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db* CODECOP Validators

db* CODECOP supports custom validators. A validator must implement the PLSQLCopValidator Java interface and has to be a direct or indirect descendant of the PLSQLValidator class. Such a class can be used in the command line utility and the SQL Developer extension.

For SonarQube a ValidationConfig is required. A config defines the validator with its rules and quality profile for SonarQube. See GLPValidatorConfig. The referenced XML files are generated based on the validator and the optional sample guidelines.

You may use these validators as is or amend/extend them to suit your needs.

Provided Validators

This project provides the following four custom validators in the package com.trivadis.tvdcc.validators:

Class Description
TrivadisPlsqlNaming Checks Naming Conventions of the Trivadis PL/SQL & SQL Coding Guidelines
GLP Checks naming of global and local variables and parameters
SQLInjection Looks for SQL injection vulnerabilities, e.g. unasserted parameters in dynamic SQL
Hint Looks for unknown hints and invalid table references
OverrideTrivadisGuidelines Extends TrivadisGuidelines3 and overrides check for G-1050.
TrivadisGuidelines3Plus Combines the validators TrivadisPlsqlNaming, SQLInjection and OverrideTrivadisGuidelines.


This validator implements 15 guidelines to cover the chapter 2.2 Naming Conventions of the Trivadis PL/SQL & SQL Coding Guidelines.

Guideline Message
G-9101 Always prefix global variables with 'g_'.
G-9102 Always prefix local variables with 'l_'.
G-9103 Always prefix cursors with 'c_'
G-9104 Always prefix records with 'r_'.
G-9105 Always prefix collection types (arrays/tables) with 't_'.
G-9106 Always prefix objects with 'o_'.
G-9107 Always prefix cursor parameters with 'p_'.
G-9108 Always prefix in parameters with 'in_'.
G-9109 Always prefix out parameters with 'out_'.
G-9110 Always prefix in/out parameters with 'io_'.
G-9111 Always prefix record type definitions with 'r_' and add the suffix '_type'.
G-9112 Always prefix collection type definitions (arrays/tables) with 't_' and add the suffix '_type'.
G-9113 Always prefix exceptions with 'e_'.
G-9114 Always prefix constants with 'co_'.
G-9115 Always prefix subtypes with 'type'.

These prefixes and suffixes can be customized by using a file. This file must be placed in the user's home directory ($HOME for Linux or macOS and %HOMEDRIVE%%HOMEPATH% for Windows). If a property is omitted it will fall back to the default value (see table above).

Here's an example of the file content using default values for all properties:



This is a simple validator to check the following naming convention guidelines:

Guideline Message
G-9001 Always prefix global variables with 'g_'.
G-9002 Always prefix local variables with 'l_'.
G-9003 Always prefix parameters with 'p_'.

This validator checks just these three guidelines. It does not extend the Trivadis PL/SQL & SQL Coding Guidelines.


This validator implements the following guideline:

Guideline Message
G-9501 Never use parameter in string expression of dynamic SQL. Use asserted local variable instead.

It looks for unasserted parameters used in EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statements and OPEN FOR statements. All parameters used in these statements must be asserted with one of the subprograms provided by DBMS_ASSERT.

See example


This validator implements the following guidelines:

Guideline Message
G-9600 Never define more than one comment with hints.
G-9601 Never use unknown hints.
G-9602 Always use the alias name instead of the table name.
G-9603 Never reference an unknown table/alias.

Only the first comment containing hints is considered by the optimizer, therefore all hints violating G-9600 are treated as ordinary comments by the Oracle Database.

Using unknown hints might invalidate all subsequent hints. This happens when you use for example NOLOGGING. That's expected and not a bug. See MOS note 285285.1 or bug 8432870 for details. So, do not ignore G-9601 violations.

There are various hints that reference a table. The validator checks if the reference is valid. If an alias is defined for a table, but the table name is used in the hint then a G-9602 violation is reported. If the table reference in the hint is neither a table name nor an alias then a G-9603 violation is thrown. These violations should not be ignored either.

However, the vadiator ignores the optional query block in the hint and assumes that all table references belong to the current query block. As a result some false positives are possible. Furthermore references to a table in a query block (e.g. emp@qb1) are not checked. This might lead to some false negatives.


This validator shows how existing guideline checks can be overridden.

