake scripts used to handle the Snap! C++ development environment.

The contribs are independent libraries, many of which we authored especially for Snap! C++ but that can be used in other projects with very minor help. A couple (log4cplus and zipios) are actually third party libraries which we compile specifically because Ubuntu does not offer that latest greatest version yet. We intend to stop supporting those on the edge versions once we can switch to the latest version available as is in the Ubuntu repository.

The snapwebsites project is the Snap! C++ environment. Although it is composed of many sub-projects, these would be difficult to use on their own. We still have one or more packages per project. Often we break down a project by library, tools, development, and documentation. Along the way, we break-up various parts as contrib libraries instead (for example, the libaddr and libexcept constribs are two libraries that were created from the libsnapwebsites code that we wanted to reuse in other contribs.)

Getting Packages from Launchpad

We offer a PPA with all the projects found in Snap! C++.

To get that to work on your system, you want to install the PPA in your apt-get environment. The following are the two lines you can add to your apt-get source files to make things work.

deb xenial main
deb-src xenial main

You can also use the apt-add-repository command as follow:

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:snapcpp/ppa

This way, you automatically get the keys installed so you don't have to do that manually.

Once you've upgraded the PPA, you can see a new file under /etc/apt/sources.list.d. It should be named something like this:


If you had other snapcpp list files, you probably want to remove them.

TODO: We currently don't offer the Cassandra C++ Driver as a third party was offering it. We are now thinking it would be easier for us to include another contrib entry with that driver so it works with whatever version of Ubuntu we want to support.

The first installation requires the snapmanagercgi package:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install snapmanagercgi

The computer after that command should be ready to accept your installations from the snapmanager.cgi browser interface, although you may need to tweak a few things to get Apache and snapmanager.cgi to work together. It works as is for us on DigitalOcean and our VPS using VirtualBox on our development computers.

To upgrade later, run an update and dist-upgrade (the snapmanagerdaemon does it for you, but if you like to see the output, that's the easiest way, although with snapmanager.cgi it runs an upgrade on all your computers at once:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Note that the Upgrade in the snapmanager.cgi interface works the same way as these last two commands. So if you add the Snap! C++ repository to all your nodes you can then use the snapmanager.cgi interface to run an upgrade on your entire cluster.

Once ready, the snapmanager.cgi gives you access to a list of bundles. These are used to install a part to your system. For example, the Cassandra nodes don't get the snapbackend bundle installed. However, attempting to install Snap! C++ by hand is complicated. There are small setups to do which if you miss them prevents the system from working correctly. I'm the author and frankly, there are just way too many things to remember about to not be using snapmanager.cgi to proceed with installations.

Package Compatibility Level

The debhelper tools make use of a compatibility level to allow older packages to continue to work even when the new scripts have incompatible behavior with the older scripts.

The compatibility level was written in a file named debian/compat as a simple number (i.e. 12).

The newer versions of the build system now support a dependency like so:

Build-Depends: debhelper-compat (= 13)

The most current version is often a little bit ahead of the currently used debhelper package (i.e. as a "developer version" or beta). You can find that version in the manual page:

man debhelper

At time of writing, this is version 15 which (finally!) fixes the discrepancy of packages with a single package or two or more packages. This is really good because that way we can go back to having single binary packages without the need to switch back and forth if we decide to go back to two or more. (at the moment, I have a few packages that have a separate, albeit tiny, -doc which I wanted to remove; here we are!)

Installing a Website

Once you installed the snapserver bundle, you may start installing a website. At the moment this is complicated because we do not have a snapmanager.cgi interface quite yet. You may use the GUI, but when installing a remote version of Snap! C++, it's complicated (as it requires an ssh tunnel.)

First we want to prepare the database context. Note that this may take a little time as the process waits for the creation to be complete before returning.


Right now, the snapdbproxy won't detect that the new context was created. It needs to be restarted so we can create the tables:

sudo systemctl restart snapdbproxy

At some point we are thinking to get the snapdbproxy to do the work of creating the context and tables. Then later to understand requests to install a new website in the database. That way, you won't have to worry about having to do that yourself. The snapdbproxy can easily detect whether the context exists and check the tables before accepting connections from other parts of the system.

