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TysonAndre committed 85b6bf8 Jun 14, 2020
Support php 8.0 "Constructor Promotion" and attributes (#160)
- attributes are only available in AST version 80+,
  and will be null before php 8.0

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README.md

php-ast

This extension exposes the abstract syntax tree generated by PHP 7.

This is the documentation for version 1.0.x. See also documentation for version 0.1.x.

Table of Contents

Installation

Windows: Download a prebuilt Windows DLL and move it into the ext/ directory of your PHP installation. Furthermore add extension=php_ast.dll to your php.ini file.

Unix (PECL): Run pecl install ast and add extension=ast.so to your php.ini.

Unix (Compile): Compile and install the extension as follows.

phpize
./configure
make
sudo make install

Additionally add extension=ast.so to your php.ini file.

API overview

Defines:

  • ast\Node class
  • ast\Metadata class
  • ast\AST_* kind constants
  • ast\flags\* flag constants
  • ast\parse_file(string $filename, int $version)
  • ast\parse_code(string $code, int $version [, string $filename = "string code"])
  • ast\get_kind_name(int $kind)
  • ast\kind_uses_flags(int $kind)
  • ast\get_metadata()
  • ast\get_supported_versions(bool $exclude_deprecated = false)

Basic usage

Code can be parsed using either ast\parse_code(), which accepts a code string, or ast\parse_file(), which accepts a file path. Additionally, both functions require a $version argument to ensure forward-compatibility. The current version is 70.

$ast = ast\parse_code('<?php ...', $version=70);
// or
$ast = ast\parse_file('file.php', $version=70);

The abstract syntax tree returned by these functions consists of ast\Node objects. ast\Node is declared as follows:

namespace ast;
class Node {
    public $kind;
    public $flags;
    public $lineno;
    public $children;
}

The kind property specifies the type of the node. It is an integral value, which corresponds to one of the ast\AST_* constants, for example ast\AST_STMT_LIST. See the AST node kinds section for an overview of the available node kinds.

The flags property contains node specific flags. It is always defined, but for most nodes it is always zero. See the flags section for a list of flags supported by the different node kinds.

The lineno property specifies the starting line number of the node.

The children property contains an array of child-nodes. These children can be either other ast\Node objects or plain values. There are two general categories of nodes: Normal AST nodes, which have a fixed set of named child nodes, as well as list nodes, which have a variable number of children. The AST node kinds section contains a list of the child names for the different node kinds.

Example

Simple usage example:

<?php

$code = <<<'EOC'
<?php
$var = 42;
EOC;

var_dump(ast\parse_code($code, $version=70));

// Output:
object(ast\Node)#1 (4) {
  ["kind"]=>
  int(133)
  ["flags"]=>
  int(0)
  ["lineno"]=>
  int(1)
  ["children"]=>
  array(1) {
    [0]=>
    object(ast\Node)#2 (4) {
      ["kind"]=>
      int(517)
      ["flags"]=>
      int(0)
      ["lineno"]=>
      int(2)
      ["children"]=>
      array(2) {
        ["var"]=>
        object(ast\Node)#3 (4) {
          ["kind"]=>
          int(256)
          ["flags"]=>
          int(0)
          ["lineno"]=>
          int(2)
          ["children"]=>
          array(1) {
            ["name"]=>
            string(3) "var"
          }
        }
        ["expr"]=>
        int(42)
      }
    }
  }
}

The util.php file defines an ast_dump() function, which can be used to create a more compact and human-readable dump of the AST structure:

<?php

require 'path/to/util.php';

$code = <<<'EOC'
<?php
$var = 42;
EOC;

echo ast_dump(ast\parse_code($code, $version=70)), "\n";

// Output:
AST_STMT_LIST
    0: AST_ASSIGN
        var: AST_VAR
            name: "var"
        expr: 42

To additionally show line numbers pass the AST_DUMP_LINENOS option as the second argument to ast_dump().

A more substantial AST dump can be found in the tests.

