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Test Platform

OS:Mac OS X
JVM:Oracle Corporation 1.8.0_91
CPU:2.8 GHz Intel Core i7 os-arch:Darwin Kernel Version 15.5.0
Cores (incl HT):8

Disclaimer

This test focusses on en/decoding of a cyclefree data structure, but the featureset of the libraries compared differs a lot:

  • some serializers support cycle detection/object sharing others just write non-cyclic tree structures

  • some include full metadata in serialized output, some don’t

  • some are cross platform, some are language specific

  • some are text based, some are binary,

  • some support versioning forward/backward, both, some don’t

(See ToolBehavior)
Other test data will yield different results (e.g. adding a non ascii char to every string :-) ). However the results give a raw estimation of library performance.

Serializers (no shared refs)

Benchmarks serializers

  • Only cycle free tree structures. An object referenced twice will be serialized twice.

  • no manual optimizations.

  • schema is known in advance (pre registration or even class generation). (Not all might make use of that)

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)


Size, Compressed size [light] in bytes


                                   create     ser   deser   total   size  dfl
colfer 49 248 396 643 238 148
protostuff 68 433 634 1067 239 150
minified-json/dsl-platform 46 432 684 1116 353 197
fst-flat-pre 53 501 675 1175 251 165
json/dsl-platform 44 526 806 1332 485 261
json-array/fastjson/databind 53 650 696 1345 281 163
kryo-flat-pre 54 597 758 1355 212 132
smile-col/jackson/databind 54 723 1082 1805 252 165
msgpack/databind 54 796 1052 1848 233 146
cbor-col/jackson/databind 54 732 1147 1879 251 165
protobuf 121 1173 719 1891 239 149
smile/jackson
afterburner/databind 54 913 1175 2088 352 252
thrift-compact 97 1280 808 2088 240 148
cbor/jackson+afterburner/databind 53 888 1239 2126 397 246
flatbuffers 56 1417 758 2175 432 226
thrift 95 1455 731 2186 349 197
json-col/jackson/databind 53 887 1329 2216 293 178
json/fastjson/databind 53 1058 1241 2299 486 262
smile/jackson/databind 53 1011 1300 2311 338 241
scala/sbinary 442 1311 1069 2381 255 147
capnproto 55 1574 979 2553 400 204
json/jackson+afterburner/databind 52 1094 1489 2584 485 261
cbor/jackson/databind 53 1023 1561 2585 397 246
json/protostuff-runtime 54 1353 1632 2986 469 243
json/jackson/databind 54 1164 1866 3030 485 261
json/jackson-jr/databind 53 1426 1962 3389 468 255
xml/jackson/databind 54 2639 4720 7359 683 286
json/gson/databind 56 4667 4403 9070 486 259
bson/jackson/databind 54 4105 5449 9554 506 286
xml/xstream+c 52 4383 9434 13817 487 244
json/javax-tree/glassfish 1249 6818 10284 17102 485 263
xml/exi-manual 54 11375 9891 21266 337 327
java-built-in 53 5046 23279 28325 889 514
scala/java-built-in 514 8280 36105 44385 1293 698
json/protobuf 123 6630 56787 63417 488 253
json/json-lib/databind 61 19853 71969 91822 485 263

Full Object Graph Serializers

Contains serializer(-configurations)

  • supporting full object graph write/read. Object graph may contain cycles. If an Object is referenced twice, it will be so after deserialization.

  • nothing is known in advance, no class generation, no preregistering of classes. Everything is captured at runtime using e.g. reflection.

  • note this usually cannot be used cross language, however JSON/XML formats may enable cross language deserialization.

