Hamcrest test assertions for Swift
Swift Ruby
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.

README.md

Swift Hamcrest

Hamcrest gives you advanced matchers with better error messages for your Swift unit tests.

Hamcrest was originally written in Java and is available for many languages.

Swift 3.0 OS X ≥ 10.9 iOS ≥ 7.0 Carthage compatible CocoaPods compatible

Build Status

Tutorial

This tutorial is also available as a Playground in the Hamcrest workspace.

Normally, you use these matchers in unit tests, where a mismatch will cause the test to fail, but they also work in Playgrounds, where a mismatch will simply print the error message.

In either case, the Hamcrest module needs to be imported.

import Hamcrest

Operator Matchers

The following are very simply matchers. The matched expressions look like regular boolean expressions, but provide readable mismatch messages instead of a generic error.

let x = 1 + 1

// The comments show the human-readable error messages created by the assertions.

assertThat(x == 2) //
assertThat(x == 3) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: equal to 3

assertThat(x > 1) //
assertThat(x > 2) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: greater than 2

assertThat(x >= 2) //
assertThat(x >= 3) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: greater than or equal to 3

assertThat(x < 3) //
assertThat(x < 2) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: less than 2

assertThat(x <= 2) //
assertThat(x <= 1) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: less than or equal to 1

class Test {}
let o = Test()
assertThat(o === o) //
assertThat(o === Test())
// GOT: __lldb_expr_8.Test (0x7f9572b020d0),
// EXPECTED: same instance as 0x7f9570c702a0

Textual Matchers

All these matchers are also available as functions.

assertThat(x, equalTo(2)) //
assertThat(x, equalTo(3)) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: equal to 3

assertThat(x, greaterThan(1)) //
assertThat(x, greaterThan(2)) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: greater than 2

assertThat(x, greaterThanOrEqualTo(2)) //
assertThat(x, greaterThanOrEqualTo(3))
// GOT: 2, EXPECTED: greater than or equal to 3

assertThat(x, lessThan(3)) //
assertThat(x, lessThan(2)) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: less than 2

assertThat(x, lessThanOrEqualTo(2)) //
assertThat(x, lessThanOrEqualTo(1))
// GOT: 2, EXPECTED: less than or equal to 1

assertThat(x, inInterval(1...2)) //
assertThat(x, inInterval(1..<2)) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: in interval 1..<2

assertThat(o, sameInstance(o)) //
assertThat(o, sameInstance(Test()))
// GOT: __lldb_expr_53.Test, EXPECTED: same instance as __lldb_expr_53.Test

Here are some more straightforward matchers:

assertThat("foobarbaz", containsString("bar")) //
assertThat("foobarbaz", containsString("bla"))
// GOT: "foobarbaz", EXPECTED: contains "bla"

assertThat("foobarbaz", containsStringsInOrder("f", "b", "b")) //
assertThat("foobarbaz", containsStringsInOrder("foo", "baz", "bar"))
// GOT: "foobarbaz", EXPECTED: contains in order ["foo", "baz", "bar"]

assertThat("foobarbaz", hasPrefix("foo")) //
assertThat("foobarbaz", hasPrefix("oo"))
// GOT: "foobarbaz", EXPECTED: has prefix "oo"

assertThat("foobarbaz", hasSuffix("baz")) //
assertThat("foobarbaz", hasSuffix("ba"))
// GOT: "foobarbaz", EXPECTED: has suffix "ba"

assertThat("ac", matchesPattern("\\b(a|b)(c|d)\\b")) //
assertThat("BD", matchesPattern("\\b(a|b)(c|d)\\b", options: .caseInsensitive)) //
assertThat("aC", matchesPattern("\\b(a|b)(c|d)\\b"))
// "GOT: "aC", EXPECTED: matches \b(a|b)(c|d)\b"

assertThat(10.0, closeTo(10.0, 0.01)) //
assertThat(10.0000001, closeTo(10, 0.01)) //
assertThat(10.1, closeTo(10, 0.01))
// GOT: 10.1 (difference of 0.0999999999999996), EXPECTED: within 0.01 of 10.0

import Foundation
assertThat(CGPoint(x: 5, y: 10), hasProperty("x", closeTo(5.0, 0.00001))) //
assertThat(CGPoint(x: 5, y: 10), hasProperty("y", closeTo(0.0, 0.00001)))
// GOT: (5.0,10.0) (property value 10.0 (difference of 10.0)),
// EXPECTED: has property "y" with value within 1e-05 of 0.0

