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npm dependents npm downloads Docs

Many of the types here should have been built-in. You can help by suggesting some of them to the TypeScript project.

Either add this package as a dependency or copy-paste the needed types. No credit required. 👌

PR welcome for additional commonly needed types and docs improvements. Read the contributing guidelines first.

Help wanted with reviewing proposals and pull requests.


npm install type-fest

Requires TypeScript >=4.7


import type {Except} from 'type-fest';

type Foo = {
	unicorn: string;
	rainbow: boolean;

type FooWithoutRainbow = Except<Foo, 'rainbow'>;
//=> {unicorn: string}


Click the type names for complete docs.



  • EmptyObject - Represents a strictly empty plain object, the {} value.
  • IsEmptyObject - Returns a boolean for whether the type is strictly equal to an empty plain object, the {} value.
  • Except - Create a type from an object type without certain keys. This is a stricter version of Omit.
  • Writable - Create a type that strips readonly from all or some of an object's keys. The inverse of Readonly<T>.
  • WritableDeep - Create a deeply mutable version of an object/ReadonlyMap/ReadonlySet/ReadonlyArray type. The inverse of ReadonlyDeep<T>. Use Writable<T> if you only need one level deep.
  • Merge - Merge two types into a new type. Keys of the second type overrides keys of the first type.
  • MergeDeep - Merge two objects or two arrays/tuples recursively into a new type.
  • MergeExclusive - Create a type that has mutually exclusive keys.
  • OverrideProperties - Override only existing properties of the given type. Similar to Merge, but enforces that the original type has the properties you want to override.
  • RequireAtLeastOne - Create a type that requires at least one of the given keys.
  • RequireExactlyOne - Create a type that requires exactly a single key of the given keys and disallows more.
  • RequireAllOrNone - Create a type that requires all of the given keys or none of the given keys.
  • RequiredDeep - Create a deeply required version of another type. Use Required<T> if you only need one level deep.
  • OmitIndexSignature - Omit any index signatures from the given object type, leaving only explicitly defined properties.
  • PickIndexSignature - Pick only index signatures from the given object type, leaving out all explicitly defined properties.
  • PartialDeep - Create a deeply optional version of another type. Use Partial<T> if you only need one level deep.
  • PartialOnUndefinedDeep - Create a deep version of another type where all keys accepting undefined type are set to optional.
  • ReadonlyDeep - Create a deeply immutable version of an object/Map/Set/Array type. Use Readonly<T> if you only need one level deep.
  • LiteralUnion - Create a union type by combining primitive types and literal types without sacrificing auto-completion in IDEs for the literal type part of the union. Workaround for Microsoft/TypeScript#29729.
  • Opaque - Create an opaque type.
  • UnwrapOpaque - Revert an opaque type back to its original type.
  • InvariantOf - Create an invariant type, which is a type that does not accept supertypes and subtypes.
  • SetOptional - Create a type that makes the given keys optional.
  • SetRequired - Create a type that makes the given keys required.
  • SetNonNullable - Create a type that makes the given keys non-nullable.
  • ValueOf - Create a union of the given object's values, and optionally specify which keys to get the values from.
  • ConditionalKeys - Extract keys from a shape where values extend the given Condition type.
  • ConditionalPick - Like Pick except it selects properties from a shape where the values extend the given Condition type.
  • ConditionalPickDeep - Like ConditionalPick except that it selects the properties deeply.
  • ConditionalExcept - Like Omit except it removes properties from a shape where the values extend the given Condition type.
  • UnionToIntersection - Convert a union type to an intersection type.
  • LiteralToPrimitive - Convert a literal type to the primitive type it belongs to.
  • LiteralToPrimitiveDeep - Like LiteralToPrimitive except it converts literal types inside an object or array deeply.
  • Stringified - Create a type with the keys of the given type changed to string type.
  • IterableElement - Get the element type of an Iterable/AsyncIterable. For example, an array or a generator.
  • Entry - Create a type that represents the type of an entry of a collection.
  • Entries - Create a type that represents the type of the entries of a collection.
  • SetReturnType - Create a function type with a return type of your choice and the same parameters as the given function type.
  • Simplify - Useful to flatten the type output to improve type hints shown in editors. And also to transform an interface into a type to aide with assignability.
  • Get - Get a deeply-nested property from an object using a key path, like Lodash's .get() function.
  • StringKeyOf - Get keys of the given type as strings.
  • Schema - Create a deep version of another object type where property values are recursively replaced into a given value type.
  • Exact - Create a type that does not allow extra properties.
  • OptionalKeysOf - Extract all optional keys from the given type.
  • HasOptionalKeys - Create a true/false type depending on whether the given type has any optional fields.
  • RequiredKeysOf - Extract all required keys from the given type.
  • HasRequiredKeys - Create a true/false type depending on whether the given type has any required fields.
  • ReadonlyKeysOf - Extract all writable (non-readonly) keys from the given type.
  • WritableKeysOf - Extract all readonly keys from the given type.
  • Spread - Mimic the type inferred by TypeScript when merging two objects or two arrays/tuples using the spread syntax.
  • IsEqual - Returns a boolean for whether the two given types are equal.
  • TaggedUnion - Create a union of types that share a common discriminant property.