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)


Size, Compressed size [light] in bytes


                                   create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
protostuff-graph 70 691 750 1441 239 150
protostuff-graph-runtime 60 772 799 1571 241 151
kryo-serializer 53 1480 1331 2810 286 188
fst 53 1511 1318 2830 316 203
jboss-marshalling-river-ct 54 2470 1753 4223 298 199
hessian 54 2842 4622 7464 501 313
jboss-serialization 61 5547 5894 11441 932 582
xml/JAXB/aalto 55 4404 9418 13822 702 318
jboss-marshalling-river 53 3538 20025 23563 694 400
jboss-marshalling-serial 54 8524 19178 27702 856 498
stephenerialization 56 5595 23143 28739 1093 515
json/flexjson/databind 53 10869 18507 29376 503 273
java-built-in-serializer 55 5501 26263 31764 889 514
yaml/jackson/databind 53 17163 25436 42599 505 260
xml/JAXB 54 4354 141333 145686 719 329

Cross Lang Binary Serializers

Contains serializer(-configurations)

  • Only cycle free tree structures. An object referenced twice will be serialized twice.

  • schema is known in advance (pre registration, intermediate message description languages, class generation).

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)


Size, Compressed size [light] in bytes


                                   create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
colfer 49 248 396 643 238 148
protobuf/protostuff 63 461 633 1094 239 149
protobuf/protostuff-runtime 52 518 701 1218 241 150
msgpack/databind 54 796 1052 1848 233 146
protobuf 121 1173 719 1891 239 149
thrift-compact 97 1280 808 2088 240 148
flatbuffers 56 1417 758 2175 432 226
thrift 95 1455 731 2186 349 197
capnproto 55 1574 979 2553 400 204
cbor/jackson/databind 53 1023 1561 2585 397 246
hessian 54 2842 4622 7464 501 313
bson/jackson/databind 54 4105 5449 9554 506 286

XML/JSon Serializers

  • text format based. Usually can be read by anybody. Frequently inline schema inside data.
  • Mixed regarding required preparation, object graph awareness (references).

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)


Size, Compressed size [light] in bytes


                                   create     ser   deser   total   size  dfl
minified-json/dsl-platform 46 432 684 1116 353 197
json/dsl-platform 44 526 806 1332 485 261
json-array/fastjson/databind 53 650 696 1345 281 163
smile-col/jackson/databind 54 723 1082 1805 252 165
cbor-col/jackson/databind 54 732 1147 1879 251 165
json-col/jackson/databind 53 887 1329 2216 293 178
json/fastjson/databind 53 1058 1241 2299 486 262
json/protostuff-runtime 54 1353 1632 2986 469 243
json/jackson/databind 54 1164 1866 3030 485 261
json/jackson-jr/databind 53 1426 1962 3389 468 255
xml/jackson/databind 54 2639 4720 7359 683 286
json/gson/databind 56 4667 4403 9070 486 259
xml/xstream
c 52 4383 9434 13817 487 244
xml/JAXB/aalto 55 4404 9418 13822 702 318
json/javax-tree/glassfish 1249 6818 10284 17102 485 263
xml/exi-manual 54 11375 9891 21266 337 327
json/flexjson/databind 53 10869 18507 29376 503 273
yaml/jackson/databind 53 17163 25436 42599 505 260
json/protobuf 123 6630 56787 63417 488 253
json/json-lib/databind 61 19853 71969 91822 485 263
xml/JAXB 54 4354 141333 145686 719 329

Manually optimized Serializers

all flavours of manually optimized serializers. Handcoded and hardwired to exactly the benchmark’s message structures.

  • illustrates what’s possible, at what level generic approaches can be optimized in case

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)