Next we want to install the tables in the context. The tables are declared in XML files so the tool can read those and do the necessary work.


Tables are assigned a name and a model. The model defines many parameters so Cassandra has a better chance to handle that table properly.

Once the tables were created, it is possible to install the domain name, website name, and then the actual website data. This is currently all done in one go with the snapinstallwebsite tool, although with that tool we currently limit the installation to a standard/default setup. Later it will be possible to edit or provide more advanced declarations for your domains and websites so you can manage much more complex parameter gathering from your domain name and website path.

snapinstallwebsite --protocol HTTP --domain --port 80

At this time we support port 80 and 443.

The domain name may or may not include a sub-domain name.

The installation of the domain and website is extremely fast (very small parameters to save to the database.) What followe, however, requires more time.

By default, the tool is verbose and informs you of the current step in the installation process. The last step says:

Status: Initialization succeeded.

Unless you encounter a problem while initializing. You may re-run the process multiple times until you get a postive outcome. However, some errors won't be corrected with additional run. They will instead have been skipped.

Now the first website is ready for viewing in your browser. You should be able to visit the front page with:

The information may not be available to the existing instance. To make sure that the newest everything (tables, data, etc.) is ready for use, you may want to reboot your cluster once. This will reset all memory caches and make sure all the daemons are running as expected. Then try again to access your website.

From Sources (For Advanced Developers)


The whole environment is based on cmake and also matches pbuilder so we can create Ubuntu packages with ease (cmake even makes use of the control files to generate the inter project dependencies!) You can also find some of the compiled packages on Note that we do not actively maintain all the versions. We try to have valid long term versions compilable, at least.

Compiling Everything

Here are the few commands that generally get the code from the repository and compile it all:

apt-get install git
mkdir snapwebsites
cd snapwebsites
git clone --recursive snapcpp
git clone --recursive
cd snapcpp
sudo bin/snap-ubuntu-packages --optional

The first time you try to build on your system, we suggest you run the bin/snap-ubuntu-packages script to get all the dependencies installed. Then the build-snap script does most everything else.

NOTE: The git clone command is going to download all the contribs which are in separate git repositories. This causes an issue: the scheme will change to under your feet. So that means you need to have an account or do not use the recursive and manually get each project with https:.

IMPORTANT: to run the snap-build script, you must be right outside of the snapcpp environment.

git Fails with Permission Errors

We have setup our sub-modules to use SSH. It's much more practical for us, but that means you need to have a key setup with github for the cloning to complete 100%. Without a key, you'll get errors for all the submodules.

To fix that issue, you have a few solutions:

  1. Create a Key

    See the github SSH key documentation for information on how to do that.

    This is probably your best bet because many project are likely to do it the same as us. It will also allow you to fork and offer patches (if you're able to do so).

  2. Use a Redirection

    This can be tricky long term. That is, a redirect is likely to get in your way. You may want to look into getting a key instead. Now, if you remember to remove the redirection once done, you should be fine. As far as I know, once the clone is done, you won't need the redirect anymore.

    To add a redirect, edit your ~/.gitconfig file and add this rule at the end:

     [url ""]
        insteadOf = ssh://

    This tells git to use https://... instead of ssh://....

  3. Edit the .git/config File

    We do not recommend this solution, but it's possible to edit the configuration file and edit the URLs there too. Do the clone of the snapcpp without the --recursive command line option. Then edit the .git/config file:

     # Change:
     url =<project>.git
     # To:
     url =<project>.git

    Then you should be able to get the submodules with a command such as the following (not tested):

     git submodule foreach git pull origin main

    You may instead need the following (again, not tested):

     git submodule update --recursive
     # or
     git submodule update --init --recursive
     # or for one specific submodule (tested, that one works)
     git submodule update --init contrib/fluid-settings
     cd contrib/fluid-settings
     git checkout main

    The edit can be problematic long term to maintain the project source tree, but if you just want to checkout the code and compile a given version, that's probably enough for you.