Type Guard

IsType vs. IfType

For every IsT type (e.g. IsAny), there is an associated IfT type that can help simplify conditional types. While the IsT types return a boolean, the IfT types act like an If/Else - they resolve to the given TypeIfT or TypeIfNotT depending on whether IsX is true or not. By default, IfT returns a boolean:

type IfAny<T, TypeIfAny = true, TypeIfNotAny = false> = (
	IsAny<T> extends true ? TypeIfAny : TypeIfNotAny


import type {IsAny, IfAny} from 'type-fest';

type ShouldBeTrue = IsAny<any> extends true ? true : false;
//=> true

type ShouldBeFalse = IfAny<'not any'>;
//=> false

type ShouldBeNever = IfAny<'not any', 'not never', 'never'>;
//=> 'never'


  • Jsonify - Transform a type to one that is assignable to the JsonValue type.
  • Jsonifiable - Matches a value that can be losslessly converted to JSON.
  • JsonPrimitive - Matches a JSON primitive.
  • JsonObject - Matches a JSON object.
  • JsonArray - Matches a JSON array.
  • JsonValue - Matches any valid JSON value.


  • Promisable - Create a type that represents either the value or the value wrapped in PromiseLike.
  • AsyncReturnType - Unwrap the return type of a function that returns a Promise.
  • Asyncify - Create an async version of the given function type.


  • Trim - Remove leading and trailing spaces from a string.
  • Split - Represents an array of strings split using a given character or character set.
  • Replace - Represents a string with some or all matches replaced by a replacement.


  • Includes - Returns a boolean for whether the given array includes the given item.
  • Join - Join an array of strings and/or numbers using the given string as a delimiter.
  • LastArrayElement - Extracts the type of the last element of an array.
  • FixedLengthArray - Create a type that represents an array of the given type and length.
  • MultidimensionalArray - Create a type that represents a multidimensional array of the given type and dimensions.
  • MultidimensionalReadonlyArray - Create a type that represents a multidimensional readonly array of the given type and dimensions.
  • ReadonlyTuple - Create a type that represents a read-only tuple of the given type and length.
  • TupleToUnion - Convert a tuple/array into a union type of its elements.


Change case


Declined types

If we decline a type addition, we will make sure to document the better solution here.

  • Diff and Spread - The pull request author didn't provide any real-world use-cases and the PR went stale. If you think this type is useful, provide some real-world use-cases and we might reconsider.
  • Dictionary - You only save a few characters (Dictionary<number> vs Record<string, number>) from Record, which is more flexible and well-known. Also, you shouldn't use an object as a dictionary. We have Map in JavaScript now.
  • ExtractProperties and ExtractMethods - The types violate the single responsibility principle. Instead, refine your types into more granular type hierarchies.
  • Url2Json - Inferring search parameters from a URL string is a cute idea, but not very useful in practice, since search parameters are usually dynamic and defined separately.
  • Nullish - The type only saves a couple of characters, not everyone knows what "nullish" means, and I'm also trying to get away from null.
  • TitleCase - It's not solving a common need and is a better fit for a separate package.
  • ExtendOr and ExtendAnd - The benefits don't outweigh having to learn what they mean.
  • PackageJsonExtras - There are too many possible configurations that can be put into package.json. If you would like to extend PackageJson to support an additional configuration in your project, please see the Extending existing types section below.