Combining Matchers

The real power of Hamcrest comes combining multiple matchers into a single assertion statement.

assertThat(x, not(equalTo(3))) //
assertThat(x, not(equalTo(2))) // GOT: 2, EXPECTED: not equal to 2

assertThat(x, allOf(greaterThan(1), lessThan(3))) //
assertThat(x, allOf(greaterThan(2), lessThan(3)))
// GOT: 2 (mismatch: greater than 2),
// EXPECTED: all of [greater than 2, greater than 3]

assertThat(x, greaterThan(1) && lessThan(3)) //
assertThat(x, greaterThan(2) && lessThan(3))
// GOT: 2 (mismatch: greater than 2),
// EXPECTED: all of [greater than 2, greater than 3]

assertThat(x, anyOf(greaterThan(2), lessThan(3))) //
assertThat(x, anyOf(greaterThan(2), lessThan(2)))
// GOT: 2, EXPECTED: any of [greater than 2, greater than 2]

assertThat(x, greaterThan(2) || lessThan(3)) //
assertThat(x, greaterThan(2) || lessThan(2))
// GOT: 2, EXPECTED: any of [greater than 2, greater than 2]

Collections

Combining matchers is particularly useful for matching sequences and dictionaries.

let array = ["foo", "bar"]

assertThat(array, hasCount(2)) //
assertThat(array, hasCount(greaterThan(2)))
// GOT: [foo, bar] (count 2), EXPECTED: has count greater than 2

assertThat(array, everyItem(equalTo("foo")))
// GOT: [foo, bar] (mismatch: bar),
// EXPECTED: a sequence where every item equal to foo

assertThat(array, contains("foo", "bar")) //
assertThat(array, contains(equalTo("foo"), equalTo("bar"))) //
assertThat(array, contains(equalTo("foo")))
// GOT: [foo, bar] (unmatched item "bar"),
// EXPECTED: a sequence containing equal to foo
assertThat(array, contains(equalTo("foo"), equalTo("baz")))
// "GOT: [foo, bar] (mismatch: GOT: "bar", EXPECTED: equal to baz),
// EXPECTED: a sequence containing [equal to foo, equal to baz]"
assertThat(array, contains(equalTo("foo"), equalTo("bar"), equalTo("baz")))
// GOT: [foo, bar] (missing item equal to baz),
// EXPECTED: a sequence containing [equal to foo, equal to bar, equal to baz]

assertThat(array, containsInAnyOrder("bar", "foo")) //
assertThat(array, containsInAnyOrder(equalTo("bar"), equalTo("foo"))) //

assertThat(array, hasItem(equalTo("foo"))) //
assertThat(array, hasItem(equalTo("baz")))
// GOT: [foo, bar], EXPECTED: a sequence containing equal to baz

assertThat(array, hasItems("foo", "bar")) //
assertThat(array, hasItems(equalTo("foo"), equalTo("baz")))
// GOT: [foo, bar] (missing item equal to baz),
// EXPECTED: a sequence containing all of [equal to foo, equal to baz]
let dictionary = ["foo": 5, "bar": 10]

assertThat(dictionary, hasEntry("foo", 5)) //
assertThat(dictionary, hasEntry(equalTo("foo"), equalTo(5))) //
assertThat(dictionary, hasEntry(equalTo("foo"), equalTo(10)))
// GOT: [bar: 10, foo: 5],
// EXPECTED: a dictionary containing [equal to foo -> equal to 10]

assertThat(dictionary, hasKey("foo")) //
assertThat(dictionary, hasKey(equalTo("baz")))
// GOT: [bar: 10, foo: 5],
// EXPECTED: a dictionary containing [equal to baz -> anything]

assertThat(dictionary, hasValue(10)) //
assertThat(dictionary, hasValue(equalTo(15)))
// GOT: [bar: 10, foo: 5],
// EXPECTED: a dictionary containing [anything -> equal to 15]

Optional types

Matchers don't expect optional types to match Swift's favoring of non-nilable types. presentAnd can be explicitly apply a matcher to an optional type.