Adding a new module to the contrib or other directory

The following commands add a module:

  1. Add module on github

  2. Do a

    git clone
  3. Add the files and then:

    git add .
    git commit .
    git push

4, Then add the submodule to the main snapcpp repo

As we can see we need a URI and a path to the location of the project within the local repository:

   git submodule add contrib/libmurmur3
  1. Then we can commit and push the main repository

    To finish up we need to commit and push the main directory:

    git commit .
    git push

Installing the Dependencies

The snap-ubuntu-packages command installs many packages that the build requires. This is done automatically in the build system using the control file information. For a developer, that's not automatic. So the easiest is to run that command. Although we try to keep it up to date, if something is missing, cmake should tell you. Worst case scenario, the compiler stops with an error. We recommend the --optional packages so you get full documentation and some extras for tests, however, if you do not want to install the X11 desktop, do NOT use that option.

Read/Write Repository (if you have write access)

For a clone that ends up being a read/write version, you want to use a slightly different URL for the purpose:

git clone --recursive snapcpp

The BUILD Directory

After a while, you'll have all the built objects under a BUILD directory in your snapcpp directory. The debug distribution being under the BUILD/Debug/dist directory (warning: executables under the distribution directory are stripped from their RPATH which means you cannot run them without some magic; namely changing your PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables).

Similarly, we build the Release and Sanitized versions.

We support a few variables, although in most cases you will not have to setup anything to get started. You can find the main variables in our bin/build-snap script which you can use to create a developer environment. Here is an example of what you can do to generate the build environment. The build type can either be Debug or Release.

cmake \
    -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release \
    -DSNAP_COMMON_DIR:PATH="`pwd`/BUILD/dist/share/snapwebsites" \

'HEAD Detached' Message

WARNING: When you clone everything with --recursive the leaves (a.k.a. contribs) are going to be in "HEAD detached" mode. To fix this, assuming you think about it before you make changes, just checkout the main branch:

cd snapcpp/contrib/as2js
git checkout main

If you already made changes, the simplest is to create a branch and then merge that in the main branch like so:

cd snapcpp/contrib/as2js
...changes happen...
git checkout -b iforgot
git checkout main
git merge iforgot
git branch -d iforget

After that maneuver you can use your git as normal.

BUT WHY? -- this happens because git uses the latest available in the main git info and not the newer version in the repository. When we use modules, the module that gets checked out is the one defined in the snapcpp git and that's not always the latest.

C++ Cassandra Driver

To compile everything in older version, you had one more external dependency which was the C++ Cassandra Driver.

You can obtain the precompiled for Ubuntu 16.04 code with the following PPA:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tcpcloud/extra
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install cassandra-cpp-driver-dev

Newer version make sue of the driver inside the snapcpp/contrib folder (i.e. we compile our own version).

Building Launchpad Packages

To rebuild all the packages on Launchpad, we have all the necessary scripts in our makefiles. Once you ran cmake successfully, say under a directory named BUILD, then you can run the following command:

make -C BUILD dput

This will prepare all the source packages and upload them to the Launchpad repository. The files are not going to be uploaded if their version did not change. To change the version of a project, edit its debian/changelog file and add an entry at the beginning of the file. In most cases, this is about what changed in your last commit(s). If you did not really change anything but still need a rebuild (i.e. a dependency changed but the PPA was not smart enough to rebuild another package), then increase the 4th number and put a comment about the fact this is just to kickstart a build of that project.

Making sure packages will build on Launchpad

Whenever you are ready to build on the PPA, you may want to first check whether everything builds on your system. If you used the bin/build-snap scripts, you have three folders under BUILD:

  • BUILD/Debug -- the debug version.
  • BUILD/Release -- the release version which has no debug code but is fully optimized (in case you need to test the speed of the resulting software).
  • BUILD/Sanitize -- a version with the sanitize options turned on, helpful to detect memory leaks and invalid accesses (access after free, for example).

