Sage: Open Source Mathematical Software
"Creating a Viable Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB"
Copyright (C) 2005-2018 The Sage Development Team
If you downloaded a binary, you just need open a terminal in the directory where you extracted the binary archive and type:
If you downloaded the sources, please read below on how to build Sage and work around common issues.
Contributing to Sage
If you'd like to contribute to Sage, be sure to read the Developer's Guide.
Sage fully supports several Linux distributions, recent versions of Mac OS X, Windows (using virtualization), as well as a number of Solaris and OpenSolaris releases.
Ports are in progress to some other, less common platforms. The list of supported platforms and their current statuses are given in our wiki.
If you are interested in helping port Sage to a new platform, please let us know at the sage-devel mailing list.
Quick Instructions to Build from Source
The following steps briefly outline the process of building Sage from source. More detailed instructions, including how to build faster on multicore machines, are contained later in this README and in the Installation Guide.
Make sure your system has an SSL library and its development files installed
Like Python, on which it is based, Sage uses the OpenSSL library for added performance if made available by the operating system. It has been shown that Sage can be successfully built against other SSL libraries, with some of its features disabled.
Make sure you have the dependencies and 5 GB of free disk space
All Linux versions: gcc, make, m4, perl, ranlib, and tar (a matching set of gcc, gfortran and g++ will avoid the compilation of Sage-specific compilers).
Fedora or RedHat systems: the perl-ExtUtils-MakeMaker package. (install these using your package manager)
- Make sure you have installed the most recent version of Xcode which you can install for free from the App Store.
- You also need to install the "command line tools". When
using OS X Mavericks, after installing Xcode, run
xcode-select --installfrom a terminal window: Then click "Install" in the pop-up window. When using OS X Mountain Lion or earlier, you need to install the command line tools from Xcode: run Xcode; then from the File menu, choose "Preferences", then the "Downloads" tab, and then "Install" the Command Line Tools.
Other platforms: See detailed instructions below.
Extract the tarball
tar zxvf sage-*.tar.gz
cd into the Sage directory and type make
cd sage-*/ make
That's it! Everything is automatic and non-interactive. The build should work fine on all fully supported platforms. If it does not, we want to know!
There are a lot of environment variables which control the install process of Sage described in more detail in the Installation Guide.
Sage has significant components written in the following languages: C/C++, Python, Cython, Lisp, and Fortran. Lisp (ECL), Python, and Cython are built as part of Sage and a GNU Fortran (gfortran) binary is included (OS X only), so you do not need them in order to build Sage.
More Detailed Instructions to Build from Source
Make sure you have about 5 GB of free disk space.
Install build dependencies
Linux: See quick instructions above.
OS X: Make sure you have Xcode version >= 2.4, i.e.
gcc -vshould output build >= 5363. If you don't, go to https://developer.apple.com/ sign up, and download the free Xcode package. Only OS X >= 10.4 is supported.
Solaris and OpenSolaris: Building Sage on these platforms is more tricky than on Linux or OS X. For details on how to build Sage on these platforms, see our wiki.
NOTE: On some operating systems, it might be necessary to install gas/as, gld/ld, gnm/nm. On most platforms, these are automatically installed when you install the programs listed above.
Extract the Sage source tarball and cd into a directory with no spaces in it. If you have a machine with 4 processors, say, type
export MAKE="make -j4"the following to configure the build script to perform a parallel compilation of Sage using 4 jobs. (With 4 processors, you might also consider
-j6-- building with more jobs than CPU cores can speed things up.) You might in addition pass a
-lload flag to "make": this sets a load limit, so for example if you execute
export MAKE="make -j4 -l5.5"then "make" won't start more than one job at a time if the system load average is above 5.5, see the make documentation.
If you want to run the test suite for each individual spkg as it is installed, type
export SAGE_CHECK="yes"before starting the Sage build. This will run each test suite and will raise an error if any failures occur. Python's test suite has been disabled by default, because it causes failures on most systems. To enable the Python testsuite, set the environment variable
To start the build, type
Wait about 20 minutes to 14 days, depending on your computer (it took about 2 weeks to build Sage on the T-Mobile G1 Android cell phone).
./sageto try it out.
make ptestto test all examples in the documentation (over 200,000 lines of input!) -- this takes from 10 minutes to several hours. Don't get too disturbed if there are 2 to 3 failures, but always feel free to email the section of
logs/ptest.logthat contains errors to the sage-support mailing list. If there are numerous failures, there was a serious problem with your build.
The HTML version of the documentation is built during the compilation process of Sage and resides in the directory
- Optional: If you want to build the PDF version (requires LaTeX)
of the documentation, run
- Optional: If you want to build the PDF version (requires LaTeX) of the documentation, run
Optional: It is recommended that you install the optional GAP database by typing
./sage -i database_gap.
This will download the package and install it. While you're at it, you might install other optional packages of interest to you: type
./sage --optionalto get a list.
Optional: It is recommended that you have both LaTeX and the ImageMagick tools (e.g. the "convert" command) installed since some plotting functionality benefits from it.
Optional: Read this if you are intending to run a Sage notebook server for multiple users. For security (i.e., to run
notebook(secure=True)) you want to access the server using the HTTPS protocol. First, install OpenSSL and the OpenSSL development headers on your system if they are not already installed. Then install pyOpenSSL by building Sage and then typing
./sage -i pyopenssl. Note that this command requires internet access. Alternatively,
make sslbuilds Sage and installs pyOpenSSL.