Alternative type names

If you know one of our types by a different name, add it here for discovery.


Extending existing types

  • PackageJson - There are a lot of tools that place extra configurations inside the package.json file. You can extend PackageJson to support these additional configurations.



     import type {PackageJson as BasePackageJson} from 'type-fest';
     import type {Linter} from 'eslint';
     type PackageJson = BasePackageJson & {eslintConfig?: Linter.Config};


Built-in types

There are many advanced types most users don't know about.

  • Partial<T> - Make all properties in T optional.



     interface NodeConfig {
     		appName: string;
     		port: number;
     class NodeAppBuilder {
     		private configuration: NodeConfig = {
     				appName: 'NodeApp',
     				port: 3000
     		private updateConfig<Key extends keyof NodeConfig>(key: Key, value: NodeConfig[Key]) {
     				this.configuration[key] = value;
     		config(config: Partial<NodeConfig>) {
     				type NodeConfigKey = keyof NodeConfig;
     				for (const key of Object.keys(config) as NodeConfigKey[]) {
     						const updateValue = config[key];
     						if (updateValue === undefined) {
     						this.updateConfig(key, updateValue);
     				return this;
     // `Partial<NodeConfig>`` allows us to provide only a part of the
     // NodeConfig interface.
     new NodeAppBuilder().config({appName: 'ToDoApp'});
  • Required<T> - Make all properties in T required.



     interface ContactForm {
     		email?: string;
     		message?: string;
     function submitContactForm(formData: Required<ContactForm>) {
     		// Send the form data to the server.
     		email: '',
     		message: 'Hi! Could you tell me more about…',
     // TypeScript error: missing property 'message'
     		email: '',
  • Readonly<T> - Make all properties in T readonly.



     enum LogLevel {
     interface LoggerConfig {
     		name: string;
     		level: LogLevel;
     class Logger {
     		config: Readonly<LoggerConfig>;
     		constructor({name, level}: LoggerConfig) {
     				this.config = {name, level};
     const config: LoggerConfig = {
     	name: 'MyApp',
     	level: LogLevel.Debug
     const logger = new Logger(config);
     // TypeScript Error: cannot assign to read-only property.
     logger.config.level = LogLevel.Error;
     // We are able to edit config variable as we please.
     config.level = LogLevel.Error;
  • Pick<T, K> - From T, pick a set of properties whose keys are in the union K.



     interface Article {
     		title: string;
     		thumbnail: string;
     		content: string;
     // Creates new type out of the `Article` interface composed
     // from the Articles' two properties: `title` and `thumbnail`.
     // `ArticlePreview = {title: string; thumbnail: string}`
     type ArticlePreview = Pick<Article, 'title' | 'thumbnail'>;
     // Render a list of articles using only title and description.
     function renderArticlePreviews(previews: ArticlePreview[]): HTMLElement {
     		const articles = document.createElement('div');
     		for (const preview of previews) {
     				// Append preview to the articles.
     		return articles;
     const articles = renderArticlePreviews([
     			title: 'TypeScript tutorial!',
     			thumbnail: '/assets/ts.jpg'
  • Record<K, T> - Construct a type with a set of properties K of type T.



     // Positions of employees in our company.
     type MemberPosition = 'intern' | 'developer' | 'tech-lead';
     // Interface describing properties of a single employee.
     interface Employee {
     		firstName: string;
     		lastName: string;
     		yearsOfExperience: number;
     // Create an object that has all possible `MemberPosition` values set as keys.
     // Those keys will store a collection of Employees of the same position.
     const team: Record<MemberPosition, Employee[]> = {
     		intern: [],
     		developer: [],
     		'tech-lead': [],
     // Our team has decided to help John with his dream of becoming Software Developer.
     	firstName: 'John',
     	lastName: 'Doe',
     	yearsOfExperience: 0
     // `Record` forces you to initialize all of the property keys.
     // TypeScript Error: "tech-lead" property is missing
     const teamEmpty: Record<MemberPosition, null> = {
     		intern: null,
     		developer: null,
  • Exclude<T, U> - Exclude from T those types that are assignable to U.