Size, Compressed size [light] in bytes


                                   create     ser   deser   total   size  dfl
kryo-manual 54 462 524 986 211 131
protostuff-manual 58 406 660 1065 239 150
datakernel 60 571 506 1077 225 133
kryo-opt 53 510 617 1127 209 129
wobly 38 699 525 1224 251 151
wobly-compact 37 721 537 1258 225 139
java-manual 53 729 636 1365 255 147
smile/jackson/manual 53 804 969 1773 341 244
msgpack/manual 53 819 1073 1893 233 146
cbor/jackson/manual 52 878 1075 1954 386 238
json/jackson/manual 52 1039 1228 2267 468 253
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual 53 1315 979 2294 289 167
avro-generic 329 1721 984 2704 221 133
json/protostuff-manual 53 1287 1581 2868 449 233
avro-specific 78 1795 1229 3024 221 133
xml/aalto-manual 52 1714 2426 4140 653 304
xml/woodstox-manual 62 2163 3531 5693 653 304
jboss-marshalling-river-manual 54 1516 4607 6123 483 240
json/gson/manual 53 2936 3641 6577 468 253
json/json-smart/manual-tree 53 4499 3430 7930 495 265
xml/javolution/manual 52 3803 5755 9558 504 263
xml/xstream
c-aalto 54 3310 6732 10042 525 273
json/gson/manual-tree 56 4836 5471 10307 485 259
xml/fastinfo-manual 53 6326 4144 10470 377 284
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo 53 5699 5246 10944 345 264
bson/mongodb/manual 56 2764 8215 10979 495 278
xml/xstream+c-woodstox 54 3937 7410 11347 525 273
json/org.json/manual-tree 53 5468 6904 12372 485 259
json/json.simple/manual 53 5627 7586 13213 495 265
json/javax-stream/glassfish 54 4821 8992 13813 468 253
json/svenson/databind 54 3946 11640 15586 495 267
json/jsonij/manual-jpath 53 20047 9726 29773 478 257
json/argo/manual-tree 53 56073 12539 68612 485 263

Cost of features

shows performance vs convenience of manually-selected libs.

  • cycle free, schema known at compile time, manual optimization: kryo-manual, msgpack/manual

  • cycle free, schema known at compile time: protostuff, fst-flat-pre, kryo-flat-pre. (note: protostuff uses class generation while the other two just require a list of classes to be written)

  • cycle free, schema UNKNOWN at compile time: fst-flat, kryo-flat, protostuff-runtime, msgpack/databind

  • full object graph awareness, schema UNKNOWN at compile time: fst, kryo.

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)


Size, Compressed size [light] in bytes


                                   create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
kryo-manual 54 462 524 986 211 131
protostuff 68 433 634 1067 239 150
fst-flat-pre 53 501 675 1175 251 165
protostuff-runtime 70 522 727 1249 241 151
kryo-flat-pre 54 597 758 1355 212 132
kryo-flat 55 705 909 1614 268 177
msgpack/databind 54 796 1052 1848 233 146
fst-flat 53 804 1088 1892 314 204
msgpack/manual 53 819 1073 1893 233 146
kryo-serializer 53 1480 1331 2810 286 188
fst 53 1511 1318 2830 316 203

