A Ruby Library for dealing with money and currency conversion.
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RubyMoney - Money

Gem Version Build Status Code Climate Coverage Status Inline docs Dependency Status License

⚠️ Please read the migration notes before upgrading to a new major version.

If you miss String parsing, check out the new monetize gem.


See the Contribution Guidelines


A Ruby Library for dealing with money and currency conversion.


  • Provides a Money class which encapsulates all information about an certain amount of money, such as its value and its currency.
  • Provides a Money::Currency class which encapsulates all information about a monetary unit.
  • Represents monetary values as integers, in cents. This avoids floating point rounding errors.
  • Represents currency as Money::Currency instances providing a high level of flexibility.
  • Provides APIs for exchanging money from one currency to another.



  • Your app must use UTF-8 to function with this library. There are a number of non-ASCII currency attributes.
  • This app requires JSON. If you're using JRuby < 1.7.0 you'll need to add gem "json" to your Gemfile or similar.


Install stable releases with the following command:

gem install money

The development version (hosted on Github) can be installed with:

git clone git://github.com/RubyMoney/money.git
cd money
rake install


require 'money'

# 10.00 USD
money = Money.new(1000, "USD")
money.cents     #=> 1000
money.currency  #=> Currency.new("USD")

# Comparisons
Money.new(1000, "USD") == Money.new(1000, "USD")   #=> true
Money.new(1000, "USD") == Money.new(100, "USD")    #=> false
Money.new(1000, "USD") == Money.new(1000, "EUR")   #=> false
Money.new(1000, "USD") != Money.new(1000, "EUR")   #=> true

# Arithmetic
Money.new(1000, "USD") + Money.new(500, "USD") == Money.new(1500, "USD")
Money.new(1000, "USD") - Money.new(200, "USD") == Money.new(800, "USD")
Money.new(1000, "USD") / 5                     == Money.new(200, "USD")
Money.new(1000, "USD") * 5                     == Money.new(5000, "USD")

# Unit to subunit conversions
Money.from_amount(5, "USD") == Money.new(500, "USD")  # 5 USD
Money.from_amount(5, "JPY") == Money.new(5, "JPY")    # 5 JPY
Money.from_amount(5, "TND") == Money.new(5000, "TND") # 5 TND

# Currency conversions
Money.new(1000, "USD").exchange_to("EUR") == Money.new(some_value, "EUR")

# Formatting (see Formatting section for more options)
Money.new(100, "USD").format #=> "$1.00"
Money.new(100, "GBP").format #=> "£1.00"
Money.new(100, "EUR").format #=> "€1.00"


Currencies are consistently represented as instances of Money::Currency. The most part of Money APIs allows you to supply either a String or a Money::Currency.

Money.new(1000, "USD") == Money.new(1000, Money::Currency.new("USD"))
Money.new(1000, "EUR").currency == Money::Currency.new("EUR")

A Money::Currency instance holds all the information about the currency, including the currency symbol, name and much more.

currency = Money.new(1000, "USD").currency
currency.iso_code #=> "USD"
currency.name     #=> "United States Dollar"

To define a new Money::Currency use Money::Currency.register as shown below.

curr = {
  :priority        => 1,
  :iso_code        => "USD",
  :iso_numeric     => "840",
  :name            => "United States Dollar",
  :symbol          => "$",
  :subunit         => "Cent",
  :subunit_to_unit => 100,
  :separator       => ".",
  :delimiter       => ","


The pre-defined set of attributes includes:

  • :priority a numerical value you can use to sort/group the currency list
  • :iso_code the international 3-letter code as defined by the ISO 4217 standard
  • :iso_numeric the international 3-digit code as defined by the ISO 4217 standard
  • :name the currency name
  • :symbol the currency symbol (UTF-8 encoded)
  • :subunit the name of the fractional monetary unit
  • :subunit_to_unit the proportion between the unit and the subunit
  • :separator character between the whole and fraction amounts
  • :delimiter character between each thousands place

All attributes except :iso_code are optional. Some attributes, such as :symbol, are used by the Money class to print out a representation of the object. Other attributes, such as :name or :priority, exist to provide a basic API you can take advantage of to build your application.


The priority attribute is an arbitrary numerical value you can assign to the Money::Currency and use in sorting/grouping operation.

For instance, let's assume your Rails application needs to render a currency selector like the one available here. You can create a couple of custom methods to return the list of major currencies and all currencies as follows:

# Returns an array of currency id where
# priority < 10
def major_currencies(hash)
  hash.inject([]) do |array, (id, attributes)|
    priority = attributes[:priority]
    if priority && priority < 10
      array[priority] ||= []
      array[priority] << id

# Returns an array of all currency id
def all_currencies(hash)

# => [:usd, :eur, :gbp, :aud, :cad, :jpy]

# => [:aed, :afn, :all, ...]

Default Currency

By default Money defaults to USD as its currency. This can be overwritten using:

Money.default_currency = Money::Currency.new("CAD")

If you use Rails, then environment.rb is a very good place to put this.