     interface ServerConfig {
     	port: null | string | number;
     type RequestHandler = (request: Request, response: Response) => void;
     // Exclude `null` type from `null | string | number`.
     // In case the port is equal to `null`, we will use default value.
     function getPortValue(port: Exclude<ServerConfig['port'], null>): number {
     	if (typeof port === 'string') {
     		return parseInt(port, 10);
     	return port;
     function startServer(handler: RequestHandler, config: ServerConfig): void {
     	const server = require('http').createServer(handler);
     	const port = config.port === null ? 3000 : getPortValue(config.port);
  • Extract<T, U> - Extract from T those types that are assignable to U.



     declare function uniqueId(): number;
     const ID = Symbol('ID');
     interface Person {
     	[ID]: number;
     	name: string;
     	age: number;
     // Allows changing the person data as long as the property key is of string type.
     function changePersonData<
     	Obj extends Person,
     	Key extends Extract<keyof Person, string>,
     	Value extends Obj[Key]
     > (obj: Obj, key: Key, value: Value): void {
     	obj[key] = value;
     // Tiny Andrew was born.
     const andrew = {
     	[ID]: uniqueId(),
     	name: 'Andrew',
     	age: 0,
     // Cool, we're fine with that.
     changePersonData(andrew, 'name', 'Pony');
     // Goverment didn't like the fact that you wanted to change your identity.
     changePersonData(andrew, ID, uniqueId());
  • NonNullable<T> - Exclude null and undefined from T.

    Example Works with strictNullChecks set to true.


     type PortNumber = string | number | null;
     /** Part of a class definition that is used to build a server */
     class ServerBuilder {
     		portNumber!: NonNullable<PortNumber>;
     		port(this: ServerBuilder, port: PortNumber): ServerBuilder {
     				if (port == null) {
     						this.portNumber = 8000;
     				} else {
     						this.portNumber = port;
     				return this;
     const serverBuilder = new ServerBuilder();
     		.port('8000')   // portNumber = '8000'
     		.port(null)     // portNumber =  8000
     		.port(3000);    // portNumber =  3000
     // TypeScript error
     serverBuilder.portNumber = null;
  • Parameters<T> - Obtain the parameters of a function type in a tuple.



     function shuffle(input: any[]): void {
     	// Mutate array randomly changing its' elements indexes.
     function callNTimes<Fn extends (...arguments_: any[]) => any> (func: Fn, callCount: number) {
     	// Type that represents the type of the received function parameters.
     	type FunctionParameters = Parameters<Fn>;
     	return function (...arguments_: FunctionParameters) {
     		for (let i = 0; i < callCount; i++) {
     const shuffleTwice = callNTimes(shuffle, 2);
  • ConstructorParameters<T> - Obtain the parameters of a constructor function type in a tuple.



     class ArticleModel {
     	title: string;
     	content?: string;
     	constructor(title: string) {
     		this.title = title;
     class InstanceCache<T extends (new (...arguments_: any[]) => any)> {
     	private ClassConstructor: T;
     	private cache: Map<string, InstanceType<T>> = new Map();
     	constructor (ctr: T) {
     		this.ClassConstructor = ctr;
     	getInstance (...arguments_: ConstructorParameters<T>): InstanceType<T> {
     		const hash = this.calculateArgumentsHash(...arguments_);
     		const existingInstance = this.cache.get(hash);
     		if (existingInstance !== undefined) {
     			return existingInstance;
     		return new this.ClassConstructor(...arguments_);
     	private calculateArgumentsHash(...arguments_: any[]): string {
     		// Calculate hash.
     		return 'hash';
     const articleCache = new InstanceCache(ArticleModel);
     const amazonArticle = articleCache.getInstance('Amazon forests burining!');
  • ReturnType<T> - Obtain the return type of a function type.



     /** Provides every element of the iterable `iter` into the `callback` function and stores the results in an array. */
     function mapIter<
     		Func extends (elem: Elem) => any,
     		Ret extends ReturnType<Func>
     >(iter: Iterable<Elem>, callback: Func): Ret[] {
     		const mapped: Ret[] = [];
     		for (const elem of iter) {
     		return mapped;
     const setObject: Set<string> = new Set();
     const mapObject: Map<number, string> = new Map();
     mapIter(setObject, (value: string) => value.indexOf('Foo')); // number[]
     mapIter(mapObject, ([key, value]: [number, string]) => {
     		return key % 2 === 0 ? value : 'Odd';
     }); // string[]
  • InstanceType<T> - Obtain the instance type of a constructor function type.