The BUILD/Debug folder is generally the one you use on your development system since it's the debug version. The debug version is the default so you do not need to specify the -g flag on the mk command line:


If you have memory issues, you can also use the BULID/Sanitize version which is likely to let you know as soon as you misuse memory. This version is accessed using the -s command line option as in:

./mk -s

The BUILD/Release is rarely built on your development system except when you are ready to build packages on Launchpad. This ensures it compiles with all the optimizations turned on. The release is build with the -r command line option as in:

./mk -r -i

If the release build fails, then the PPA will sure fail. Note that I also put the -i option since you want to test instaling the software to the distribution folder (BUILD/Release/dist/...). On errors, make sure you have the latest version of everything, check where the error occurs, try compiling and fixing just that one project until it works, and push all your changes if any, then run the PPA update. Note that you can rebuild one project at a time on the PPA. The snapbuilder tool is expected to be used for that purpose (it's not yet complete as of Oct 2021, but it's getting there--it is also specific to our Launchpad environment at the moment).

While working, you can run the tests with the -t option like so:

./mk -t [<test-name> ...]

You can also include test names to limit the run to only those tests. The -t can be used with the -g, -s and -r options.

Setting up a development environment

TODO: need to complete this one...

Once you compiled everything, you will have an environment that can be used to run Snap! Only, it won't work as is. You first have to setup a certain number of parts: /etc/snapwebsites, /var/lib/snapwebistes, /var/log/snapwebsites, /var/cache/snapwebsites, and make sure snapmanagerdaemon starts as root.

Although these things do get installed automatically when you install the Snap! packages, doing so with the packages will install these files as snapwebsites:snapwebsites (user/group) and that is not practical when trying to debug Snap!, since you'll want to quickly edit these files.

Creating packages

To build Ubuntu packages, you want to run the following commands, although this is currently incomplete! We will try to ameliorate that info with time. It currently takes 1h30 to rebuild everything as packages. (Note that it can be parallelized and run a lot faster that way, like 10 to 15 minutes.)

# get some extra development tools if you don't have them yet
apt-get install ubuntu-dev-tools eatmydata debhelper

# create the build environment (a chroot env.)
pbuilder-dist `lsb_release --codename --short` create

# Prepare source packages
make debuild

# Create packages
make pbuilder

Linux Only

At this point we only have a Linux version of the project. We have no plans in updating the project to work on a different platform, although changes are welcome if you would like to do so. However, as it stands, the project is not yet considered complete, so it would be quite premature to attempt to convert it.

Note that the software makes heavy use of the fork() instruction. That means it will be prohibitive to use under earlier versions of MS-Windows (i.e. MS-Windows 10 and newer offer the fork() instruction now.)

Dependency Tree

This tree changes from time to time, but it gives you an idea of all the projects that we are managing inside the Snap! C++ environment.


Time Code

In order to time a few instructions of code to bench various possibilities, one can use the RTSC instruction like so:

uint64_t benchmark(...)
  uint64_t start;
  uint64_t end;

  asm volatile ("rdtsc\n\tshl $32, %%rdx\n\tor %%rdx, %0" : "=a" (start) : : "%rdx");
  ...code to time...
  asm volatile ("rdtsc\n\tshl $32, %%rdx\n\tor %%rdx, %0" : "=a" (end) : : "%rdx");

  return end - start;

The result is in nanoseconds.

Debugging a Tool Crashing at Build Time

When trying to debug a tool while building, it can be tough since the feedback is generally very little (i.e. "exception E occurred").

In order to debug such tools within the build system, it is possible to run the process with gdb. This requires two steps:

  1. Change the command using gdb to start it like so:

        OUTPUT ${TLD_DATA_C}
        DEPENDS tld_parser ${TLD_FILES}
  2. Add gdb as a dependency:

    Build-Depends: cmake,
        snapcmakemodules (>=

Make sure to bump the version in the changelog and try running that build again.


Submit bug reports and patches on github.

vim: ts=4 sw=4 et

This file is part of the snapcpp project.