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README.md

ttyd - Share your terminal over the web Build Status

ttyd is a simple command-line tool for sharing terminal over the web, inspired by GoTTY.

screenshot

Features

  • Built on top of Libwebsockets with C for speed
  • Fully-featured terminal based on Xterm.js with CJK and IME support
  • Graphical ZMODEM integration with lrzsz support
  • SSL support based on OpenSSL
  • Run any custom command with options
  • Basic authentication support and many other custom options
  • Cross platform: macOS, Linux, FreeBSD/OpenBSD, OpenWrt/LEDE, Windows

Installation

Install on macOS

Install with homebrew:

brew install ttyd

Install on Linux

  • Install from ppa (ubuntu 16.04 and later):

    sudo apt-get install -y software-properties-common
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tsl0922/ttyd-dev
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install ttyd
  • Build from source (debian/ubuntu):

    sudo apt-get install cmake g++ pkg-config git vim-common libwebsockets-dev libjson-c-dev libssl-dev
    git clone https://github.com/tsl0922/ttyd.git
    cd ttyd && mkdir build && cd build
    cmake ..
    make && make install

    CMake of at least 3.0 is required. If you get the error message Policy "CMP0048" is not known to this version of CMake, that means you have an old CMake.

    You may also need to compile/install libwebsockets from source if the libwebsockets-dev package is outdated.

Install on Windows

ttyd can be built with MSYS2 on windows, The build instructions is here.

NOTE: Native windows console programs may not work correctly due to pty incompatibility issues. As a workaround, you can use winpty as a wrapper to invoke the windows program, eg: ttyd winpty cmd.

Install on OpenWrt/LEDE

LEDE 17.01.0 and later:

opkg install ttyd

If the install command fails, you can compile it yourself.

Usage

Command-line Options

ttyd is a tool for sharing terminal over the web

USAGE:
    ttyd [options] <command> [<arguments...>]

VERSION:
    1.4.0

OPTIONS:
    -p, --port              Port to listen (default: 7681, use `0` for random port)
    -i, --interface         Network interface to bind (eg: eth0), or UNIX domain socket path (eg: /var/run/ttyd.sock)
    -c, --credential        Credential for Basic Authentication (format: username:password)
    -u, --uid               User id to run with
    -g, --gid               Group id to run with
    -s, --signal            Signal to send to the command when exit it (default: 1, SIGHUP)
    -r, --reconnect         Time to reconnect for the client in seconds (default: 10)
    -R, --readonly          Do not allow clients to write to the TTY
    -t, --client-option     Send option to client (format: key=value), repeat to add more options
    -O, --check-origin      Do not allow websocket connection from different origin
    -m, --max-clients       Maximum clients to support (default: 0, no limit)
    -o, --once              Accept only one client and exit on disconnection
    -B, --browser           Open terminal with the default system browser
    -I, --index             Custom index.html path
    -S, --ssl               Enable SSL
    -C, --ssl-cert          SSL certificate file path
    -K, --ssl-key           SSL key file path
    -A, --ssl-ca            SSL CA file path for client certificate verification
    -d, --debug             Set log level (default: 7)
    -v, --version           Print the version and exit
    -h, --help              Print this text and exit

Visit https://github.com/tsl0922/ttyd to get more information and report bugs.

Example Usage

ttyd starts web server at port 7681 by default, you can use the -p option to change it, the command will be started with arguments as options. For example, run:

ttyd -p 8080 bash -x

Then open http://localhost:8080 with a browser, you will get a bash shell with debug mode enabled.

More Examples:

  • If you want to login with your system accounts on the web browser, run ttyd login.
  • You can even run a none shell command like vim, try: ttyd vim, the web browser will show you a vim editor.
  • Sharing single process with multiple clients: ttyd tmux new -A -s ttyd vim, run tmux new -A -s ttyd to connect to the tmux session from terminal.

Browser Support

Modern browsers, See Browser Support.

SSL how-to

Generate SSL CA and self signed server/client certificates:

# CA certificate (FQDN must be different from server/client)
openssl genrsa -out ca.key 2048
openssl req -new -x509 -days 365 -key ca.key -subj "/C=CN/ST=GD/L=SZ/O=Acme, Inc./CN=Acme Root CA" -out ca.crt

# server certificate (for multiple domains, change subjectAltName to: DNS:example.com,DNS:www.example.com)
openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout server.key -subj "/C=CN/ST=GD/L=SZ/O=Acme, Inc./CN=localhost" -out server.csr
openssl x509 -req -extfile <(printf "subjectAltName=DNS:localhost") -days 365 -in server.csr -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial -out server.crt

# client certificate (the p12/pem format may be useful for some clients)
openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout client.key -subj "/C=CN/ST=GD/L=SZ/O=Acme, Inc./CN=client" -out client.csr
openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in client.csr -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial -out client.crt
openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts -in client.crt -inkey client.key -out client.p12
openssl pkcs12 -in client.p12 -out client.pem -clcerts

Then start ttyd:

ttyd --ssl --ssl-cert server.crt --ssl-key server.key --ssl-ca ca.crt bash

You may want to test the client certificate verification with curl:

curl --insecure --cert client.p12[:password] -v https://localhost:7681

If you don't want to enable client certificate verification, remove the --ssl-ca option.

Docker and ttyd

Docker containers are jailed environments which are more secure, this is useful for protecting the host system, you may use ttyd with docker like this:

  • Sharing single docker container with multiple clients: docker run -it --rm -p 7681:7681 tsl0922/ttyd.
  • Creating new docker container for each client: ttyd docker run -it --rm ubuntu.

Credits

  • GoTTY: ttyd is a port of GoTTY to C language with many improvements.
  • Libwebsockets: is used to build the websocket server.
  • Xterm.js: is used to run the terminal emulator on the web, hterm is used previously.