Read and write data to/from ElasticSearch within Hadoop (including Apache Crunch)
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Elasticsearch Hadoop Build Status Build Status

Read and write data to/from Elasticsearch within Hadoop/MapReduce libraries. Automatically converts data to/from JSON. Supports MapReduce, Cascading, Hive, Pig and Crunch.


Elasticsearch cluster accessible through REST. That's it! Significant effort has been invested to create a small, dependency-free, self-contained jar that can be downloaded and put to use without any dependencies. Simply make it available to your job classpath and you're set.


This project is released under version 2.0 of the Apache License


We're working towards a first release. In the meantime, grab the latest nightly build from the repository using any Maven-compatible tool:


or build the project yourself.

We do build and test the code on each commit; see our CI server here

Feedback / Q&A

We're interested in your feedback! You can find us on the User mailing list - please append [Hadoop] to the post subject to filter it out. For more details, see the community page.


Configuration Properties

All configuration properties start with es prefix. Note that the es.internal namespace is reserved for the library internal use and should not be used by the user at any point.

The properties are read mainly from the Hadoop configuration but the user can specify (some of) them directly depending on the library used (see the relevant documentation below). The full list is available here.


es.resource=<ES resource location, relative to the host/port specified above. Can be an index or a query>

Optional<ES host address> 				       # defaults to localhost
es.port=<ES REST port>    				       # defaults to 9200
es.bulk.size.bytes=<bulk size in bytes>        # defaults to 10mb
es.bulk.size.entries=<bulk size in entries>    # defaults to 0 (meaning it's not set)
es.http.timeout=<timeout for http connections> # defaults to 1m


For basic, low-level or performance-sensitive environments, ES-Hadoop provides dedicated InputFormat and OutputFormat that read and write data to ElasticSearch. To use them, add the es-hadoop jar to your job classpath (either by bundling the library along - it's less then 40kB and there are no-dependencies), using the DistributedCache or by provisioning the cluster manually.

Note that es-hadoop supports both the so-called 'old' and the 'new' API through its ESInputFormat and ESOutputFormat classes.

'Old' (org.apache.hadoop.mapred) API


To read data from ES, configure the ESInputFormat on your job configuration along with the relevant properties:

JobConf conf = new JobConf();
conf.set("es.resource", "radio/artists/_search?q=me*"); // replace this with the relevant query


Same configuration template can be used for writing but using ESOuputFormat:

JobConf conf = new JobConf();
conf.set("es.resource", "radio/artists"); // index or indices used for storing data

'New' (org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce) API


Configuration conf = new Configuration();
conf.set("es.resource", "radio/artists/_search?q=me*"); // replace this with the relevant query
Job job = new Job(conf)


Configuration conf = new Configuration();
conf.set("es.resource", "radio/artists"); // index or indices used for storing data
Job job = new Job(conf)


ES-Hadoop provides a Hive storage handler for ElasticSearch, meaning one can define an external table on top of ES.

Add es-hadoop-.jar to hive.aux.jars.path or register it manually in your Hive script (recommended):

ADD JAR /path_to_jar/es-hadoop-<version>.jar;


To read data from ES, define a table backed by the desired index:

    id      BIGINT,
    name    STRING,
    links   STRUCT<url:STRING, picture:STRING>)
STORED BY 'org.elasticsearch.hadoop.hive.ESStorageHandler'
TBLPROPERTIES('es.resource' = 'radio/artists/_search?q=me*');

The fields defined in the table are mapped to the JSON when communicating with ElasticSearch. Notice the use of TBLPROPERTIES to define the location, that is the query used for reading from this table:

SELECT * FROM artists;


To write data, a similar definition is used but with a different es.resource:

    id      BIGINT,
    name    STRING,
    links   STRUCT<url:STRING, picture:STRING>)
STORED BY 'org.elasticsearch.hadoop.hive.ESStorageHandler'
TBLPROPERTIES('es.resource' = 'radio/artists/');

Any data passed to the table is then passed down to ElasticSearch; for example considering a table s, mapped to a TSV/CSV file, one can index it to ElasticSearch like this:

    SELECT NULL,, named_struct('url', s.url, 'picture', s.picture) FROM source s;

As one can note, currently the reading and writing are treated separately but we're working on unifying the two and automatically translating HiveQL to ElasticSearch queries.


ES-Hadoop provides both read and write functions for Pig so you can access ElasticSearch from Pig scripts.

