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The original selectivity of 1.0 - 1.0/ndv makes sense for
large NDVs, but the result is 0.0 in case of ndv==1, which
leads to a cardinality of 1 even for huge tables. The new
selectivity is 0.5.

Note that as the formula for = is not changed (1.0/ndv),
NOT col="const" will still lead to 0.0 selectivity if ndv=1.
Changing the formula of NOT or = would have caused a lot of
subtle changes in plans in tests, so I don't want to touch
those before coming to wider agreement about the correct

IMPALA-7601 contains some discussion about these formulas.

- added a regression test

Change-Id: I6b5334a8d7d6ca46a450ff98ae03e5269faaa3c6
Reviewed-by: Impala Public Jenkins <>
Tested-by: Impala Public Jenkins <>


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Welcome to Impala

Lightning-fast, distributed SQL queries for petabytes of data stored in Apache Hadoop clusters.

Impala is a modern, massively-distributed, massively-parallel, C++ query engine that lets you analyze, transform and combine data from a variety of data sources:

  • Best of breed performance and scalability.
  • Support for data stored in HDFS, Apache HBase, Apache Kudu, Amazon S3, Azure Data Lake Storage, Apache Hadoop Ozone and more!
  • Wide analytic SQL support, including window functions and subqueries.
  • On-the-fly code generation using LLVM to generate lightning-fast code tailored specifically to each individual query.
  • Support for the most commonly-used Hadoop file formats, including Apache Parquet and Apache ORC.
  • Support for industry-standard security protocols, including Kerberos, LDAP and TLS.
  • Apache-licensed, 100% open source.

More about Impala

The fastest way to try out Impala is a quickstart Docker container. You can try out running queries and processing data sets in Impala on a single machine without installing dependencies. It can automatically load test data sets into Apache Kudu and Apache Parquet formats and you can start playing around with Apache Impala SQL within minutes.

To learn more about Impala as a user or administrator, or to try Impala, please visit the Impala homepage. Detailed documentation for administrators and users is available at Apache Impala documentation.

If you are interested in contributing to Impala as a developer, or learning more about Impala's internals and architecture, visit the Impala wiki.

Supported Platforms

Impala only supports Linux at the moment. Impala supports x86_64 and has experimental support for arm64 (as of Impala 4.0). Impala Requirements contains more detailed information on the minimum CPU requirements.

Supported OS Distributions

Impala runs on Linux systems only. The supported distros are

  • Ubuntu 16.04/18.04
  • CentOS/RHEL 7/8

Other systems, e.g. SLES12, may also be supported but are not tested by the community.

Export Control Notice

This distribution uses cryptographic software and may be subject to export controls. Please refer to for more information.

Build Instructions

See Impala's developer documentation to get started.

Detailed build notes has some detailed information on the project layout and build.