PGQL is an SQL-like query language for the Property Graph data model
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PGQL: a Property Graph Query Language

PGQL is an SQL-like query language for the property graph data model. See:

PGQL Parser and Static Query Validator

The 'master' branch of this reposistory contains a parser for PGQL with the following features:

  • Easy-to-understand IR: Given a query string, the parser returns an easy-to-understand intermedidate representation (IR) of the query as a set of Java objects

  • Query validation: built-in to the parser is a static query validator that provides meaningful caret-style (e.g. ^^^) error messages:

    Example 1

      FROM g
     MATCH (n) -[e]-> (m)
    Error(s) in line 1:
        Unresolved variable

    Example 2

    SELECT AVG(n.age), n
      FROM g
     MATCH (n:Person)
    Error(s) in line 1:
        SELECT AVG(n.age), n
        Aggregation expected here since SELECT has other aggregation

    Example 3

    SELECT AVG(AVG(n.age))
     FROM g
    MATCH (n:Person)
    Error(s) in line 1:
        SELECT AVG(AVG(n.age))
        Nested aggregation is not allowed
  • Pretty printing: invoking GraphQuery.toString() will "pretty print" the graph query, allow unformatted queries to be turned into formatted ones:

    (n:Person) WHERE = 'Anthony'
    OR = 'James'
     MATCH (n:person)
     WHERE = 'Anthony'
        OR = 'James'
  • Code completion: given a (partial) query string and a cursor position, the parser can suggest a set of code completions, including built-in functions, labels and properties. These completions can be used in e.g. a web editor. By providing the parser with metadata about the graph (existing properties and labels), the completions will also include label and property suggestions.

Build and Install the Parser

PGQL's parser can be built on Linux, Mac OS X and Window, and requires Java 1.8 or higher and Maven 3.3.9 or higher.

On Linux / Mac OS X:

  • To build and install to your local Maven repository, run sh

You can easily adapt the scripts to work with Windows.

Getting Started

First, build and install PGQL like explained above. Then, execute cd example; sh to parse two example queries:

public class Main {

  public static void main(String[] args) throws PgqlException {

    try (Pgql pgql = new Pgql()) {

      // parse query and print graph query
      PgqlResult result1 = pgql.parse("SELECT n FROM g MATCH (n:Person) -[e:likes]-> (m:Person) WHERE = 'Dave'");

      // parse query with errors and print error messages
      PgqlResult result2 = pgql.parse("SELECT x, y, WHERE (n) -[e]-> (m)");


The AST returned by the parser is a GraphQuery object. This would be the input to your query planner.


See PGQL 1.1 Specification.


  • Download Eclipse with Spoofax 2.4.1 pre-installed here
  • Import the following projects into Eclipse (File>Import...>Maven>Existing Maven Projects>Browse...):
    • graph-query-ir: Java representation of graph queries
    • pqgl-spoofax: Spoofax implementation of PGQL (parser + error checks)
    • pgql-lang: translation of Spoofax AST into graph-query-ir
  • Source code for PGQL's website can be found on the gh-pages branch of this repository


PGQL is an open source project. See Contributing for details.

Oracle gratefully acknowledges the contributions to PGQL made by the community.