Register ES-Hadoop jar into your script or add it to your Pig classpath:

REGISTER /path_to_jar/es-hadoop-<version>.jar;

Additionally one can define an alias to save some chars:

%define ESSTORAGE org.elasticsearch.hadoop.pig.ESStorage()

and use $ESSTORAGE for storage definition.


To read data from ES, use ESStorage and specify the query through the LOAD function:

A = LOAD 'radio/artists/_search?q=me*' USING org.elasticsearch.hadoop.pig.ESStorage();


Use the same Storage to write data to ElasticSearch:

A = LOAD 'src/test/resources/artists.dat' USING PigStorage() AS (id:long, name, url:chararray, picture: chararray);
B = FOREACH A GENERATE name, TOTUPLE(url, picture) AS links;
STORE B INTO 'radio/artists' USING org.elasticsearch.hadoop.pig.ESStorage();


ES-Hadoop offers a dedicate ElasticSearch Tap, ESTap that can be used both as a sink or a source. Note that ESTap can be used in both local (LocalFlowConnector) and Hadoop (HadoopFlowConnector) flows:


Tap in = new ESTap("radio/artists/_search?q=me*");
Tap out = new StdOut(new TextLine());
new LocalFlowConnector().connect(in, out, new Pipe("read-from-ES")).complete();


Tap in = Lfs(new TextDelimited(new Fields("id", "name", "url", "picture")), "src/test/resources/artists.dat");
Tap out = new ESTap("radio/artists", new Fields("name", "url", "picture"));
new HadoopFlowConnector().connect(in, out, new Pipe("write-to-ES")).complete();


ES-Hadoop provides ElasticSearch Source (ESSource) and Target (ESTarget) for reading and writing ElasticSearch indexes.

For annotated sample applications check: CrunchAvroIT, CrunchMapSerDeIT and CrunchWritableSerDeIT.


With Crunch you have several options to represent the data read from ES: java Map, custom Writables, (specific and reflection) Avro classes and plain JSON String

  • To Map:
MRPipeline pipeline = new MRPipeline(...);
PCollection<Map> tweets =
	new ESSource.Builder("twitter/tweet/_search?q=user:*", Map.class)

The JSON source data in ES is mapped into java.util.Map. One can use the get("attributeName") to retrieve a particular value. The value in turn can be primitive or complex java object.

  • To Writable class:
PCollection<Tweet> tweets =
	new ESSource.Builder<Tweet>("twitter/tweet/_search?q=user:*", Tweet.class).setPort(9500).build());

Maps the ES source instances into predefine Tweet (Writable) class (uses Jackson's default JSON mapping to map the Writable class into JSON).

PCollection<Person> people =
    new ESSource.Builder<String>("person/avro/_search?q=*", Person.class).setPort(9500).build());

Maps the ES source instances into (specific or reflection) Avro classes. Works only with Avro Specific API and Avro Reflection API but doesn't support Avro Generic API!

Note: This implementation does not use Avro's Schema deserialize the JSON into the Avro class! It uses the Jackson parser instead!
  • To String:
PCollection<String> people =
        new ESSource.Builder<String>("person/avro/_search?q=*", String.class).setPort(9500).build());

Maps the ES source instances into plain java String.


Crunch provides several mechanisms to represent the data being sent to ES: Java Map, custom Writable, Avro or plain String.

  • From Map:
PCollection<Map> mapCollection = ...
pipeline.write(mapCollection, new ESTarget.Builder("twitter/count").setPort(9500).build());

Uses Jackson to serialize the Map into JSON.

  • From Writable class:
PCollection<UserMessageCount> writableCollection = ...
pipeline.write(writableCollection, new ESTarget.Builder("twitter/count").setPort(9500).build());

This approach uses Jackson to convert the Writable class into JSON. Example Writable class:

public class UserMessageCount implements Writable, Serializable {

	private String userName;
	public String getUserName() {return userName;}
	public void setUserName(String userName) {this.userName = userName;}
	@Override public void readFields(DataInput arg0) throws IOException { /* empty */ }
	@Override public void write(DataOutput arg0) throws IOException { /* empty */ }

This class will is mapped to JSON:

_source: {
	userName: "Crunch user"
PCollection<Person> personCollection = ...
pipeline.write(personCollection, new ESTarget.Builder("person/avro").setPort(9500).build());

Note: The Avro class is serialized according to Jakckson's ObjectMapper rules not the Avro schema!

Building the source

ElasticSearch Hadoop uses Gradle for its build system and it is not required to have it installed on your machine.

To create a distributable jar, run gradlew -x test build from the command line; once completed you will find the jar in build\libs.