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Virtuoso Open-Source Edition: Building

Copyright (C) 1998-2024 OpenLink Software

Table of Contents


This document explains steps to take after obtaining a Virtuoso source snapshot or git clone.

These sections explain how to compile, test and install and what components are produced by the make process and how one can interact with them.

Package Dependencies

To generate the configure script and all other build files necessary, please make sure the following packages and recommended versions are installed on your system.

Package Minimum Upto From
autoconf 2.57 2.69
automake 1.9 1.16.1
libtool 1.5 2.4.6
flex 2.5.33 2.6.4
bison 2.3 3.5.1
gperf 3.0.1 3.1
gawk 3.1.1 5.3.0
m4 1.4.1 1.4.18
make 3.79.1 4.2.1
OpenSSL 0.9.8e 3.2.x

and any GNU packages required by these. The and configure scripts check for the presence and right version of some of the required components.

The Minimum column contains the oldest known versions of these packages capable of building Virtuoso. Older versions of these packages can sometimes be used, but could cause build problems.

The Upto column contains the most recently tested version of these packages. Newer minor revisions of these packages can likely be used, but major version upgrades may cause build problems.

To check the version number of the tools installed on your system, use one of the following commands:

  • autoconf –version
  • automake –version
  • libtoolize –version
  • flex –version
  • bison –version
  • gperf –version
  • gawk –version
  • m4 –version
  • make –version
  • openssl version

If you have an older version than automake version 1.9 you can edit the script around line 47 using the examples provided for each version.

If you have a problem porting Virtuoso in your platform, please open a Issue on Github so we can assist you.

Development packages

Note that many operating systems (particularly all Linux distibutions) split some of these packages into runtime and development packages, so users of these platforms may need to run e.g.:

apt-get install libssl-dev


yum install openssl-devel 

to get development headers & libraries for OpenSSL.

Diskspace Requirements

The build produces a demo database and Virtuoso application packages that are quite large. At least 800 MB of free space should be available in the build file system.

When running `make install’, the target file system should have about 400 to 600 MB free. By default, the install target directories are under /usr/local/, but you can specify

./configure --prefix=/path/to/dir


The minimum working configuration consists of the server executable and config files plus database, no more than a few MB for the server executable, depending on platform and options.

Make FAQ

In the root directory of the checkout perform the following commands:

./        # should only be needed in git clone

to produce the default binaries, VAD packages and demo database. This takes some time, principally due to building and filling the demo database, rendering the XML documentation into several target formats and composing various Virtuoso application packages. It takes about 30 minutes on a 2GHz machine.

The default configure does not enable most of the runtime-hosting and extension features. See the links on the building page for instructions on how to enable these and what additional software is required.

Some builds require additional C compiler and other environment flags to be set before running the configure command, especially when building 64-bit versions of the server. If your system is not in this list, please try to run the configure command without any environment settings.

Warning: if VAD or other packages fail to be built, especially on 64-bit Linux platforms, ensure you’re not using excessive optimization. CFLAGS=“-O2” is known to work but there are reports of -O3 failing.

If your system requires additional flags not listed below, please contact us at

Recent systems

Linux 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O2 -m64"
export CFLAGS
./configure ...

Mac OS X 10.9-10.15 Intel 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O -arch x86_64 -mmacosx-version-min=10.9"
export CFLAGS
./configure ...

Mac OS X 11.x Universal

CFLAGS="-O -arch arm64 -arch x86_64 -mmacosx-version-min=10.9"
export CFLAGS
./configure --disable-dependency-tracking ...

Mac OS X 12.x Universal

CFLAGS="-O -arch arm64 -arch x86_64 -mmacosx-version-min=10.9"
export CFLAGS
./configure --disable-dependency-tracking ...

FreeBSD 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O2 -m64"
export CFLAGS
./configure ...

Legacy systems

AIX 4.x 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O -q64"
./configure ...

AIX 5.x 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O -q64"
./configure ...

Digital Unix/OSF1 V5.0 64-bit

export CFLAGS
./configure ...

HP/UX 11.00 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O -Ae +DA2.0W"
export CFLAGS
./configure ...

HP/UX 11.23 Itanium 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O -Ae +DD64"
export CFLAGS
./configure ...

Solaris 2.10 Opteron 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O -xtarget=opteron -xarch=amd64"
./configure ...

Solaris 2.8 and above SPARC 64-bit

CFLAGS="-O -xtarget=ultra -xarch=v9"
./configure ...

Generic build environment

export CC CFLAGS
make install

Installation From Source Code

After running configure && make,

make install

at the root of the build tree copies the files to the locations specified by the –prefix option to configure. The default of –prefix is /usr/local/. You can override this by specifying `make install prefix=/opt/virtuoso’ instead, for example.

These subdirectories are all appended to the specified prefix, i.e. /usr/local/ by default:

  • share/virtuoso/doc/html
  • share/virtuoso/doc/pdf
  • share/virtuoso/vad - VAD packages BPEL, Conductor, tutorials, documentation
  • var/lib/virtuoso/db - Empty database
  • var/lib/virtuoso/demo - Demo database - obsolete as of version 5.0.3
  • bin/ - The virtuoso-t, isql, isqlw, virt_mail, virtuoso-sample-t, inifile executables
  • lib/ - libvirtuoso-t.a virtodbc32.a virtodbc32 r.a, plus any plugins that may be enabled.
  • lib/virtuoso - hosting sample.a plugin_sample.a

Note: as of version 5.0.2, the ./configure script supports different subdirectory structures with the –with-layout= parameter. If you’ve specified something other than the default, the above may differ accordingly.

As of version 5.0.3, the demo is a VAD package, not a separate directory.

Installer Packages

If installation from source code isn't for you, simply download and install using any of the following:

Test Suite

Optionally, you can run

make check

at the root of the build tree to start the automated test suite. This takes about an hour on a 2GHz machine and requires approximately 1 GB of free disk space.

Getting Started


cd var/lib/virtuoso/db 
virtuoso-t -f &

to start the server in the background. It will not detach from the shell, so you see the startup messages.

By default, when no -c parameter is specified, virtuoso will use the virtuoso.ini file in this directory, which is generated as part of `make install’.

The first time it’s run, it will create the empty database (no special commands required) and install the Conductor VAD package. From here, you can access http://localhost:8890/ and http://localhost:8890/conductor/ and use the System Administration / Packages page to install other packages such as Demo and the ODS suite (addressbook, weblog, feeds manager and other applications) etc.

The default login is dba' with a password ofdba’ for the Conductor and isql (for DAV functions, the default login is dav' with a password ofdav’).

You will see a checkpoint in the terminal for each package selected:

15:33:54 INFO: Checkpoint made, log reused

To connect with the command line SQL tool,

isql 1112 dba dba

gives a SQL> prompt.

If you’ve installed the demo VAD above, type SQL> use Demo;

to switch to the demo database, containing the Microsoft Northwind sample tables. The `help’ command in isql gives further instructions.

To use the web admin interface, point the browser to:


To read the documents online:


To experiment with online tutorials you can use the conductor to install the Tutorial vad package into your database, then point the browser to:


VAD Packages

The different VAD packages can be installed via ISQL using the following command (if the installation packages reside in the filesystem):

SQL> vad_install ('file/system/path/package-name.vad', 0);

Alternatively, you can copy VAD packages to Virtuoso’s DAV repository and then execute the following command (also from ISQL):

SQL> vad_install ('webdav/path>/package-name.vad', 1);

at the isql command line.

Note: The DirsAllowed parameter of the Parameters section of the ini-file must allow access to the directory where the package file is located.