Full data

                                   create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
colfer                                 49     248     396     643    238   148
kryo-manual                            54     462     524     986    211   131
protostuff-manual                      58     406     660    1065    239   150
protostuff                             68     433     634    1067    239   150
datakernel                             60     571     506    1077    225   133
protobuf/protostuff                    63     461     633    1094    239   149
minified-json/dsl-platform             46     432     684    1116    353   197
kryo-opt                               53     510     617    1127    209   129
fst-flat-pre                           53     501     675    1175    251   165
protobuf/protostuff-runtime            52     518     701    1218    241   150
wobly                                  38     699     525    1224    251   151
protostuff-runtime                     70     522     727    1249    241   151
wobly-compact                          37     721     537    1258    225   139
json/dsl-platform                      44     526     806    1332    485   261
json-array/fastjson/databind           53     650     696    1345    281   163
kryo-flat-pre                          54     597     758    1355    212   132
java-manual                            53     729     636    1365    255   147
protostuff-graph                       70     691     750    1441    239   150
protostuff-graph-runtime               60     772     799    1571    241   151
kryo-flat                              55     705     909    1614    268   177
smile/jackson/manual                   53     804     969    1773    341   244
smile-col/jackson/databind             54     723    1082    1805    252   165
msgpack/databind                       54     796    1052    1848    233   146
cbor-col/jackson/databind              54     732    1147    1879    251   165
protobuf                              121    1173     719    1891    239   149
fst-flat                               53     804    1088    1892    314   204
msgpack/manual                         53     819    1073    1893    233   146
cbor/jackson/manual                    52     878    1075    1954    386   238
smile/jackson+afterburner/databind     54     913    1175    2088    352   252
thrift-compact                         97    1280     808    2088    240   148
cbor/jackson+afterburner/databind      53     888    1239    2126    397   246
flatbuffers                            56    1417     758    2175    432   226
thrift                                 95    1455     731    2186    349   197
json-col/jackson/databind              53     887    1329    2216    293   178
json/jackson/manual                    52    1039    1228    2267    468   253
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual      53    1315     979    2294    289   167
json/fastjson/databind                 53    1058    1241    2299    486   262
smile/jackson/databind                 53    1011    1300    2311    338   241
scala/sbinary                         442    1311    1069    2381    255   147
capnproto                              55    1574     979    2553    400   204
json/jackson+afterburner/databind      52    1094    1489    2584    485   261
cbor/jackson/databind                  53    1023    1561    2585    397   246
avro-generic                          329    1721     984    2704    221   133
kryo-serializer                        53    1480    1331    2810    286   188
fst                                    53    1511    1318    2830    316   203
json/protostuff-manual                 53    1287    1581    2868    449   233
json/protostuff-runtime                54    1353    1632    2986    469   243
avro-specific                          78    1795    1229    3024    221   133
json/jackson/databind                  54    1164    1866    3030    485   261
json/jackson-jr/databind               53    1426    1962    3389    468   255
xml/aalto-manual                       52    1714    2426    4140    653   304
jboss-marshalling-river-ct             54    2470    1753    4223    298   199
xml/woodstox-manual                    62    2163    3531    5693    653   304
jboss-marshalling-river-manual         54    1516    4607    6123    483   240
json/gson/manual                       53    2936    3641    6577    468   253
xml/jackson/databind                   54    2639    4720    7359    683   286
hessian                                54    2842    4622    7464    501   313
json/json-smart/manual-tree            53    4499    3430    7930    495   265
json/gson/databind                     56    4667    4403    9070    486   259
bson/jackson/databind                  54    4105    5449    9554    506   286
xml/javolution/manual                  52    3803    5755    9558    504   263
xml/xstream+c-aalto                    54    3310    6732   10042    525   273
json/gson/manual-tree                  56    4836    5471   10307    485   259
xml/fastinfo-manual                    53    6326    4144   10470    377   284
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo                 53    5699    5246   10944    345   264
bson/mongodb/manual                    56    2764    8215   10979    495   278
xml/xstream+c-woodstox                 54    3937    7410   11347    525   273
jboss-serialization                    61    5547    5894   11441    932   582
json/org.json/manual-tree              53    5468    6904   12372    485   259
json/json.simple/manual                53    5627    7586   13213    495   265
json/javax-stream/glassfish            54    4821    8992   13813    468   253
xml/xstream+c                          52    4383    9434   13817    487   244
xml/JAXB/aalto                         55    4404    9418   13822    702   318
json/svenson/databind                  54    3946   11640   15586    495   267
json/javax-tree/glassfish            1249    6818   10284   17102    485   263
xml/exi-manual                         54   11375    9891   21266    337   327
jboss-marshalling-river                53    3538   20025   23563    694   400
jboss-marshalling-serial               54    8524   19178   27702    856   498
java-built-in                          53    5046   23279   28325    889   514
stephenerialization                    56    5595   23143   28739   1093   515
json/flexjson/databind                 53   10869   18507   29376    503   273
json/jsonij/manual-jpath               53   20047    9726   29773    478   257
java-built-in-serializer               55    5501   26263   31764    889   514
yaml/jackson/databind                  53   17163   25436   42599    505   260
scala/java-built-in                   514    8280   36105   44385   1293   698
json/protobuf                         123    6630   56787   63417    488   253
json/argo/manual-tree                  53   56073   12539   68612    485   263
json/json-lib/databind                 61   19853   71969   91822    485   263
xml/JAXB                               54    4354  141333  145686    719   329
                                   Effort          Format         Structure  Misc
colfer                             CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  [] generated code                                           
kryo-manual                        MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] manually optimized                                       
protostuff-manual                  MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] manual                                                   
protostuff                         CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] generated code                                           
datakernel                         MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] manually optimized                                       
protobuf/protostuff                CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  [] protobuf + generated code                                
minified-json/dsl-platform         CLASSES_KNOWN   JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] JSON with minified property names and without default values.
kryo-opt                           MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] manually optimized                                       
fst-flat-pre                       CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] fst in unshared mode with preregistered classes          
protobuf/protostuff-runtime        ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  [] protobuf + reflection                                    
wobly                              MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
