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Welcome to libdragon

Libdragon is an open-source SDK for Nintendo 64. It aims for a complete N64 programming experience while providing programmers with modern approach to programming and debugging. These are the main features:

  • Based on modern GCC (12.1) and Newlib, for a full C11 programming experience. A Docker container is available to quickly set up the programming environment.
  • The GCC toolchain is 64 bit capable to be able to use the full R4300 capabilities (commercial games and libultra are based on a 32-bit ABI and is not possible to use 64-bit registers and opcodes with it)
  • Can be developed with newer-generation emulators (cen64, Ares, Dillonb's n64, m64p) or development cartridges (64drive, EverDrive64).
  • Support both vanilla N64 and iQue Player (chinese variant). The support is experimental and done fully at runtime, so it is possible to run ROMs built with libdragon on iQue without modifying the source code.
  • In-ROM filesystem implementation for assets. Assets can be loaded with fopen("rom://asset.dat") without having to do complex things to link them in.
  • Efficient interrupt-based timer library (also features a monotone 64-bit timer to avoid dealing with 32-bit overflows)
  • Graphics: easy-to-use API for 2D games, accelerated with RDP
  • Support for standard N64 controllers and memory paks.
  • Support for saving to flashes and EEPROMs (including a mini EEPROM filesystem to simplify serialization of structures).
  • Audio: advanced RSP-accelerated library, supporting up to 32 channels and streaming samples from ROM during playback for very low memory usage. Supports WAV files for sound effects and the XM (FastTracker, MilkyTracker, OpenMPT), and YM (Arkos Tracker 2) module formats for background music. Can playback a 10-channel XM with < 3% CPU and < 10% RSP.
  • Debugging aids: console (printf goes to screen) exception screen, many asserts (so that you get a nice error screen instead of a console lockup), fprintf(stderr) calls are redirected to your PC console in emulators and to USB via compatible tools (UNFLoader, g64drive).
  • Support to read/write to SD cards in development kits (64drive, EverDrive64), simply with fopen("sd://sdata.dat")
  • Simple and powerful Makefile-based build system for your ROMs and assets (

Getting started: how to build a ROM

Option 1: Use the libdragon CLI with Docker (Windows, macOS, Linux)

See the libdragon CLI to quickly get libdragon up and running. Basically:

  1. Make sure that you have Docker installed correctly (on Windows and Mac, use Docker Desktop). You can run docker system info to check that it is working correctly.

  2. Install the the libdragon CLI. You have two options:

    1. Download the pre-built binary, and copy it into some directory which is part of your system PATH.
    2. If you have npm installed (at least verstion 14), run npm install -g libdragon.
  3. Run libdragon init to create a skeleton project

  4. Run libdragon make to compile a build a ROM

If you want, you can also compile and run one of the examples that will be found in libdragon/examples in the skeleton project.

Option 2: Compile the toolchain (Linux/macOS only)

  1. Export the environment variable N64_INST to the path where you want your toolchain to be installed. For instance: export N64_INST=/opt/n64 or export N64_INST=/usr/local.
  2. Enter the tools directory. Read the comments at the top of ./ script to see what additional packages are needed. If you are on macOS, make sure homebrew is installed.
  3. Make sure you have at least 7 Gb of disk space available (notice that after build, only about 300 Mb will be used, but during build a lot of space is required).
  4. Run ./ from the tools directory, let it build and install the toolchain. The process will take a while depending on your computer (1 hour is not unexpected).
  5. Install libpng-dev if not already installed.
  6. Make sure that you still have the N64_INST variable pointing to the correct directory where the toolchain was installed (echo $N64_INST).
  7. Run ./ at the top-level. This will install libdragon, its tools, and also build all examples.

You are now ready to run the examples on your N64 or emulator.

Once you are sure everything is fine, you can delete the tools/toolchain/ directory, where the toolchain was built. This will free around 6Gb of space. You will only need the installed binaries in the N64_INST from now on.

Getting started: how to run a ROM

Using emulators

libdragon requires a modern N64 emulator (the first generation of emulators are basically HLE-only and can only play the old commercial games). Suggested emulators for homebrew developemnt are: Ares, cen64, dgb-n64, m64p.

On all the above emulators, you are also able to see in console anything printed via fprintf(stderr), see the debug library for more information.

Using a development cartridge on a real N64

All cartridges that are able to load custom ROMs should be able to successfully load libdragon ROMs via either USB/serial, or from a MMC/SD card. For instance, the followig are known to work: 64drive, EverDrive64 (all models), SummerCart 64.

If your cartridge has USB support, use one of the loaders that implement the libdragon debugging protocol, so to be able to show logs in console. For instance, UNFLoader, g64drive, ed64. The official loaders provided by the vendors are usually less feature-rich.