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Crucible is a language-agnostic library for performing forward symbolic execution of imperative programs. It provides a collection of data-structures and APIs for expressing programs as control-flow graphs. Programs expressed as CFGs in this way can be automatically explored by the symbolic execution engine. In addition, new data types and operations can be added to the symbolic simulator by implementing fresh primitives directly in Haskell. Crucible relies on an underlying library called What4 that provides formula representations, and connections to a variety of SAT and SMT solvers that can be used to perform verification and find counterexamples to logical conditions computed from program simulation.

Crucible has been designed as a set of Haskell packages organized so that Crucible itself has a minimal number of external dependencies, and functionality independent of crucible can be separated into sub-libraries.

Currently, the repository consists of the following Haskell packages:

  • crucible provides the core Crucible definitions, including the symbolic simulator and control-flow-graph program representations.
  • crucible-llvm provides translation and runtime support for executing LLVM assembly programs in the Crucible symbolic simulator.
  • crucible-jvm provides translation and runtime support for executing JVM bytecode programs in the Crucible symbolic simulator.
  • crucible-saw provides functionality for generating SAW Core terms from Crucible Control-Flow-Graphs.
  • crucible-syntax provides a native S-Expression based concrete syntax for crucible programs. It is useful for being able to directly interact with the core Crucible simulator without bringing in issues related to the translation of other front-ends (e.g. the LLVM translation). It is primarily intended for the purpose of writing test cases.
  • crux provides common support libraries for running the crucible simulator in a basic "all-at-once" use mode for simulation and verification. This includes most of the setup steps required to actually set the simulator off and running, as well as functionality for collecting and discharging safety conditions and generated assertions via solvers. Both the crux-llvm and crucible-jvm executables are thin wrappers around the functionality provided by crux.

In addition, there are the following library/executable packages:

  • crux-llvm, a standalone frontend for executing C and C++ programs in the crucible symbolic simulator. The front-end invokes clang to produce LLVM bitcode, and runs the resulting programs using the crucible-llvm language frontend.

  • crux-llvm-svcomp, an alternative entrypoint to crux-llvm that uses the protocol established for the SV-COMP competition. See here for more details.

  • crucible-jvm, also contains an executable for directly running compiled JVM bytecode programs, in a similar vein to the crux-llvm package.

  • crux-mir, a tool for executing Rust programs in the crucible symbolic simulator. This is the backend for the cargo crux-test command provided by mir-json. See the crux-mir README for details.

  • uc-crux-llvm, another standalone frontend for executing C and C++ programs in the Crucible symbolic simulator, using "under-constrained" symbolic execution. Essentially, this technique can start at any function in a given program with no user intervention and try to find bugs, but may raise false positives and is less useful for full verification than crux-llvm. See the README for details.

The development of major features and additions to crucible is done in separate branches of the repository, all of which are based off master and merge back into it when completed. Minor features and bug fixes are done in the master branch. Naming of feature branches is free-form.

Each library is BSD-licensed (see the LICENSE file in a project directory for details).

Quick start

To fetch all the latest git versions of immediate dependencies of libraries in this repository, use the scripts/ shell script; alternately, you can manually invoke the git commands to initialize and recursively update submodules. You will find it most convenient to setup public-key login for GitHub before you perform this step.

Now, you may use either stack or cabal new-build to compile the libraries, as you prefer.

ls stack-ghc-*.yaml
# Choose the GHC version you prefer
ln -s stack-ghc-<version>.yaml stack.yaml
stack setup
stack build
cabal update
cabal new-configure
cabal new-build all

Alternately, you can target a more specific sub-package instead of all.

Testing and Coverage

Testing with coverage tracking is currently only available via stack, as cabal new-* does not yet support coverage. Use scripts/ to generate a coverage report for all test suites.

Notes on Freeze Files

We use the cabal.GHC-*.config files to constrain dependency versions in CI. We recommand using the following command for best results before building locally:

ln -s cabal.GHC-<VER>.config cabal.project.freeze

These configuration files were generated using cabal freeze --enable-tests --enable-benchmarks. Note that at present, these configuration files assume a Unix-like operating system, as we do not currently test Windows on CI. If you would like to use these configuration files on Windows, you will need to make some manual changes to remove certain packages and flags:

tasty +unix


Crucible is partly based upon work supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under Contract No. N66001-18-C-4011. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).