protostuff-runtime                 ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] reflection                                               
wobly-compact                      MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/dsl-platform                  CLASSES_KNOWN   JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] Serializes all properties with exact names.              
json-array/fastjson/databind       ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
kryo-flat-pre                      CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] no shared refs, preregistered classes                    
java-manual                        MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
protostuff-graph                   CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] graph + generated code                                   
protostuff-graph-runtime           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] graph + reflection                                       
kryo-flat                          ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] default, no shared refs                                  
smile/jackson/manual               MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
smile-col/jackson/databind         ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] uses positional (column) layout to eliminate use of names
msgpack/databind                   CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  [] uses positional (column) layout (instead of Maps std impl uses) to eliminate use of names
cbor-col/jackson/databind          ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] uses positional (column) layout to eliminate use of names
protobuf                           CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
fst-flat                           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] fst default, but unshared mode                           
msgpack/manual                     MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  [] uses positional (column) layout (instead of Maps std impl uses) to eliminate use of names
cbor/jackson/manual                MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
smile/jackson+afterburner/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] uses bytecode generation to reduce overhead              
thrift-compact                     CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
cbor/jackson+afterburner/databind  ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] uses bytecode generation to reduce overhead              
flatbuffers                        CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
thrift                             CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json-col/jackson/databind          ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] uses positional (column) layout to eliminate use of names
json/jackson/manual                MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual  MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] full graph preregistered classes, manual optimization    
json/fastjson/databind             ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
smile/jackson/databind             ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
scala/sbinary                      MISC            MISC           UNKNOWN    [] null                                                     
capnproto                          CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/jackson+afterburner/databind  ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] uses bytecode generation to reduce overhead              
cbor/jackson/databind              ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
avro-generic                       MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
kryo-serializer                    ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] default                                                  
fst                                ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] default: JDK serialization drop-in-replacement mode      
json/protostuff-manual             MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] json + manual                                            
json/protostuff-runtime            ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] json + reflection                                        
avro-specific                      MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  UNKNOWN    []                                                          
json/jackson/databind              ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/jackson-jr/databind           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/aalto-manual                   MANUAL_OPT      XML            UNKNOWN    []                                                          
jboss-marshalling-river-ct         CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] full graph with preregistered classes                    
xml/woodstox-manual                MANUAL_OPT      XML            UNKNOWN    []                                                          
jboss-marshalling-river-manual     MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] full graph with manual optimizations                     
json/gson/manual                   MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/jackson/databind               ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
hessian                            ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BIN_CROSSLANG  FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
json/json-smart/manual-tree        MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/gson/databind                 ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
bson/jackson/databind              CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/javolution/manual              MANUAL_OPT      XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/xstream+c-aalto                MANUAL_OPT      XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/gson/manual-tree              MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/fastinfo-manual                MANUAL_OPT      XML            UNKNOWN    []                                                          
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo             MANUAL_OPT      XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
bson/mongodb/manual                MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/xstream+c-woodstox             MANUAL_OPT      XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
jboss-serialization                ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
json/org.json/manual-tree          MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/json.simple/manual            MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/javax-stream/glassfish        MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/xstream+c                      ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/JAXB/aalto                     CLASSES_KNOWN   XML            FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
json/svenson/databind              MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/javax-tree/glassfish          ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/exi-manual                     ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  XML            UNKNOWN    []                                                          
jboss-marshalling-river            ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] full graph zero knowledge                                
jboss-marshalling-serial           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
java-built-in                      ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
stephenerialization                ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] null                                                     
json/flexjson/databind             ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
json/jsonij/manual-jpath           MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
java-built-in-serializer           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
yaml/jackson/databind              ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
scala/java-built-in                MISC            MISC           UNKNOWN    [] null                                                     
json/protobuf                      CLASSES_KNOWN   JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/argo/manual-tree              MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/json-lib/databind             ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/JAXB                           CLASSES_KNOWN   XML            FULL_GRAPH []