Metadata

There are a number of functions which provide meta-information for the AST structure:

ast\get_kind_name() returns a string name for an integral node kind.

ast\kind_uses_flags() determines whether the flags of a node kind may ever be non-zero.

ast\get_metadata() returns metadata about all AST node kinds. The return value is a map from AST node kinds to ast\Metadata objects defined as follows.

namespace ast;
class Metadata
{
    public $kind;
    public $name;
    public $flags;
    public $flagsCombinable;
}

The kind is the integral node kind, while name is the same name as returned by the get_kind_name() function.

flags is an array of flag constant names, which may be used by the node kind. flagsCombinable specifies whether the flag should be checked using === (not combinable) or using & (combinable). Together these two values provide programmatic access to the information listed in the flags section.

The AST metadata is intended for use in tooling for working the AST, such as AST dumpers.

Flags

This section lists which flags are used by which AST node kinds. The "combinable" flags can be combined using bitwise or and should be checked by using $ast->flags & ast\flags\FOO. The "exclusive" flags are used standalone and should be checked using $ast->flags === ast\flags\BAR.

// Used by ast\AST_NAME (exclusive)
ast\flags\NAME_FQ (= 0)    // example: \Foo\Bar
ast\flags\NAME_NOT_FQ      // example: Foo\Bar
ast\flags\NAME_RELATIVE    // example: namespace\Foo\Bar

// Used by ast\AST_METHOD, ast\AST_PROP_DECL, ast\AST_CLASS_CONST_DECL,
// ast\AST_PROP_GROUP and ast\AST_TRAIT_ALIAS (combinable)
ast\flags\MODIFIER_PUBLIC
ast\flags\MODIFIER_PROTECTED
ast\flags\MODIFIER_PRIVATE
ast\flags\MODIFIER_STATIC
ast\flags\MODIFIER_ABSTRACT
ast\flags\MODIFIER_FINAL

// Used by ast\AST_CLOSURE, ast\AST_ARROW_FUNC (combinable)
ast\flags\MODIFIER_STATIC

// Used by ast\AST_FUNC_DECL, ast\AST_METHOD, ast\AST_CLOSURE, ast\AST_ARROW_FUNC (combinable)
ast\flags\FUNC_RETURNS_REF  // legacy alias: ast\flags\RETURNS_REF
ast\flags\FUNC_GENERATOR    // used only in PHP >= 7.1

// Used by ast\AST_CLOSURE_VAR
ast\flags\CLOSURE_USE_REF

// Used by ast\AST_CLASS (exclusive)
ast\flags\CLASS_ABSTRACT
ast\flags\CLASS_FINAL
ast\flags\CLASS_TRAIT
ast\flags\CLASS_INTERFACE
ast\flags\CLASS_ANONYMOUS

// Used by ast\AST_PARAM (combinable)
ast\flags\PARAM_REF
ast\flags\PARAM_VARIADIC
ast\flags\MODIFIER_PUBLIC
ast\flags\MODIFIER_PROTECTED
ast\flags\MODIFIER_PRIVATE

// Used by ast\AST_TYPE (exclusive)
ast\flags\TYPE_ARRAY
ast\flags\TYPE_CALLABLE
ast\flags\TYPE_VOID
ast\flags\TYPE_BOOL
ast\flags\TYPE_LONG
ast\flags\TYPE_DOUBLE
ast\flags\TYPE_STRING
ast\flags\TYPE_ITERABLE
ast\flags\TYPE_OBJECT
ast\flags\TYPE_NULL    // php 8.0 union types
ast\flags\TYPE_FALSE   // php 8.0 union types
ast\flags\TYPE_STATIC  // php 8.0 static return type
ast\flags\TYPE_MIXED   // php 8.0 mixed type

// Used by ast\AST_CAST (exclusive)
ast\flags\TYPE_NULL
ast\flags\TYPE_BOOL
ast\flags\TYPE_LONG
ast\flags\TYPE_DOUBLE
ast\flags\TYPE_STRING
ast\flags\TYPE_ARRAY
ast\flags\TYPE_OBJECT

// Used by ast\AST_UNARY_OP (exclusive)
ast\flags\UNARY_BOOL_NOT
ast\flags\UNARY_BITWISE_NOT
ast\flags\UNARY_MINUS
ast\flags\UNARY_PLUS
ast\flags\UNARY_SILENCE