     class IdleService {
     		doNothing (): void {}
     class News {
     		title: string;
     		content: string;
     		constructor(title: string, content: string) {
     				this.title = title;
     				this.content = content;
     const instanceCounter: Map<Function, number> = new Map();
     interface Constructor {
     		new(...arguments_: any[]): any;
     // Keep track how many instances of `Constr` constructor have been created.
     function getInstance<
     		Constr extends Constructor,
     		Arguments extends ConstructorParameters<Constr>
     >(constructor: Constr, ...arguments_: Arguments): InstanceType<Constr> {
     		let count = instanceCounter.get(constructor) || 0;
     		const instance = new constructor(...arguments_);
     		instanceCounter.set(constructor, count + 1);
     		console.log(`Created ${count + 1} instances of ${} class`);
     		return instance;
     const idleService = getInstance(IdleService);
     // Will log: `Created 1 instances of IdleService class`
     const newsEntry = getInstance(News, 'New ECMAScript proposals!', 'Last month...');
     // Will log: `Created 1 instances of News class`
  • Omit<T, K> - Constructs a type by picking all properties from T and then removing K.



     interface Animal {
     		imageUrl: string;
     		species: string;
     		images: string[];
     		paragraphs: string[];
     // Creates new type with all properties of the `Animal` interface
     // except 'images' and 'paragraphs' properties. We can use this
     // type to render small hover tooltip for a wiki entry list.
     type AnimalShortInfo = Omit<Animal, 'images' | 'paragraphs'>;
     function renderAnimalHoverInfo (animals: AnimalShortInfo[]): HTMLElement {
     		const container = document.createElement('div');
     		// Internal implementation.
     		return container;
  • Uppercase<S extends string> - Transforms every character in a string into uppercase.

     type T = Uppercase<'hello'>;  // 'HELLO'
     type T2 = Uppercase<'foo' | 'bar'>;  // 'FOO' | 'BAR'
     type T3<S extends string> = Uppercase<`aB${S}`>;
     type T4 = T3<'xYz'>;  // 'ABXYZ'
     type T5 = Uppercase<string>;  // string
     type T6 = Uppercase<any>;  // any
     type T7 = Uppercase<never>;  // never
     type T8 = Uppercase<42>;  // Error, type 'number' does not satisfy the constraint 'string'
  • Lowercase<S extends string> - Transforms every character in a string into lowercase.

     type T = Lowercase<'HELLO'>;  // 'hello'
     type T2 = Lowercase<'FOO' | 'BAR'>;  // 'foo' | 'bar'
     type T3<S extends string> = Lowercase<`aB${S}`>;
     type T4 = T3<'xYz'>;  // 'abxyz'
     type T5 = Lowercase<string>;  // string
     type T6 = Lowercase<any>;  // any
     type T7 = Lowercase<never>;  // never
     type T8 = Lowercase<42>;  // Error, type 'number' does not satisfy the constraint 'string'
  • Capitalize<S extends string> - Transforms the first character in a string into uppercase.

     type T = Capitalize<'hello'>;  // 'Hello'
     type T2 = Capitalize<'foo' | 'bar'>;  // 'Foo' | 'Bar'
     type T3<S extends string> = Capitalize<`aB${S}`>;
     type T4 = T3<'xYz'>;  // 'ABxYz'
     type T5 = Capitalize<string>;  // string
     type T6 = Capitalize<any>;  // any
     type T7 = Capitalize<never>;  // never
     type T8 = Capitalize<42>;  // Error, type 'number' does not satisfy the constraint 'string'
  • Uncapitalize<S extends string> - Transforms the first character in a string into lowercase.

     type T = Uncapitalize<'Hello'>;  // 'hello'
     type T2 = Uncapitalize<'Foo' | 'Bar'>;  // 'foo' | 'bar'
     type T3<S extends string> = Uncapitalize<`AB${S}`>;
     type T4 = T3<'xYz'>;  // 'aBxYz'
     type T5 = Uncapitalize<string>;  // string
     type T6 = Uncapitalize<any>;  // any
     type T7 = Uncapitalize<never>;  // never
     type T8 = Uncapitalize<42>;  // Error, type 'number' does not satisfy the constraint 'string'

You can find some examples in the TypeScript docs.



SPDX-License-Identifier: (MIT OR CC0-1.0)