The following guideline is overriden:

Guideline Message
G-1050 Avoid using literals in your code.

Literals as part of a Logger package call are not reported (see also issue 8).


This validator combines the validators

This way you can deal with an unbound number of validators without comproming the maintainablity.

Use in db* CODECOP

  1. Download db* CODECOP Command Line

    Download db* CODECOP Command Line from here.

  2. Install db* CODECOP Command Line

    • Uncompress the distributed db* CODECOP archive file (e.g. into a folder of your choice (hereinafter referred to as TVDCC_HOME). I use /usr/local/bin/tvdcc for TVDCC_HOME on my MacBook Pro.

    • For Windows platforms only: Amend the settings for JAVA_HOME in the tvdcc.cmd file to meet your environment settings. Use at least a Java 8 runtime environment (JRE) or development kit (JDK).

    • Include TVDCC_HOME in your PATH environment variable for handy interactive usage.

    • Optionally copy your commercial license file into the TVDCC_HOME directory. For simplicity name the file tvdcc.lic.

  3. Download Custom Validators

    Download sonar-plsql-cop-custom-validators-plugin-4.x.x.jar from here.

  4. Install Custom Validators

    Copy the previously downloaded jar file into the plugin folder of your TVDCC_HOME folder.

  5. Run db* CODECOP with a Custom Validator

    Open a terminal window, change to the TVDCC_HOME directory and run the following command to all files in $HOME/github/utPLSQL/source with the custom validator com.trivadis.tvdcc.validators.TrivadisGuidelines3Plus:

    ./ path=$HOME/github/utPLSQL/source validator=com.trivadis.tvdcc.validators.TrivadisGuidelines3Plus

    The tvdcc_report.html file contain the results. Here's an excerpt:

    db* CODECOP Report - File Issues

Use in db* CODECOP for SQL Developer

  1. Install db* CODECOP Command Line

    As explained above.

  2. Download db* CODECOP for SQL Developer

    Download db* CODECOP for SQL Developer from here.

  3. Install db* CODECOP for SQL Developer

    • Start SQL Developer
    • Select Check for Updates… in the help menu.
    • Use the Install From Local File(s) option to install the previously downloaded TVDCC_for_SQLDev-*.zip file.
    • Restart SQL Developer
  4. Configure Validator

    Configure the validator in SQL Developer as shown in the following screenshot:


  5. Check Code

    Open the code to be checked in an editor and select Check from the context menu.


    The check result is shown by default at the bottom of your SQL Developer workspace.


Use in db* CODECOP for SonarQube

  1. Install SonarQube

    See documentation.

  2. Install Standalone or Secondary Plugin

    See documentation.

  3. Install Child Plugin (Custom Validator Plugin)

    Download the sonar-plsql-cop-custom-validators-plugin-x.x.x.jar from releases. Then copy it to the extensions/plugins folder of your SonarQube installation and restart the SonarQube server.

  4. Configure Validator Config Class

    Login as Administrator in SonarQube. Go to Administration. Select General Settings from Configuration and click on db* CODECOP. Type one of the following into the Validator Config class field:

    • com.trivadis.sonar.plugin.GLPValidatorConfig
    • com.trivadis.sonar.plugin.TrivadisGuidelines3PlusValidatorConfig
  5. Restart SonarQube

    Select System in the Administration menu and click on Restart Server.

  6. Run Analysis

    Start an analysis from the command line as follows (see docs for more information):

    cd $HOME/github/trivadis/plsql-cop-validators/src/main/resources
    sonar-scanner -Dsonar.projectKey="plsql-cop-validators"

    By default the source code in the current directory is analyzed. Here's the result:

    SonarQube Issues in Code

How to Build

  1. Install db* CODECOP Command Line

    As explained above.

  2. Install Maven

    Download and install Apache Maven 3.6.3

  3. Clone the cop-validators repository

    Clone or download this repository.

  4. Build validator jar file

    Open a terminal window in the cop-validators root folder and maven build by the following command

     mvn -Dtvdcc.basedir=/usr/local/bin/tvdcc clean package

    Amend the parameter tvdcc.basedir to match your TVDCC_HOME directory. This folder is used to reference db* CODECOP jar files which are not available in public Maven repositories


Please file your bug reports, enhancement requests, questions and other support requests within Github's issue tracker.


The db* CODECOP Validators are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. You may obtain a copy of the License at