If you have problems building Sage, check the Sage Installation Guide,
and also note the following. Each separate component of Sage is
contained in an spkg; these are stored in
build/pkgs/. As each one
is built, a build log is stored in
logs/pkgs/, so you can browse these
to find error messages. If an spkg fails to build, the whole build
process will stop soon after, so check the most recent log files
first, or run
grep -li "^Error" logs/pkgs/*
from the top-level Sage directory to find log files with error messages in them. Send (a small part of) the relevant log file to the sage-devel mailing list, making sure to include at least some of the error messages; probably someone there will have some helpful suggestions.
Sage includes a GCC (GNU Compiler Collection) package. In order to build Sage, you need a C compiler which can build GCC and its prerequisites. gcc version 4.0.1 or later should probably work. On Solaris or OpenSolaris, building with the Sun compiler should also work.
The GCC package in Sage is not always installed. It is determined
automatically whether it needs to be installed. You can override this
by setting the environment variable
SAGE_INSTALL_GCC=yes (to force
installation of GCC) or
SAGE_INSTALL_GCC=no (to disable installation of
GCC). If you don't want to install GCC, you need to have recent
versions of gcc, g++ and gfortran; moreover, the versions must be equal.
There are some known problems with old assemblers, in particular when building the ECM package. You should ensure that your assembler understands all instructions for your processor. On Linux, this means you need a recent version of binutils; on OS X you need a recent version of Xcode.
Simplified directory layout (only essential files/directories):
SAGE_ROOT Root directory (sage-x.y.z in Sage tarball) ├── build │ ├── deps Dependency information of packages │ └── pkgs Every package is a subdirectory here │ ├── atlas │ … │ └── zn_poly ├── COPYING.txt Copyright information ├── local Compiled packages are installed here │ ├── bin Executables │ ├── include C/C++ headers │ ├── lib Shared libraries │ ├── share Databases, architecture-independent data │ └── var │ ├── sage List of installed packages │ └── tmp Temporary files when building Sage ├── logs │ ├── dochtml.log Log of the documentation build │ ├── install.log Full install log │ └── pkgs Build logs of individual packages │ ├── atlas-3.10.1.p7.log │ … │ └── zn_poly-0.9.p11.log ├── Makefile Running "make" uses this file ├── README.md This file ├── sage Script to start Sage ├── src All of Sage source (not third-party packages) │ ├── bin Scripts that Sage uses internally │ ├── doc Sage documentation │ └── sage The Sage library source code ├── upstream Source tarballs of packages │ ├── atlas-3.10.1.tar.bz2 │ … │ └── zn_poly-0.9.tar.bz2 └── VERSION.txt
For more details see our Developer's Guide.
This is a brief summary of the Sage software distribution's build system. There are two components to the full Sage system--the Sage Python library and its associated user interfaces, and the larger software distribution of Sage's main dependencies (for those dependencies not supplied by the user's system).
Sage's Python library is built and installed using a
setup.py script as is
standard for Python packages (Sage's
setup.py is non-trivial, but not
Most of the rest of the build system is concerned with building all of Sage's
dependencies in the correct order in relation to each other. The dependencies
included by Sage are referred to as SPKGs (i.e. "Sage Packages") and are listed
The main entrypoint to Sage's build system is the top-level
Makefile at the
root of the source tree. Unlike most normal projects that use autoconf (Sage
does as well, as described below), this
Makefile is not generated. Instead,
it contains a few high-level targets and targets related to bootstrapping the
system. Nonetheless, we still run
make <target> from the root of the source
tree--targets not explicitly defined in the top-level
Makefile are passed
through to another Makefile under
build/make/Makefile is generated by an autoconf-generated
configure script, using the template in
includes rules for building the Sage library itself (
make sagelib), and for
building and installing each of Sage's dependencies (e.g.
Although it's possible to manually run Sage's
configure script if one wants
to provide some customizations (e.g. it is possible to select which BLAS
implementation to use), the top-level
Makefile will run
configure for you,
in order to build
build/make/Makefile since it's a prerequisite for most of
Sage's make targets.
configure script itself, if it is not already built, can be generated by
bootstrap script. The top-level
Makefile also takes care of
To summarize, running a command like
make python2 at the top-level of the
source tree goes something like this:
configuredoes not exist
build/make/Makefiledoe not exist
build/makeand run the
installscript--this is little more than a front-end to running
make -f build/make/Makefile python2, which sets some necessary environment variables and logs some information
build/make/Makefilecontains the actual rule for building
python2; this includes building all of
python2's dependencies first (and their dependencies, recursively); the actual package installation is performed with the
You should be able to move the
sage-x.y.z/ directory anywhere you
want. If you copy the sage script or make a symbolic link to it, you
should modify the script to reflect this (as instructed at the top of
the script). It is best if the path to Sage does not have any spaces in
For a system-wide installation, as root you can move the
directory to a system-wide directory. Afterwards, you need to start up
Sage as root at least once prior to using the system-wide Sage as a
normal user. See the Installation Guide
for further information.
If you find anything that doesn't work correctly after you moved the directory, please email the sage-support mailing list.
Your local Sage install is almost exactly the same as any "developer" install. You can make changes to documentation, source, etc., and very easily package the complete results up for redistribution just like we do.
To make your own source tarball of Sage, type:
The result is placed in the directory
To make a binary distribution with your currently installed packages, visit sagemath/binary-pkg.
Changes to Included Software
All software included with Sage is copyrighted by the respective authors and released under an open source license that is GPL version 3 or later compatible. See COPYING.txt for more details.
Sources are in unmodified (as far as possible) tarballs in the
upstream/ directory. The remaining description, version
information, patches, and build scripts are in the accompanying
build/pkgs/<packagename> directory. This directory is
part of the Sage git repository.