// Used by ast\AST_BINARY_OP and ast\AST_ASSIGN_OP (exclusive)
ast\flags\BINARY_BITWISE_OR
ast\flags\BINARY_BITWISE_AND
ast\flags\BINARY_BITWISE_XOR
ast\flags\BINARY_CONCAT
ast\flags\BINARY_ADD
ast\flags\BINARY_SUB
ast\flags\BINARY_MUL
ast\flags\BINARY_DIV
ast\flags\BINARY_MOD
ast\flags\BINARY_POW
ast\flags\BINARY_SHIFT_LEFT
ast\flags\BINARY_SHIFT_RIGHT
ast\flags\BINARY_COALESCE

// Used by ast\AST_BINARY_OP (exclusive)
ast\flags\BINARY_BOOL_AND
ast\flags\BINARY_BOOL_OR
ast\flags\BINARY_BOOL_XOR
ast\flags\BINARY_IS_IDENTICAL
ast\flags\BINARY_IS_NOT_IDENTICAL
ast\flags\BINARY_IS_EQUAL
ast\flags\BINARY_IS_NOT_EQUAL
ast\flags\BINARY_IS_SMALLER
ast\flags\BINARY_IS_SMALLER_OR_EQUAL
ast\flags\BINARY_IS_GREATER
ast\flags\BINARY_IS_GREATER_OR_EQUAL
ast\flags\BINARY_SPACESHIP

// Used by ast\AST_MAGIC_CONST (exclusive)
ast\flags\MAGIC_LINE
ast\flags\MAGIC_FILE
ast\flags\MAGIC_DIR
ast\flags\MAGIC_NAMESPACE
ast\flags\MAGIC_FUNCTION
ast\flags\MAGIC_METHOD
ast\flags\MAGIC_CLASS
ast\flags\MAGIC_TRAIT

// Used by ast\AST_USE, ast\AST_GROUP_USE and ast\AST_USE_ELEM (exclusive)
ast\flags\USE_NORMAL
ast\flags\USE_FUNCTION
ast\flags\USE_CONST

// Used by ast\AST_INCLUDE_OR_EVAL (exclusive)
ast\flags\EXEC_EVAL
ast\flags\EXEC_INCLUDE
ast\flags\EXEC_INCLUDE_ONCE
ast\flags\EXEC_REQUIRE
ast\flags\EXEC_REQUIRE_ONCE

// Used by ast\AST_ARRAY (exclusive), since PHP 7.1
ast\flags\ARRAY_SYNTAX_SHORT
ast\flags\ARRAY_SYNTAX_LONG
ast\flags\ARRAY_SYNTAX_LIST

// Used by ast\AST_ARRAY_ELEM (exclusive)
ast\flags\ARRAY_ELEM_REF

// Used by ast\AST_DIM (combinable), since PHP 7.4
ast\flags\DIM_ALTERNATIVE_SYNTAX

// Used by ast\AST_CONDITIONAL (combinable), since PHP 7.4
ast\flags\PARENTHESIZED_CONDITIONAL

AST node kinds

This section lists the AST node kinds that are supported and the names of their child nodes.