Currency Exponent

The exponent of a money value is the number of digits after the decimal separator (which separates the major unit from the minor unit). See e.g. ISO 4217 for more information. You can find the exponent (as an Integer) by

Money::Currency.new("USD").exponent  # => 2
Money::Currency.new("JPY").exponent  # => 0
Money::Currency.new("MGA").exponent  # => 1

Currency Lookup

To find a given currency by ISO 4217 numeric code (three digits) you can do

Money::Currency.find_by_iso_numeric(978) #=> Money::Currency.new(:eur)

Currency Exchange

Exchanging money is performed through an exchange bank object. The default exchange bank object requires one to manually specify the exchange rate. Here's an example of how it works:

Money.add_rate("USD", "CAD", 1.24515)
Money.add_rate("CAD", "USD", 0.803115)

Money.us_dollar(100).exchange_to("CAD")  # => Money.new(124, "CAD")
Money.ca_dollar(100).exchange_to("USD")  # => Money.new(80, "USD")

Comparison and arithmetic operations work as expected:

Money.new(1000, "USD") <=> Money.new(900, "USD")   # => 1; 9.00 USD is smaller
Money.new(1000, "EUR") + Money.new(10, "EUR") == Money.new(1010, "EUR")

Money.add_rate("USD", "EUR", 0.5)
Money.new(1000, "EUR") + Money.new(1000, "USD") == Money.new(1500, "EUR")

Exchange rate stores

The default bank is initialized with an in-memory store for exchange rates.

Money.default_bank = Money::Bank::VariableExchange.new(Money::RatesStore::Memory.new)

You can pass you own store implementation, ie. for storing and retrieving rates off a database, file, cache, etc.

Money.default_bank = Money::Bank::VariableExchange.new(MyCustomStore.new)

Stores must implement the following interface:

# Add new exchange rate.
# @param [String] iso_from Currency ISO code. ex. 'USD'
# @param [String] iso_to Currency ISO code. ex. 'CAD'
# @param [Numeric] rate Exchange rate. ex. 0.0016
# @return [Numeric] rate.
def add_rate(iso_from, iso_to, rate); end

# Get rate. Must be idempotent. ie. adding the same rate must not produce duplicates.
# @param [String] iso_from Currency ISO code. ex. 'USD'
# @param [String] iso_to Currency ISO code. ex. 'CAD'
# @return [Numeric] rate.
def get_rate(iso_from, iso_to); end

# Iterate over rate tuples (iso_from, iso_to, rate)
# @yieldparam iso_from [String] Currency ISO string.
# @yieldparam iso_to [String] Currency ISO string.
# @yieldparam rate [Numeric] Exchange rate.
# @return [Enumerator]
# @example
#   store.each_rate do |iso_from, iso_to, rate|
#     puts [iso_from, iso_to, rate].join
#   end
def each_rate(&block); end

# Wrap store operations in a thread-safe transaction
# (or IO or Database transaction, depending on your implementation)
# @yield [n] Block that will be wrapped in transaction.
# @example
#   store.transaction do
#     store.add_rate('USD', 'CAD', 0.9)
#     store.add_rate('USD', 'CLP', 0.0016)
#   end
def transaction(&block); end

# Serialize store and its content to make Marshal.dump work.
# Returns an array with store class and any arguments needed to initialize the store in the current state.

# @return [Array] [class, arg1, arg2]
def marshal_dump; end

The following example implements an ActiveRecord store to save exchange rates to a database.

# DB columns :from[String], :to[String], :rate[Float]

class ExchangeRate < ActiveRecord::Base
  def self.get_rate(from_iso_code, to_iso_code)
    rate = find_by(:from => from_iso_code, :to => to_iso_code)
    rate.present? ? rate.rate : nil

  def self.add_rate(from_iso_code, to_iso_code, rate)
    exrate = find_or_initialize_by(:from => from_iso_code, :to => to_iso_code)
    exrate.rate = rate

Now you can use it with the default bank.

Money.default_bank = Money::Bank::VariableExchange.new(ExchangeRate)

# Add to the underlying store
Money.default_bank.add_rate('USD', 'CAD', 0.9)
# Retrieve from the underlying store
Money.default_bank.get_rate('USD', 'CAD') # => 0.9
# Exchanging amounts just works.
Money.new(1000, 'USD').exchange_to('CAD') #=> #<Money fractional:900 currency:CAD>

There is nothing stopping you from creating store objects which scrapes XE for the current rates or just returns rand(2):

Money.default_bank = Money::Bank::VariableExchange.new(StoreWhichScrapesXeDotCom.new)

You can also implement your own Bank to calculate exchanges differently. Different banks can share Stores.

Money.default_bank = MyCustomBank.new(Money::RatesStore::Memory.new)

If you wish to disable automatic currency conversion to prevent arithmetic when currencies don't match:



The following is a list of Money.gem compatible currency exchange rate implementations.

Ruby on Rails

To integrate money in a Rails application use money-rails.

For deprecated methods of integrating with Rails, check the wiki.


If you want thousands seperator and decimal mark to be same across all currencies this can be defined in your I18n translation files.

In an rails application this may look like:

# config/locale/en.yml
      delimiter: ","
      separator: "."
  # or
        delimiter: ","
        separator: "."

For this example Money.new(123456789, "SEK").format will return 1,234,567.89 kr which otherwise will return 1 234 567,89 kr.

If you wish to disable this feature:

Money.use_i18n = false


If you get a runtime error such as:

I18n::InvalidLocale: :en is not a valid locale

Set the following:

I18n.enforce_available_locales = false


There are several formatting rules for when Money#format is called. For more information, check out the formatting module source, or read the latest release's rdoc version.

If you wish to format money according to the EU's Rules for expressing monetary units in either English, Irish, Latvian or Maltese:

m = Money.new('123', :gbp) # => #<Money fractional:123 currency:GBP>
m.format( symbol: m.currency.to_s + ' ') # => "GBP 1.23"

Migration Notes

Version 6.0.0

  • The Money#dollars and Money#amount methods now return instances of BigDecimal rather than Float. We should avoid representing monetary values with floating point types so to avoid a whole class of errors relating to lack of precision. There are two migration options for this change:
    • The first is to test your application and where applicable update the application to accept a BigDecimal return value. This is the recommended path.
    • The second is to migrate from the #amount and #dollars methods to use the #to_f method instead. This option should only be used where Float is the desired type and nothing else will do for your application's requirements.