var optional: Int = 1 + 1

assertThat(optional, present()) //
assertThat(optional, nilValue()) // GOT: Optional(2), EXPECTED: nil

assertThat(optional, presentAnd(equalTo(2))) //
assertThat(optional, presentAnd(equalTo(1)))
// GOT: Optional(2), EXPECTED: present and equal to 1

Types and Casts

The following matchers can be used to assert types. References of type Any need to be cast before typed matchers can be used. instanceOf(and:) can be used to combine type verification and casting.

class TestChild: Test {}
assertThat(o, instanceOf(Test.self)) //
assertThat(o, instanceOf(TestChild.self))
// GOT: __lldb_expr_60.Test, EXPECTED: instance of expected type

let any: Any = 10
assertThat(any, instanceOf(Int.self, and: equalTo(10))) //
assertThat(any, instanceOf(Double.self, and: equalTo(10.0)))
// GOT: 10 (mismatched type), EXPECTED: instance of and equal to 10.0
assertThat(any, instanceOf(Int.self, and: equalTo(5)))
// GOT: 10, EXPECTED: instance of and equal to 5

Custom Matchers

There are two ways of creating custom matchers. The first way is to create a function that simply returns a combination of existing matchers.

func isOnAxis<Point>() -> Matcher<Point> {
    return anyOf(hasProperty("x", closeTo(0.0, 0.00001)),
                 hasProperty("y", closeTo(0.0, 0.00001)))
}

assertThat(CGPoint(x: 0, y: 10), isOnAxis()) //
assertThat(CGPoint(x: 5, y: 10), isOnAxis())
// GOT: (5.0,10.0),
// EXPECTED: any of [has property "x" with value within 1e-05
// of 0.0, has property "y" with value within 1e-05 of 0.0]

You can use the special matcher describedAs to customize the description.

func isOnAxis2<Point>() -> Matcher<Point> {
    return describedAs("a point on an axis",
        anyOf(hasProperty("x", closeTo(0.0, 0.00001)),
              hasProperty("y", closeTo(0.0, 0.00001))))
}

assertThat(CGPoint(x: 0, y: 10), isOnAxis2()) //
assertThat(CGPoint(x: 5, y: 10), isOnAxis2())
// GOT: (5.0,10.0), EXPECTED: a point on an axis

The second way is to create a matcher from scratch. SwiftHamcrest particularly focuses on making this kind of custom matchers easy to write. In many Hamcrest implementations, you usually create a class for this. In SwiftHamcrest, you just create an instance of Matcher with a custom closure that takes a value and returns a Bool.

func isEven() -> Matcher<Int> {
    return Matcher("even") {$0 % 2 == 0}
}

assertThat(x, isEven()) //
assertThat(3, isEven()) // GOT: 3, EXPECTED: even

While a Bool is convenient (and sufficient in most cases), there are occasions where you want more information about the mismatch. Instead of a Bool you can also have the closure return a MatchResult enum. This is especially useful if the mismatch isn't obvious.

func isDivisibleByThree() -> Matcher<Int> {
    return Matcher("divisible by three") {
        (value) -> MatchResult in
        if value % 3 == 0 {
            return .Match
        } else {
            return .Mismatch("remainder: \(value % 3)")
        }
    }
}

assertThat(342783, isDivisibleByThree()) //
assertThat(489359, isDivisibleByThree())
// GOT: 489359 (remainder: 2), EXPECTED: divisible by three

Errors

If the function you're testing can throw errors, Hamcrest will report those errors.

private enum SampleError: Error {
    case Error1
    case Error2
}

private func throwingFunc() throws -> Int {
    throw SampleError.Error1
}

assertThat(try throwingFunc(), equalTo(1)) // ERROR: SampleError.Error1

If you want to verify an error is being thrown, use assertThrows.

private func notThrowingFunc() throws {
}

assertThrows(try notThrowingFunc()) // EXPECTED ERROR
assertThrows(try notThrowingFunc(), SampleError.Error2)
// EXPECTED ERROR: SampleError.Error2

assertThrows(try throwingFunc(), SampleError.Error2)
// GOT ERROR: SampleError.Error1, EXPECTED ERROR: SampleError.Error2

Integration

CocoaPods

Integrate SwiftHamcrest using a Podfile similar to this:

use_frameworks!

target 'HamcrestDemoTests', :exclusive => true do
  pod 'SwiftHamcrest', '~> 0.4'
end

Carthage

Add the following to your Cartfile:

github "nschum/SwiftHamcrest"