AST_ARRAY_ELEM:       value, key
AST_ARROW_FUNC:       name, docComment, params, stmts, returnType, attributes
AST_ASSIGN:           var, expr
AST_ASSIGN_OP:        var, expr
AST_ASSIGN_REF:       var, expr
AST_ATTRIBUTE:        class, args            // php 8.0+ attributes (version 80+)
AST_BINARY_OP:        left, right
AST_BREAK:            depth
AST_CALL:             expr, args
AST_CAST:             expr
AST_CATCH:            class, var, stmts
AST_CLASS:            name, docComment, extends, implements, stmts
AST_CLASS_CONST:      class, const
AST_CLASS_CONST_GROUP class, attributes      // version 80+
AST_CLASS_NAME:       class                  // version 70+
AST_CLONE:            expr
AST_CLOSURE:          name, docComment, params, uses, stmts, returnType, attributes
AST_CLOSURE_VAR:      name
AST_CONDITIONAL:      cond, true, false
AST_CONST:            name
AST_CONST_ELEM:       name, value, docComment
AST_CONTINUE:         depth
AST_DECLARE:          declares, stmts
AST_DIM:              expr, dim
AST_DO_WHILE:         stmts, cond
AST_ECHO:             expr
AST_EMPTY:            expr
AST_EXIT:             expr
AST_FOR:              init, cond, loop, stmts
AST_FOREACH:          expr, value, key, stmts
AST_FUNC_DECL:        name, docComment, params, stmts, returnType, attributes
                      uses                   // prior to version 60
AST_GLOBAL:           var
AST_GOTO:             label
AST_GROUP_USE:        prefix, uses
AST_HALT_COMPILER:    offset
AST_IF_ELEM:          cond, stmts
AST_INCLUDE_OR_EVAL:  expr
AST_INSTANCEOF:       expr, class
AST_ISSET:            var
AST_LABEL:            name
AST_MAGIC_CONST:
AST_METHOD:           name, docComment, params, stmts, returnType, attributes
                      uses                   // prior to version 60
AST_METHOD_CALL:      expr, method, args
AST_METHOD_REFERENCE: class, method
AST_NAME:             name
AST_NAMESPACE:        name, stmts
AST_NEW:              class, args
AST_NULLABLE_TYPE:    type                   // Used only since PHP 7.1
AST_PARAM:            type, name, default, attributes, docComment
AST_POST_DEC:         var
AST_POST_INC:         var
AST_PRE_DEC:          var
AST_PRE_INC:          var
AST_PRINT:            expr
AST_PROP:             expr, prop
AST_PROP_ELEM:        name, default, docComment
AST_PROP_GROUP:       type, props, attributes // version 70+
AST_REF:              var                    // only used in foreach ($a as &$v)
AST_RETURN:           expr
AST_SHELL_EXEC:       expr
AST_STATIC:           var, default
AST_STATIC_CALL:      class, method, args
AST_STATIC_PROP:      class, prop
AST_SWITCH:           cond, stmts
AST_SWITCH_CASE:      cond, stmts
AST_THROW:            expr
AST_TRAIT_ALIAS:      method, alias
AST_TRAIT_PRECEDENCE: method, insteadof
AST_TRY:              try, catches, finally
AST_TYPE:
AST_UNARY_OP:         expr
AST_UNPACK:           expr
AST_UNSET:            var
AST_USE_ELEM:         name, alias
AST_USE_TRAIT:        traits, adaptations
AST_VAR:              name
AST_WHILE:            cond, stmts
AST_YIELD:            value, key
AST_YIELD_FROM:       expr

// List nodes (numerically indexed children):
AST_ARG_LIST
AST_ARRAY
AST_ATTRIBUTE_LIST        // php 8.0+ attributes (version 80+)
AST_CATCH_LIST
AST_CLASS_CONST_DECL
AST_CLOSURE_USES
AST_CONST_DECL
AST_ENCAPS_LIST           // interpolated string: "foo$bar"
AST_EXPR_LIST
AST_IF
AST_LIST
AST_NAME_LIST
AST_PARAM_LIST
AST_PROP_DECL
AST_STMT_LIST
AST_SWITCH_LIST
AST_TRAIT_ADAPTATIONS
AST_USE
AST_TYPE_UNION            // php 8.0+ union types

AST Versioning

The ast\parse_code() and ast\parse_file() functions each accept a required AST $version argument. The idea behind the AST version is that we may need to change the format of the AST to account for new features in newer PHP versions, or to improve it in other ways. Such changes will always be made under a new AST version, while previous formats continue to be supported for some time.

Old AST versions may be deprecated in minor versions and removed in major versions of the AST extension.

A list of currently supported versions is available through ast\get_supported_versions(). The function accepts a boolean argument that determines whether deprecated versions should be excluded.

In the following the changes in the respective AST versions, as well as their current support state, are listed.

80 (experimental)

Available since 1.0.7 (XXX).

  • mixed type hints are now reported as an AST_TYPE with type TYPE_MIXED instead of an AST_NAME.
  • AST_CLASS_CONST_GROUP nodes are emitted for all class constant declarations.
  • AST_PARAM, AST_CLASS_DECL, AST_METHOD, AST_PROP_DECL, AST_CLOSURE, AST_FUNC_DECL, and AST_ARROW_FUNC nodes now contain an attributes child.

70 (current)

Supported since 1.0.1 (2019-02-11).

  • AST_PROP_GROUP was added to support PHP 7.4's typed properties. The property visibility modifiers are now part of AST_PROP_GROUP instead of AST_PROP_DECL.

    Note that property group type information is only available with AST versions 70+.

  • AST_CLASS_NAME is created instead of AST_CLASS_CONST for SomeClass::class.

60 (stable)

Supported since 0.1.7 (2018-10-06).

  • AST_FUNC_DECL and AST_METHOD no longer generate a uses child. Previously this child was always null.
  • AST_CONST_ELEM now always has a docComment child. Previously it was absent on PHP 7.0. On PHP 7.0 the value is always null.

50 (stable)

Supported since 0.1.5 (2017-07-19).

This is the oldest AST version available in 1.0.0. See the 0.1.x AST version changelog for information on changes prior to this version.

Differences to PHP-Parser

Next to php-ast I also maintain the PHP-Parser library, which has some overlap with this extension. This section summarizes the main differences between php-ast and PHP-Parser so you may decide which is preferable for your use-case.

The primary difference is that php-ast is a PHP extension (written in C) which exports the AST internally used by PHP 7. PHP-Parser on the other hand is library written in PHP. This has a number of consequences:

  • php-ast is significantly faster than PHP-Parser, because the AST construction is implemented in C.
  • php-ast needs to be installed as an extension, on Linux either by compiling it manually or retrieving it from a package manager, on Windows by loading a DLL. PHP-Parser is installed as a Composer dependency.
  • php-ast only runs on PHP >= 7.0, as prior versions did not use an internal AST. PHP-Parser supports PHP >= 5.5.
  • php-ast may only parse code that is syntactically valid on the version of PHP it runs on. This means that it's not possible to parse code using features of newer versions (e.g. PHP 7.1 code while running on PHP 7.0). Similarly, it is not possible to parse code that is no longer syntactically valid on the used version (e.g. some PHP 5 code may no longer be parsed -- however most code will work). PHP-Parser supports parsing both newer and older (up to PHP 5.2) versions.
  • php-ast can only parse code which is syntactically valid, while PHP-Parser can provide a partial AST for code that contains errors (e.g., because it is currently being edited).
  • php-ast only provides the starting line number (and for declarations the ending line number) of nodes, because this is the only part that PHP itself stores. PHP-Parser provides precise file offsets.

There are a number of differences in the AST representation and available support code:

  • The PHP-Parser library uses a separate class for every node type, with child nodes stored as type-annotated properties. php-ast uses one class for everything, with children stored as arrays. The former approach is friendlier to developers because it has very good IDE integration. The php-ast extension does not use separate classes, because registering hundreds of classes was judged a no-go for a bundled extension.
  • The PHP-Parser library contains various support code for working with the AST, while php-ast only handles AST construction. The reason for this is that implementing this support code in C is extremely complicated and there is little other benefit to implementing it in C. The main components that PHP-Parser offers that may be of interest are:
    • Node dumper (human readable representation): While the php-ast extension does not directly implement this, a ast_dump function is provided in the util.php file.
    • Pretty printer (converting the AST back to PHP code): This is not provided natively, but the php-ast-reverter package implements this functionality.
    • Name resolution (resolving namespace prefixes and aliases): There is currently no standalone package for this.
    • AST traversal / visitation: There is currently no standalone package for this either, but implementing a recursive AST walk is easy.

The tolerant-php-parser-to-php-ast project can convert the AST produced by tolerant-php-parser (Another pure PHP parser library) into the format used by the php-ast extension. This can be used as a slow fallback in case the php-ast extension is not available. It may also be used to produce a partial php-ast output for code with syntax errors.

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